HTHs have been leveraged in multiple works in the past to launch side-channel attack  and fault attack ( , ) on hardware implementation of cryptographic algorithms such as Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), leading to the recovery of the secret key. In this paper, we focus on lightweight authentication protocols which are rigourously analysed for RFID applications, and their vulnerability to HTH-induced fault attack. In , Avoine et al. have provided a survey of the most prominent ultralightweight authentication protocols for RFID tags and their common flaws. Among them, one of the significant family of protocols had its origins in ”HB” which is a secure identification scheme based on Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem designed in  by Hopper and Blum. Subsequently several HB-like protocols such as HB + , GHB # , LAPIN , LCMQ  have been pro- posed. Several cryptanalysis techniques proposed in ,  have successfully attacked most of these HB-family protocols. Moreover, researchers have also started to realize the impact of side channel based attacks on the physical implementation of these protocols. In , Carrijo et al. proposed a fault analytic model which can lead to a cogent attack against HB-like protocols. Similarly in , Gaspar et al. illustrated a DPA-like attack on the hardware implementation of Masked Lapin algo- rithm. In 2013, Li et al. presented a novel entity authentication protocol titled LCMQ which is not direct descendant of HB protocol, rather a consolidation of LPN, Circulant Matrix and Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) problem that has been proved to be secure against mathematical cryptanalysis. In this paper, our two major contributions are:
Abstract—Detecting hardware trojans is a difficult task in general. In this article we study hardwaretrojan horses insertion and detection in cryptographic intellectual property (IP) blocks. The context is that of a fabless design house that sells IP blocks as GDSII hard macros, and wants to check that final products have not been infected by trojans during the foundry stage. First, we show the e ffi ciency of a medium cost hardware trojans detection method if the placement or the routing have been redone by the foundry. It consists in the comparison between optical microscopic pictures of the silicon product and the original view from a GDSII layout database reader. Second, we analyze the ability of an attacker to introduce a hardwaretrojanhorse without changing neither the placement nor the routing of the cryptographic IP logic. On the example of an AES engine, we show that if the placement density is beyond 80%, the insertion is basically impossible. Therefore, this settles a simple design guidance to avoid trojan horses insertion in cryptographic IP blocks: have the design be compact enough, so that any functionally discreet trojan necessarily requires a complete re-place and re-route, which is detected by mere optical imaging (and not complete chip reverse-engineering).
The trust and security of Integrated Circuits (IC) design and fabrication is critical for sensitive fields like finance, health, and governmental communications. Due to the complexity and the high cost of IC fabrication cycle, more and more firms outsource their production. This trend gives a possibility for an adversary to introduce malicious circuit, called HardwareTrojanhorse (HT), in any IC. It can either perform a Denial Of Service (DOS), deteriorate circuit performance [ 8 ], or steal sensitive information. Therefore, the HTs are considered a real threat which has gained attention from researchers.
The possibility of using the deuteron as virtual source of low energy protons or, more interesting, neutrons opened new opportunities not only in nuclear astrophysics but also in nuclear physics. For this reason and also for its low binding energy and its well-known momentum distribution, the deuteron can be considered as the ideal TrojanHorse nucleus. Claudio Spitaleri firmly believed in the use of quasi-free reactions in nuclear astrophysics  and devoted his efforts to the involvement of a quite large number of researchers in international collaborations working on this topic. The result is that important improvements have been introduced in these years, from the point of view of the THM formalism as well as from the point of view of the use of more sophisticated experimental set-ups. Nowadays the THM has an important role as a tool for the indirect study of nuclear astrophysical processes, together with the Coulomb dissociation and the ANC method . Around Claudio Spitaleri, a group of young researchers grew in Catania attracted by the
stages that are considered trusted and those that are considered untrusted. The design stage is a
viable option for insertion of malicious hardware, but this assumes an insider within the company
designing the system. The fabrication stage is the most likely target to insert malicious hardware as
the system’s design is already out of the hands of the one who designed it. These problematic additions to hardware during the fabrication process have become known as Hardware Trojans.
