Consciousness is the most familiar phenomena. There are two distinct processes relating to the phenomena. One is the objective matter process such as the neural process in the brain, and the other is the concomitant subjective conscious experience. The relationship between matter process and conscious experience presents a well-known hard problem for science (Chalmers, 1996). It retriggers the debate about the long-standing dilemma of panpsychism versus emergentism recently (Seager, 1999; Seager, 2001). Panpsychism asserts that consciousness is a fundamental feature of the world which exists throughout the universe. Emergentism asserts that consciousness appears as an emerging result of the complex matter process. It is generally accepted that an essential separation of consciousness and matter will preclude any real integration of consciousness with the present scientific picture of the physical world, and panpsychism and emergentism are the only two main positions that can complete the integration. Then we must decide whether and how consciousness emerges from mere matter or whether consciousness is a fundamental property of matter.
20 Read more
Susan Blackmore (2011)  has defined the so-called “hard problem of con- sciousness” in terms of the question: “how can objective, physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective experience?” (p. 25). Within philosophy of mind, this “mind-body problem” goes back at least as far as Descartes and his infamous bifurcationist analysis of the mental and physical worlds which leaves unex- plained exactly how they may be connected (Searle, 2004)  More generally it results in the long-standing problem of how to explain subjective mental phe- nomena such as hopes, wishes, intentions, etc.—or simply what it is like to be something (Nagel 1974) —in a world which, according to science, consists only of material objects, forces and processes. A number of solutions in the form of reconciliation strategies have been proposed in relation to the hard problem including the idea that there is no serious problem since the mind and mental events are simply what the brain does (hence a form of extended materialism; see Dennett, 1991 ) or, alternatively, that all material objects are imbued with forms of consciousness which evolve more fully within complex systems (Chalmers, 1996)  On this latter model, Strawson’s special version of “panpsychism” (2006) —which argues for the primacy of conscious experi- ence in our understanding of all features of the material world—provides some fascinating insights into epistemology and education.
22 Read more
DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2019.94027 440 Open Journal of Philosophy do we mean by consciousness? How does the mind relate to the brain? Can computers ever be conscious?” (Dennett, 2001). All of them bring back to the notion of human consciousness, an unresolved issue for which Chalmers (1995, 1996) coined the sentence: “the hard problem of consciousness” (THPOC). Ac- cording to several authors, the question should be investigated by exploring “Neuronal Correlations to Consciousness” (NCCs) (Tononi & Koch, 2008; Crick & Koch, 1998; Edelman, 1989; Baars, 1988; Libet, 1982). To this regard, Chal- mers (2000) proposed: “Once we know which systems are NCCs, we can inves- tigate the mechanisms by which they work, and how they produce various cha- racteristic functional effects. Just as isolating the DNA basis of the gene helped explain many of the functional phenomena of life, isolating NCC systems may help explain many functional phenomena associated with consciousness”. In spite of the striking progress in neurosciences, the basic questions on the nature, origin and functionality of human consciousness are still a mystery. It seems pa- radoxical but the question regarding THPOC that is posed by the conscious mind (C) to itself, is too big for it! Generally speaking, controller and controlled systems should not coexist unless in the absurd situation named “conflict of in- terest”. This might occur in several aspects of social life (law, economics, politics, insurances, health and care etc.) but not in biology. Otherwise, it would be illog- ical, like an eye that is trying to see itself.
13 Read more
It is relatively easy to prove that P ⊆ RP ⊆ NP. An open question is if any of these inclusions are strict. A way of looking at a problem in RP is that, out of all its computation paths (as defined by every usage of a random number), at least half accept for a yes-instance. A problem in NP however, only requires one accepting computation path for a yes-instance. Thus, intuitively, problems in RP should be easier than problems in NP. This idea can be formalized, by changing all points where a random number is read in an algorithm for a problem in RP to an non-deterministic choice of numbers, which results in an algorithm with at least one accepting path for every yes-instance and no accepting path for every no-instance, showing that the problem is in NP too. An example of a problem in RP (but later proven to also be in P) is the primality problem . In the following definition and theorem we shed some more light on the relation between RP and NP. First, we need the definition of Unambiguous-SAT, which is used in the Valiant–Vazirani theorem, upon which our proof for the relation between RP and NP is based.
38 Read more
Some computers come with a software restore CD, which contains the Apple Software Restore application. This application lets you restore all your original software, including the system software, factory settings, and applications that came with your computer. You have the option of erasing your hard disk before restoring the original software, or just replacing the original software (Restore In Place).
