A high calcium intake leads to urinary stone formation, rickets and osteoporosis; it inhibits the intestinal ab- sorption of iron, zinc and other essential minerals  . When calcium is absorbed in excess of need, the excess is excreted by the kidney in healthy people who do not have renal impairment . Calcium interacts with iron, zinc, magnesium and phosphorus within the intestine, thereby reducing the absorption of these minerals. Moreover, the presence of high amounts of Ca ion in water also causes hardwater  . This hardwater con- sumes high amounts of soaps and detergents in bathing and laundering.
Total Hip Replacement using the cemented Exeter Hip Replacement (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ). The size of the femoral head used to adjust for magnification differed between groups (p < 0.001). In the SOFT group, 50 patients had size 28 mm heads, 18 had size 32 mm heads and 2 had size 36 mm heads. In the HARD group, 4 patients had size 28 mm heads and 66 had size 32 mm heads. The medullary canal width at the level of LT in the HARD group had a mean of 26.0 mm (range: 25.1 to 27.0) and the SOFT group had a mean of 24.1 mm (range: 23.2 to 25.0). The mean difference between the groups was 1.9 mm and this was statistically signif- icant (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the medullary canal diameters 10 cm below the centre of the LT (p = 0.194), the Dorr index (p = 0.135), or the CBR (p = 0.099) (see Table 1). In hardwater regions, the calcium carbonate level is >100 mg/l & calcium level >40 mg/l and in soft water regions, the calcium carbonate level is <100 mg/l & calcium level <40 mg/l . Communities living in a region of hardwater are therefore receiving a supplement of dietary calcium. The most metabolically active bone in the proximal femur is in the region of the femoral neck and adjacent to the LT where there is a higher proportion of cancellous bone compared to the proximal femur 10 cm below the LT. The findings of our study support the effect that a high calcium intake has on bone metabolism. Those patients living in a hardwater region have an increased mean width of 1.9 mm at the level of the lesser trochanter which is a region containing a high proportion of metabolically active cancellous bone. No difference was found in the width at 10 cm distal to the LT where there is a lower proportion of can- cellous bone, Dorr index, or in the proportion of cortical to cancellous bone measured using the Canal Bone Ra- tio (CBR) at 10 cm distal to the LT .
solution were measured after the AEFA treatment. The changes of the conductivity and pH value were consistent with the hydrolysis reaction equations in the hardwater. It is considered that the promotion to the hydrolysis reaction decreases the pH value of solution, which can increase the proportions of calcite in the scale and reduce the scale's adhesive force to the tube wall. The promotion to the hydrolysis reaction caused by the applied alternating electromagnetic field can give a good explanation to the anti-fouling mechanism of AEFA technology. It has also been confirmed that under the experiment condition of the present paper, the alternating electromagnetic field with a higher signal power can give a better observably influence to the hydrolysis reaction in solution. But the most optimal signal frequency should be determined according to the composition of hardwater and other conditions.
Hot water systems were identified as having costly scaling issues. Servicing is essential to increase hot water systems’ longevity and to maintain them at a level where they can be repaired, rather than replaced. There are few electric water heaters in use; solar hot water systems are most often installed. As with other health hardware, hot water systems may need replacing for reasons unrelated to hardwater – such as cracked panels or split tanks. Hot water systems were replaced most frequently in Areyona and Kintore at an annual rate of 0.47 and 0.34 per house, respectively. Yuendumu, Atitjere, Santa Teresa, and Finke had similar rates of replacement ranging between 0.03 and 0.06/house/year. There were no recorded data on hot water system replacements in Yuelamu; however, qualitative data showed that three systems were replaced in the previous year (a rate of 0.08/house/year), but all were a result of split tanks and, thus, not related to hardwater. The rates of replacement and the equivalent time frames for Areyonga (with very hardwater), Titjikala (with a mid-range water hardness), and Yuelamu (without hardwater) are shown in Table 3. In general, items
A lower occurrence of cardiovascular diseases has been experienced in areas with hardwater. However, numerous debates and disagreements prevailed over time. Some scientists had been trying to associate cardio-protective factor of hardwater while others were working on the toxic factor of soft water with this geo-selective predisposition to cardiovascular events. Now the factor unanimously agreed upon can be concluded as Magnesium . The World Health Organization states that hardwater may cause cardiovascular disease, although there is no enough studies for this finding to be conclusive . 50% increase of the urinary calcium concentration in the absence of changes of oxalate excretion; the calcium-citrate index revealed an important threefold increase during consumption of hardwater as compared with respect to soft water. Hardwater has unpleasant taste, also cause toughening of skin and hair . Bathing with soap in hardwater leaves a film of sticky soap curd on the skin, but also skin washed with hardwater can become itchy and dry. Hardwater produces deposits of precipitate-scaling mostly in hot water pipes, heaters, boilers, kitchen and bathtubs . Hardwater can lead to purchase and use of large volumes of particular soaps and other cleaning materials during domestic laundry that are incapable of lathering in hardwater conditions, reduced life span of water meters, water taps, valves and pipes due to clogging and choking causing from accumulation of saltdeposits. Public acceptable level of hardness varies remarkably according to local conditions in general, water supplies with total hardness higher than 200 mg/L can be tolerated by consumers but acceptable level of hardness differs are considered as poor resources;while values higher than 500 mg/L are not acceptable for most of the domestic consumptions . Hardness of water can be reduced by various methods like ion exchange, lime soda, complexation and precipitation. Many researchers have studied various adsorbents which are relatively inexpensive with higher efficiency of reducing hardness ions, these adsorbents are Moringaoleifera, cashew nut shell activated carbon ,pumice stone adsorbent, polyacyrilic acid , activated Phyllanthusemblica wood powder adsorbent  and modified chitosan . Thus, in __________________________
after installation of an ion exchange water softening system compared with a placebo system, suggesting a possible benefit in participants with moderate severity of disease. The latter study suggests, but does not prove, that reducing waterhard- ness may improve AD. Additional studies must be performed to confirm a possible effect of hardwater on AD.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that magnetically samples were dominated by calcite. But, there was a significant decrease of calcite’s peak intensities from magnetized samples that indicated the decrease of the amount of calcite and an increase of total amorphous of deposits. This result showed that magnetization of hardwater leaded to the decreasing of ion Ca 2+ due to the increasing of total CaCO 3 precipitation process.