Due to the recent trend of outsourcing integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing and design, structural integrity verification of ICs has become a hot topic. From the specification step to that of packaging, and especially during the design step, a circuit can be corrupted by a malicious adversary. This malicious alteration of the IC structure is called a HardwareTrojan (HT) insertion and its effects can range from performance degradation (e.g. denial of service) up to more sophisticated functionalities (memory dumping etc) . Similarly with the multiplication of foundries and IC vendors, counterfeits are spreading rapidly, ranging from simple copies to a complete replacement of an given IC by one of lower quality.
The mechanism by which Cryptococcus neoformans invades the central nervous system is fundamental for understanding pathogenesis because cryptococ- cosis commonly presents as meningoencephalitis. There is evidence for both direct invasion of the endothelial cells lining the brain vasculature and a “Tro- jan horse” mechanism whereby cryptococci enter the central nervous system after macrophage ingestion. However, in this issue of the JCI, Shi et al. use intravital microscopy to reveal that brain invasion by C. neoformans follows a capillary microembolic event. They find that after suddenly stopping in brain capillaries, cryptococci cross into the central nervous system in a process that is urease dependent, requires viability, and involves cellular deformation. This observation provides evidence for direct brain invasion by C. neoformans, but a consideration of all the currently available evidence suggests a role for both direct and phagocyte-associated invasion. Hence, the remarkable neurotro- pism of C. neoformans may have more than one mechanism.
, and a fully motorized off-axis parabo- la for injection. These dedicated improvements, in addi- tion with the combination of plasma-based spatiotemporal alignment techniques and state-of-the-art diagnostics, have paved the way for successful TrojanHorse injection campaigns on the final leg of FACET’s lifetime in 2016. As a complementary stepping stone towards TH injection, the so called Plasma Torch laser-triggered injection scheme [20,21] has been demonstrated. The latter tech- nique had been theoretically developed as a multi-purpose injection and beam manipulation technique which allows, amongst other things, an all-optical generated plasma density downramp injection mode with strongly relaxed temporal synchronization requirements. These injection techniques both are the first truly tunable, laser-triggered injection demonstrations in PWFA. They have at the same time both proven to be remarkably robust as a result of the decoupling of wakefield excitation and injection, mainly limited only by the inherent shot-to-shot temporal jitter of the SLAC driver electron beam, which originates from the thermal cathode and large compression require- ments. Key publications discussing the many scientific ISBN 978-3-95450-182-3
According to the form of third party IP (3PIP) core can be divided into soft core, solid and hard core three categories. The uncontrolled third-party IP soft-core introduced in the process is easier to be implanted into the hardwareTrojan. IP soft disk in the proposed hardwareTrojan detection. The specific flow chart is shown in Figure 10.  Proposed a logical abstraction inspection based on IP soft-core hardwareTrojan feature matching detection method.
The TrojanHorse Method (THM) [3–6] allows one to extract the bare-nucleus cross-section of a charged-particle induced reaction a+x → c+C at astrophysical energies free of Coulomb suppression, by properly selecting the quasi-free (QF) contribution of an appropriate reaction a+A → c+C+s, performed at energies well above the Coulomb barrier, where the nucleus A has a dominant x ⊕ s cluster configuration. The a+x → c+C reaction studied with THM is not affected by tunneling, since the a + x interaction occurs in the pure nuclear field without the influence of the Coulomb barrier. This allows to the experimentalist to measure the corresponding S(E)-factor even at energies at which direct measurements can access only via the extrapolations. However, it must be stressed here that the TH S(E)-factor determination requires a normalization procedure to the available direct measurements performed at higher energies, thus rendering the THM a complementary experimental technique for nuclear astrophysics aimed at reaching the ultra-low energy region of interest for astrophysical applications. THM has been used in studying several problems, ranging from BBN , light element burning reactions [8–12], CNO reactions [13–15], explosive nucleosynthesis involving RIB [16, 17] and removing / producing neutron reactions [18, 19].