46 Read more
ABSTRACT: Ultrasound (US) imaging is the modality of choice in many clinical applications compared to other imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT). US images are patient-specific, operator-dependent, and machine specific. However these US images are affected by signal dropouts, artefacts, missing boundaries, attenuation, shadows, and speckle, making US one of the most challenging modalities to work with. Earlier work presents qualitative and quantitative segmentation evaluation of the representative selection method submitted to Challenge US: Biometric Measurements from Fetal Ultrasound Images. In this a total of five teams submitted their results to the fetal head sub-challenge and two teams to the fetal femur sub-challenge, including one team who attempted both. The results of the fetal head sub-challenge shows good performance whereas a fetal femur sub-challenge faces the problem in solving a very hard segmentation problem, since the object of interest has strong appearance changes within the object. To deal with this problem the present work proposes smoothing algorithm to smoothen the other elongated objects are present around the femur bone. This algorithm works by computing the optimal fixed range bandwidth in the US image. Finally the proposed work is experimentally evaluated and thus obtains improved result when compare with the existing system.
The transmission of numerical images often needs an important number of bits. This number is again more consequent when it concerns medical images. If we want to transmit these images by network, reducing the image size is important. The goal of the compression is to decrease this initial weight. This reduction strongly depends of the used compression method, as well as of the intrinsic nature of the image. Therefore the problem is the following:
“Teaching is a science and an art”. The creation of the problem situation should also pay attention to art and strategy. Teachers should be guided by the principles of being close to life, to students and conforming to the logic of ma- thematics. And they should also dig out the relationship between situations and problems deeply. The creation of a mathematical problem situation should be highly targeted, guided, interesting and interactive. Teachers can first create problem situations of life. The teachers can let students fully realize the close re- lationship between mathematics and real life and feel that mathematics origi- nates from the life and serve life based on the actual application of mathematics in daily life, which can stimulate students’ mathematical problem consciousness. Second, teachers can create a problem situation of interesting plots. The inter- esting stories can make students think actively and arouse students’ curiosity and thirst for knowledge.
13 Read more
VRPs with more than one depot are known as Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem. Our topics are Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demand. Here the customers are characterized by their own demand. The customers' demands are stochastic variables, on which only the probability distribution for each customer is assumed known at the time of planning, so that it is the expected total travel cost which is subjected to minimization.
Theorem 6 ILP Z is at least as hard as the GI (Graph Isomorphism) problem. Proof Petrank and Roth  reduced GI to PCE (Permutation Code Equiv- alence). More precisely they provided a polynomial time mapping φ from the set of all graphs to the set of generator matrices over F 2 such that two graphs G 1
17 Read more
The word cryptography is derived from the Greek words Crypto meaning cover and grafia meaning writing defining it as covered writing. In image cryptography the information is hidden exclusively in images. Cryptography is the art and science of secret communication .It is the practice of encoding/embedding secret information in a manner such that the existence of the information is invisible. The original files can be referred to as cover text, cover image, or cover audio. After inserting the secret message it is referred to as Crypto-medium. A Crypto-key is used for hiding/encoding process to restrict detection or extraction of the embedded data. A lot of information is perceived when we observe an image. Images have become an inevitable source of information. Every day we come across various image from various sources. When images are confidential and we want the image to be transferred safe and securely, cryptography comes into play. The cryptographic technique which we have implemented in this paper is the Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Various study on ECC has concluded that the difficultly to solve an Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithmic Problem is exponentially hard with respect to the key size used. This property makes ECC a very good choice for encryption/decryption process compared to other cryptographic techniques which are linearly difficult or sub exponentially difficult.
We have now in a position to explain freedom through the interrelation among three characteristics of consciousness, viz. intentional, transcending and negating. Freedom lies in the heart of the being-for-itself and it is the driving force behind all consciousness. According to Sartre there is basically no difference between being a man and being free. Sartre states that human reality is free not because it is complete, full and sufficient, but because man is incomplete and full of possibilities. It has been pointed out that freedom is actually the being of for-itself. It is free to the exact extent that it has to be its own nothingness.
10 Read more
In the following, we formalize our approach of ranking robustness. We intro- duce a general definition for ranking robust optimization problems and discuss general properties in Section 2. We then consider two variants in more detail: Solution Ranking Robustness in Section 3, and Objective Ranking Robustness in Section 4. These approaches are compared in Section 5, and applied to the shortest path problem in Section 6. A computational example applying our approach to the shortest path problem on a real-world street network in the context of evacuation planning is presented in Section 7, before the paper is concluded in Section 8.
22 Read more
Given this diversity, some consciousness researchers have doubted that a systematic study of “consciousness” as such, is even possible. Sloman (1991) for example argued that "people who discuss consciousness delude themselves in thinking that they know what they are talking about...it's not just one thing but many things muddled together"—rather like our "multifarious uses of ‘energy’ (intellectual energy, music with energy, high energy explosion, etc.)", and Stanovich (1991) complained that "the term "consciousness" fractionates into half a dozen or more different usages." For him, “consciousness” is a "botched concept"; a psychiatric institution is too good for it—and it deserves the "death penalty." Given this, they suggest that one can make no generalizations about it.
