A report prepared for the Health & Safety Executive in the UK highlights key selection criteria hazardous area operators should take into consideration when using portable containers within hazardousareas (2) . The report tested and quantified the levels of electrostatic discharge on containers ranging in size from small 1 litre plastic bottles to 1000 litre rigid IBCs. Rigid IBCs are supplied in a wide range of different materials of construction and can be made of insulating plastic, static dissipative plastic, and insulating plastics surrounded by metal sheet cladding or steel frames. 220 litre plastic drums were not included in these tests.
The intuitive software has been optimized for touch screen opera- tion. The large touch buttons allow operators to wear gloves while operating the touch screen. Thus, it is ideal to display video images on HMIs installed in hazardousareas. The user-friendly software allows for easy operation with no prior training.
The regulations of the National Electrical Code and the Cana- dian Electrical Code specify which equipment or types of pro- tection can be used in the individual hazardousareas. In North America, different standards and regulations apply to the construction and testing of explosion-proof electrical sys- tems and equipment. In the US, these are primarily the stan- dards of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL), Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM) and the International Society for Measurement and Control (ISA). In Canada, it is the Canadian Standards Association (CSA).
This document details what has proved to be acceptable practice for earthing and bonding of electrical apparatus used in hazardousareas. The subject is not complex, but partially because it is relevant to more than one area of electrical expertise a systematic approach to the subject is desirable. There are numerous codes of practice which specify how earthing and bonding should be carried out, but the fundamental requirements are independent of the geographic location of the installation and hence there should be no significant difference in requirements. This document predominantly describes what is acceptable practice in the United Kingdom and Europe. If a national code of practice exists and differs fundamentally from this document then it should be questioned. It may be considered expedient to comply with such a code but it is important to be assured that doing so results in a safe installation.
Isopad can offer Flexible Transfer Lines with approved trace heating systems for use in hazardousareas along with integrated sensor technology for intrinsic safe circuits. Following technical design guidelines the transfer lines as well as all exposed parts to the explosive media or ambient conditions are being conductive to reach a maximum on personal and product safety.
The shape of the barrier has been designed for easy wiring, while the common (14.5 mm) space requirement of both 1- and 2-channel units simplifies planning or alteration of installations of all sizes. The busbar is insulated for separate earthing, to eliminate the danger of invasion by fault currents. MTL700P shunt-diode safety barriers deliver more power into hazardousareas. Because of the higher power levels available, it is important when considering the use of MTL700P barriers to check the compatibility of the electrical safety parameters of the field equipment (such as transmitters and solenoid valves) with those of the barriers to make sure the combination is safe. In addition, with the barriers designed for IIB gas group applications, the overall gas classification of the system also needs checking
The much greater risk is the induction of currents in metallic objects or inadequately EMI-protected electronic circuits. These currents can result in excessively high temperatures and the forma- tion of sparks. An investigation by the IEEE on the subject of hazards due to electromagnetic radiation in hazardousareas showed that even RF powers of 6 W can become a potential hazard due to induc- tion in metal objects. However, for a long time the standards did not offer any guidelines on this subject. Only at the German national level does a standard currently exist, e. g. in Germany DIN VDE 0848-5 . However, this standard relates to RF sources that are installed outside the hazardous area and that transmit into this area. For RF sources inside the hazardous area, the standard refers to EN 60079-14 ›Electrical installation in hazardousareas‹ . However, here there is only a brief note stating that, during the design of elec- trical installations, the effects of electromagnetic radiation must be limited to a value that is not hazardous. The user of course then asks himself the question how this requirement is to be implemented in practice.
All flammable materials have an ignition temperature. Even if the material is not exposed to an open flame or spark of a certain temperature, they will ignite if they are exposed to an object whose temperature exceeds the ignition temperature for that material. All apparatus designed for installation in hazardousareas are rated for their maximum surface temperature. Consequently, all apparatus have a temperature code associated with their hazardous area classification. The table below reflects the various temperature codes.
The refinery was looking for energy-efficient, low maintenance lighting solutions in its rail facility for general and work areas. Lighting was needed for catwalks, stairs and in front of the rail unloading facility so equipment at the ground level was properly illuminated. Quick start, targeted illumination was needed for operators connecting hoses and other equipment under the rail cars.
Various organs and systems of the body are known to be associated with certain areas of the skin called acupuncture points. With the appearance of the smallest deviations in the systems of the body and organs, they react at the stage of functional disorders long before the occurrence of organic changes at the expense of meridional bonds. Such a reaction at acupuncture points is manifested in the form of a change in the magnitude of their magnetic field, temperature, electrical resistance, the rate of biochemical reactions, cellular composition in them as well as their size. Measuring the electrosurgical resistance in certain acupuncture points you can detect changes in the body still at the stage of functional disorders.
Electronic systems used on process plants or telemetry/monitoring networks associated with these are always at risk from surges and transients caused by power faults or nearby lightning strikes. These transients are just as likely to affect systems located in or connected to hazardousareas as those in safe areas. However, the certification and approvals needed before electrical and electronic systems can be used in potentially explosive atmospheres makes the application of surge protection a little more complicated. This Application Note describes the interaction of surge protection devices (SPDs) with certified and approved intrinsically safe systems for hazardousareas.