is studied with energies in the initial state above the Coulomb barrier, see the diagram in the left panel of figure 1. The nucleus a is assumed to be well described as a bound state composed of two nuclear clusters b and x. Reaction (1) can be considered as a sub-process of (2) where x is the transfered particle and b acts as a spectator. Nucleus x is hidden inside a and brought across the Coulomb barrier to induce the reaction with A. This description clearly justifies to call nucleus a the Trojanhorse, thus explaining the name of the method. It goes back to Homer’s epic poems on the Trojan War and subsequent events. Actually, the capture of Troy with the subterfuge using the Trojanhorse is mentioned only shortly in the Odyssey at two places, e.g., as ’. . .κεκαλὺ̀ενοι ιππω’ . A more detailed account of the story can be found in Virgil’s Aeneid .
We first average the testing values of many traces, so as to make possible the detection of even small EM contribution from the Trojan circuit compared to the original circuit. Also the measurement noise can be reduced. After that, we denoise our data based on wavelet packet transform. However, when we compare these data under the same coordinate, which is shown in Fig. 1. We can’t find any obvious differences between these traces which may result from the extreme small footprint area. Thus we can’t tell the Trojan circuits from original circuit by directly comparison.
The TrojanHorse Method (THM) has been largely adopted for in- vestigating astrophysically relevant charged-particle induced reactions at Gamow energies. Indeed, THM allows one to by pass extrapola- tion procedures, thus overcoming this source of uncertainty. Here, the recent THM results and their impact in astrophysics are going to be discussed.
30 The walkway would involve the demolition of a social housing estate and large numbers of retail businesses with private homes above in order to provide a more direct route for fans to walk between the railway station and the new stadium. This latter quote also reflects the concern that previous critical research on regeneration has identified – that regeneration schemes are directed by a neoliberal drive for increasing the role and power of the private sector at the expense of both the local authority and local communities living within the area outlined for regeneration (Glynn, 2006; Pugalis, 2016). Whilst a variation on the following was heard on a number of occasions during this research, the quote from a local resident at a community meeting – “Spurs’ stadium is being used as a Trojanhorse for gentrification” – summarised the views of many. It succinctly emphasises much of the distrust of the local community that grew out of a perceived lack of genuine consultation and transparency that has been noted in other regeneration projects (e.g. Jones, 2002). This lack of consultation is the third theme to which we now turn.
the analysis was done on the structural features of the combinational Hardware Trojans and sequential Hardware Trojans. The scoring discrimination algorithm used for effective detection of Trojans with less runtime and low failure rate. . With increase of attacker’s ability, there is chance of sudden attacks at run-time. The machine learning techniques are used for detection of real-time attacks or dynamic attacks. The real time online machine learning algorithm is used for protecting many core designs. The algorithm updates the design data after every data transfer using feedback mechanism, different algorithms used for detection, those are Support Vector Machines (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Modified Balanced Window algorithm (MBW) etc., Modified Balanced Window algorithm has higher accuracy for detection compared to SVM and K-NN algorithms. . Hardware Trojans are also detected using Deep learning technique in the gate-level netlists. By observing the controllability and transition probability characteristics of the circuit nodes, which differentiate the healthy node and effected node. The Trojans effected nodes exhibits large inter cluster distance compared to ideal one, with help of this the group of effected nodes and unaffected nodes are identified using k-means clustering .
Several test studies have been performed in the past years to validate the THM , such as the invariance of the two-body reaction amplitude with changing the TrojanHorse nucleus hiding the participant cluster x [19–21], or the use of momentum distributions from Distorted Wave Born Approximation instead of the simple PWA shape, providing same results within experimental errors [42, 44]. The THM has been applied to many reactions of astro- physical interest connected to fundamental problems in different scenarios, from BBN nucleosynthesis [7, 23–40] to AGB and more explosive sites [41–50]. In the last years, reactions involving heavier systems, such as 12 C and 16 O