He also touched on the fact that despite the millions of rupees spent on research, no cause(s) of CKD-mfo has/ have been identified. This is in part because of the narrow scope and hypotheses of research protocols that have been studied and the use of non-standardized research protocols . Most importantly, as an established senior toxicolo- gist—a medical researcher, Professor Fernando under- stands the potential involvement and importance of ‘‘multiple factors’’ and their possible synergy in pre- cipitating critical organ damage , including kidney failure and the development of CKD-mfo [1–4]. In addi- tion, he independently confirmed that the data and maps on the prevalence of CKD-mfo and the distribution of hardwater in Sri Lanka have been available since early 2000, completely refuting claims by Dr. Jayasumana.
In the Velikan and Akarmarsky waterfalls, according to the degree of mineralization, water is ultra-fresh (total mineralization is 50.44 mg/l), hydrocarbonate-calcium sodium type, with a weakly acidic reaction of medium (pH = 6.47) (the Velikan waterfall), and neutral reaction of medium (pH = 6. 96) (the Akarmarsky waterfall) [Table 2]. In terms of the total hardness, water is very soft. In the creek from the Monashskoe gorge, according to the degree of mineralization, water refers to fresh (total mineralization is 427.58 mg/l), hydrocarbonate-calcium type, with a slightly alkaline reaction of medium (pH = 8.16). According to the value of total hardness, water refers to moderately hardwater. In the Akuna Channel, in terms of mineralization, water varies from ultra-fresh (total mineralization is 97.30 mg/l) (at the beginning of the channel) to fresh (total mineralization is 190.98 mg/l) (at the end of the channel), hydrocarbonate- calcium type, with neutral reaction of medium (pH = 6.82). According to the value of total hardness, water refers to “very soft.”
According to the survey carried out, the residents change their taps twice a year due to the deposition of materials from water in very hardwater areas. The plumbers report that the taps get clogged with particles of salt resulting in a shorter operating life. The people living in very hardwater area pay 6100 rupees per year for replacement of taps, overhead showers, and Muslim showers. This cost becomes 25,300 rupees during the span of 5 years by the end of their life (Table 2). The residents living in hardwater area on the other hand only pay 5100 rupees every 5 years for replacing sanitary accessories (Table 3). Most of the residents have installed sanitary accessories that are nickel coated, which results in rusting of the material and clogging in the shower holes, however, accessories made of plastic do not rust off (FM article).
From above table no. 4 it is observed that some location points in study area with more concentration of both Nitrates and alkalinity S1, S2 in Belwadi village for all seasons. Concentrations of alkalinity in water bodies are above desirable level in all samples that clearly indicate the water from study area in all villages are hardwater. The reason behind concentration increases in nitrates in monsoon and summer season is mostly an agricultural activity, in which uncontrolled use of agrochemicals for crop like sugarcane. The surface runoff, percolation etc. are an activity that contaminates water bodies with increasing concentration of nitrates. And in case of alkalinity the geological formation i.e. minerals present in that area increases its solubility in water bodies. Hence the water is hard in all season as concentration is above desirable level 200 mg/ lit In all season.
Students design and conduct a laboratory process to determine the effect of acid rain on hardwater, soft water, and salt water. These three types of water are representative of naturally occurring water bodies such as river water, spring water, and sea water. The observation and analysis of their data will lead students towards societal issues and personal as well as civic responsibility. The context of this learning experience is towards the end of the chemistry course after the topic of acids and bases.