14 Read more
To maximize the number of downloads before a deadline; we define a problem called largest number data retrieval (LNDR). LNDR problem takes the ―deadline‖ into consideration and therefore also describes the time-critical scenario. We propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm for LNDR. When channels are unsynchronized, we prove LNDR is NP- hard. For pull-based broadcast, the data items are broadcasted timely.
taxed. That strikes many people as strange: Both work to produce the utility necessary for a happy life. They do so in slightly different ways. And the law treats them radically differently. Why would the law reward someone just for being lucky enough to be able to achieve happiness without going through the intermediate process of first earning money to buy it? The conventional answer is that it is too impractical to try to tax all nonpecuniary benefits. We tax such benefits when we can: when they are discrete and easily valued, like the use of a company car, or a company apartment, or a company-financed education for one’s children. And we do not tax them when we cannot: when they are amorphous and hard to quantify, like the collegiality of one’s colleagues, or the prestige that goes with a certain line of work. But the conventional wisdom seems doubtful. More likely, we do not tax most nonpecuniary benefits because the logical implication of doing so would be to say that a wealthy but unhappy CEO should be taxed less than a blissfully happy mendicant monk who earns his keep by begging. It is not that we are trying to encourage people to become mendicant monks. We just do not view their extra utility as grounds for putting an extra tax burden on them.
23 Read more
Since ED problem is treated as an optimization problem, various techniques have been proposed in order to obtain the minimum cost of total generation from hard computing techniques until the recent techniques called Swarm Intelligence (SI). SI is the recent technique for solving optimization problem that mimics the nature inspired behavior such as birds, fish, ants, and many more. From the literature, it has been proven that the researches tend to use SI techniques to solve ED problem compared to using hard computing techniques.
with which he is going to turn everything upside down (p, 280). All in all, when Shohreh fails to revenge the abuses committed by her jailor, Shaheed, an epiphany, or a class consciousness, comes to the narrator’s spirit and urges him to act immediately, therefore, to accomplish his full transformation into an active subject, he walks back to the counter and picks up a knife to stick it in the Canadian bodyguard’s liver. Then without a moment of hesitation, which might take him all the way back to the circle of paralysis, he takes the gun and aims it at Shaheed with a double discharge (p, 305). As a matter of fact, “we have then to add to the concept of hegemony the concepts of counter- hegemony and alternative hegemony, which are real and persistent elements of practice” (Williams, 1977, p. 113); simply put, overindulged with rage, he turns the restaurant, the place of dirty bargains, into a bloody arena of revenge. Interestingly, Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of The Earth (1963) meticulously exemplifies this reaction to the violence committed by the colonisers, or the compradors in this context. He argues that “decolonization is always a violent phenomenon”; therefore the narrator’s freedom must take place through a ‘counter-violence’ for it “transforms spectators crushed with their inessentiality into privileged actors… it brings a natural rhythm into existence, introduced by new men” (Fanon, 1963, as cited in Karim &Lawrence, 2007, p 79)
Brand love has become an important research topic since several studies have shown that brand love can lead to considerable benefits for companies. However, although the interest in this topic suggests that brand love is an important marketing topic, little agreement exists how brand love does really manifest itself among consumers. This research investigates what types of consumers could fall in love with their favourite brand and therefore examines to what extent brand consciousness and public self-consciousness influence consumers’ level of brand love intensity. Besides, this study investigates the role of brand visibility in brand love relationships. An online questionnaire was designed to test whether consumers loved their favourite brands among the four product categories clothing, electronics, foods, and personal care. Although there were no significant differences between the brand love intensity scores of each product category, the results show that subject’s brand love score for food brands was the highest while clothing brands were least loved. Additionally, the findings suggest that visible brands are more loved than invisible brands. With regard to what types of consumers are suitable or sensitive for developing brand love relationships, this research reveals that brand conscious consumers tend to develop more intense love relationships with brands than consumers who are less or not brand conscious. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that high publicly self-conscious people tend to score higher on brand love intensity than low publicly self-conscious consumers. Brand managers and marketers should take these findings into consideration when to develop the design of the packaging of a brand, the content of advertisements, or the desired image of the company or product. In fact, paying attention to the visible aspects of a brand allows consumers to enhance their social image and to express their actual self which will result in lasting brand love relationships.
50 Read more
unhelpfully stirred this kind of thing up again back in the 1970s, just when it seemed to have died a decent death, thinks that qualia show that ‘the materialist neo-Darwinian conception of nature is almost certainly wrong’ (Nagel 2012). For although analytic philosophy has very little to be proud of, it did nevertheless do our culture at least one service during the twentieth century – by showing that we do not have to take consciousness seriously. This agenda, which gave philosophers the notion of ‘philosophy of mind’ as a distinct area of inquiry, began with one great book, Gilbert Ryle’s The Concept of Mind (1949), and reached its culmination with another, Daniel Dennett’s Consciousness Explained (1991). As might be expected, a lot of ink was wasted in the interim, as behaviourists, identity theorists,
12 Read more