Result of this research shown that severe and moderate hazardousareas it is concluded that the areas under severe hazard cover about 13% of the total plains, while those under moderate hazard have a greater spread (70%). Zareiee has shown that moderate hazard areas (63% of the basin) are much widespread than areas under severe hazard (37% of the basin) of this region but they used only meteorological indicator . Zehtabian and Jafari used similar factor for evaluation of water resources degradation in Kashan area, but have emphasis on desertification model .
person’s behavior and signal its own intentions, like its willingness to stop or letting a pedestrian cross the road. At night the number of fatalities per kilometer driven becomes significantly higher than during daytime. Especially the number of fatal pedestrian accidents is up to seven times higher in the dark (Plainis et al. 2006). Fig. 1 illustrates the impact of street lighting in Greece between 1995 and 2001 by the injury severity rate. In this case severity is defined as the ratio of the number of fatal collisions per 100 collisions. The absence of street lighting has a serious impact on the injury severity rate, which increases by a factor of about three to more than 20%. These figures are approximately constant over the years. If a sufficient street lighting infrastructure is lacking, the vehicles will be responsible to solve this problem. This can be done by lighting hazardousareas through an addition to the vehicle’s headlights by utilizing a map where such areas are recorded and marked.
With screen sizes ranging from 7" to 24"WU, we offer the broadest portfolio of hazardousareas HMIs, and the most ex- tensive variety of technologies – Full Clients (Panel PCs), Thin Clients, KVM systems, and various operator interfaces that are also available in modern widescreen formats. All our HMIs are extremely rugged, and specifically designed to ensure fail-safe, reliable 24/7 operation. In addition to modern HMI hardware, we also provide pre-configured operating systems and high performance firmware that ensure enhanced security of data communications and improved usability.
2012; IPCC, 2012). Thus, to prevent a further increase in flood risks, not only should flood mitigation (e.g. flood pro- tection or room for the river) be considered, but also a fur- ther increase in vulnerability in flood-prone areas should be avoided as much as feasible by sound spatial planning and adapted development in particular. To be able to fully take flood hazards into consideration in development planning, clear and meaningful information on the degree of flood haz- ard (now and in the future) is needed. Spatial planners could then decide to restrict building in some areas, to stimulate the deployment of certain adaptive measures, or to develop only in the most suitable (e.g. least hazardous) areas. For such spatial planning decisions hazard maps are more appropri- ate than maps of actual risk, as the latter take into account the already present people and property. Flood risk maps are obviously the most relevant for making decisions on reduc- ing actual risk as caused by past decisions on land-use de- velopment, usually by improving some kind of flood protec- tion, but for preventing the increase of risk as a consequence of land-use development awareness of the flood hazard is crucial. Hazard maps are not only required to enable spatial planning to become fully integrated in comprehensive flood risk management, they are also relevant for flood emergency managers and to create awareness among the general popu- lation (De Moel et al., 2009).
A wood treatment facility is involved in the assessment of a site where soil contamination is present as a result of contamination with F034 listed waste. Investigation-derived waste consisting of drill cuttings has been generated at the site. A representative soil sample was submitted for volatile organic carbons (VOCs), semi-volatile organic carbons (SVOCs), and total metals analysis. Detected concentrations included 20 mg/kg arsenic, 45 mg/kg naphthalene, and 2.0 mg/kg TCE. The percent solids content is 85. A comparison of all site-related hazardous constituents to the Table A2-1 (Option I) criteria indicate that the arsenic, naphthalene, and TCE concentrations exceed these criteria and the soil is therefore not contained-out under Option I. Using Option II, at a minimum, the concentration of each constituent for which the contaminating hazardous waste was listed must be compared to the soil criteria for this category. The listing constituents for F034 listed waste (see Part 261 Appendix VII of Part 261 in the Colorado Hazardous Waste Regulations) that were present in the soil sample include arsenic and naphthalene. The origin of the TCE is unknown and is not required to be evaluated under Option II (however, the facility may elect to evaluate it under Option II as a more conservative approach).
It is proposed that another driver motivating public authorities to declare some parts of the city hazardous and to try to evict, or actually evict the occupiers is the exertion of political authority. Over the past 30 years the Government has ordered dwellers of Msimbazi Valley especially on both sides of Morogoro road (Jangwani) to move, to no avail, despite the use of both stick and carrot policies approaches. At one time a Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner went to the Jangwani area of and physically demo- lished a number of houses, but this did not make others leave the place. Floods have caused only temporary movement from the area but dwellers have trickled back soon after the floods had subsided.
(xxi) When a site is completed or disposal operations are temporarily suspended, all refuse in the area shall be covered with at least two feet of topsoil and reseeded if sufficient veg- etation is not available to stabilize the surface. The person who received the written approval of the Department will be responsible for the repair of any eroded, cracked and uneven areas for a period of three (3) years after completion of the site.