230 | Page toxic agents(Rathore and Khangarot, 2003). Perschbacher and Wurts (1999) showed that as water hardness increased, the catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) survival rate was significantly improved from 10% in soft water (10 mg/L as CaCO3) compared to 95% in very hardwater (400 mg/L as CaCO3). In fresh water as water hardness increases, heavy metal toxicity decreases due to the competition between heavy metal ions and calcium and magnesium ions for the uptake sites of organisms (Kim et al., 2001; Pyle et al., 2002; Ebrahimpour, 2010 b; Javid et al., 2007). In the natural environment, calcium and magnesium are present at much higher concentrations than the heavy metals. Therefore, by competing with heavy metals and blocking their access to aquatic organisms, calcium and magnesium levels are important considerations with respect to the toxic effects of heavy metals upon biota in aquatic systems (Kim et al., 2001; Garcia and Huffaker, 1979). According to Penttinen et al (1998) the uptake of calcium and magnesium ions by the cell membrane leads to the stabilization of calcium and magnesium, and this reduces the permeability of the cell membranes to metal ions. Water hardness reduces metals toxicity by saturating the gill surface binding sites with Ca 2+ (Pyle et al., 2002).
capsules has gained popularity throughout the past decade due to the many advantages of this dosage form. The bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs can be significantly increased when formulated into soft gelatin capsules. Many problems associated with tableting, including poor compaction and lack of content or weight uniformity, can be eliminated when a drug is incorporated into this dosage form. Improved stability of drugs that are highly susceptible to oxidation can be achieved when formulated into a soft gelatin capsule. Gelatin soft capsules are made from gelatin and water but with the addition of a polyhydric alcohol, such as glycerol or sorbitol, to make them flexible. Sorbitol is less hygroscopic than glycerol. They usually contain a preservative, such as beta-naphthol. They are available in variety of shapes and sizes as shown in figure 7.
In rural and urban area the groundwater is an important source for the drinking, agricultural and industrial usage. Usage of groundwater decreases due to the contamination and pollution occurred in the surface water due to increase in population as well as industries. Due to increase in population, there is an excess withdrawal of groundwater, which leads to the intrusion of salt water or anthropogenic activity. Groundwater is the main source for drinking in urban cities, but it suffers from the intrusion of salt water (Mondal et al., 2010). Resources of groundwater quality in coastal aquifers had been reported (Rajmohan et al., 2000; Senthilkumar et al., 2008; Pujari and Soni 2009). Groundwater quality assessment and correlation of ions in Kancheepuram District had been reported (N.RajMohan et al., 1999, C.SivaKumar et al., 2008). Intrusion of salt water in Sadras city had been reported by (N.C.Modal et al., 2011)
Multicasting is the ability of a communication network which allows a source node to communicate with multiple destination nodes. One way to establish a multicast session is to build a multicast tree connecting the members of the multicast group. This multicast tree is rooted at the source node and spans all destination nodes such that the communication cost becomes minimized. Multicast routing problem has many applications such as audio and video conferencing and multiplayer games. Recently, with the high demand of real time communication services, most researchers have focused on developing algorithms that produce high quality multicast trees with low computational cost. One of the most popular algorithms for building multicast trees in networks is Steiner tree algorithms [1,2]. The Steiner minimum tree (SMT) is the shortest network spanning a set of nodes called terminals with the use of additional points named Steiner points. The determination of a Steiner tree is NP-complete and hard even to approximate In this paper a hybrid algorithm based on intelligent water drops (IWD) algorithm and learning automata is proposed for solving the Steiner tree problem in graphs. The IWD algorithm was first introduced in  and has been used for some of well-known NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems such as the travelling salesman problem (TSP) ,
3.341 million tons. Although the maize production in Pakistan has been increased from0.38 million tons during 1947-50 to 3.341 million tons in 2011 but it is much less than the developed countries in the world (Govt. of Pakistan, 2011). The main reasons of low yield of maize in Pakistan are imbalanced use of fertilizers, water shortage, improper selection of hybrids, less optimal plant population in the field, poor insects and weeds management. Weeds are one of the most important factors that can reduce maize yield drastically if unchecked. Yield loss due to weeds (37%) is higher than losses caused by pests like mammals, birds, rodents and mites etc. (18%), fungal and bacterial pathogens (16%) and viruses (2%) (Oerke, 2005). Globally maize production is hindered up to 40 %by weeds, as they are the principal pest group for this crop (Oerke and Dehne, 2004). Ashique et al. (1997) reported that weeds reduce the yield of maize up to 20-40% by competing with crop for space, light, moisture and nutrients.
Lerak seed testa is impermeable for water (physical dormancy). In lerak seeds, hard testa structure as the main obstacle that resulted dormancy (Sautu et al., 2007). The treatment of the seed testa by sandpaper scarification facilitated water into the seeds for imbibition and facilitated germination. Whereas the seeds that were not sanded cannot absorb water well. Sanding of testa on two sides of the hilum and seed back, causing too much water entered the seed, so the seeds were oversaturated causing lower germination percentage and took longer time to germinate than the sanding on one side of the seed testa.