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Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

The analysis of the liver functioning through bilurbin dosage has been up on fifty blood donors. The reactive bandages have been used to seek bilurbines in the urines of those patients considered as carriers with HBV and HCV. After analysis, this descriptive study has shown that out of 31 cases found at men more than 25 years old, 27 cases whose livers don’t function present a hyper degree of bilurbine when there is hepatitis. The doorstep of 3.9 μmol/L hold 65.2% of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Whereas at the doorstep of 1.5 μmol/L and 7.8 μmol/L, the HBV has got respectively 8.7% and 26.1% of cases; and HCV has also got 33.3% and 26.7% of cases.
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New Standpoint of ALT Test for Blood Safety in Dongguan Blood Center

New Standpoint of ALT Test for Blood Safety in Dongguan Blood Center

ALT were detected by rate method with two different reagents respectively, the instrument were DADE BEHRING Xpand and SUNRISE automatic enzyme-linked immunity analyzer, The single ALT positive sam- ples were ELSIA-HBV/HCV/HIV negative, which were detected two times with different reagents, and were detected NAT-HBV/HCV/HIV with Roche COBAS Ampli Screen. The NAT-HBV/HCV process as fellow: Take 1000 μL plasma from 24 blood donors’ samples (each about 42 μL) into one tube as a reaction pool, 10 pools as a Ringer, and every Ringer have a positive and a negative control; Nucleinic acid extraction and purifi- cation were performed by Roche MagNA Pure LC, all tests are added interior standard preparation in order to control the quality in whole process, Nucleinic acid amplification and semi-quantitative detection were per- formed by Roche COBAS Ampli Screen; if the reaction pools were negative, it means 24 samples in this pool were NAT-HBV/HCV/HIV negative, if anyone pool is positive, then again every 6 plasma mixed into a reaction as another pool, so this positive pool including 24 suspicious samples, it can be mixed into 4 pools, if anyone of these 4 pools is positive, it should detect each single sample, until the NAT-HBV or NAT-HCV positive sample were confirmed.
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Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi: systematic review

Epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi: systematic review

Methods: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies reporting the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi from 1990 to 2018. Articles reporting prevalence estimates were included provided they described details of participant selection, inclusion criteria and laboratory methods (detection of HBsAg, anti-HCV or anti-HDV antibody, HCV antigen or HCV RNA or HDV RNA). We assessed study quality using a prevalence assessment tool. Where appropriate, a pooled prevalence was calculated using a DerSimonian Laird random effects model. Results: Searches identified 199 studies, 95 full text articles were reviewed and 19 articles were included. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence was assessed in 14 general population cohorts. The pooled prevalence among adults was 8.1% (95% CI 6.1, 10.3). In 3 studies where HBsAg was stratified by HIV status, no effect of HIV on HBsAg prevalence was observed (OR 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.6, p = 0.80)). In a single study of HIV/HBV infected individuals, anti- hepatitis D antibody (anti-HDV) prevalence was low (1.5%). HCV antibody prevalence (anti-HCV) ranged from 0.7 to 18.0% among 12 cohorts in general populations. Among three studies which used PCR to confirm current infection, the pooled rate of HCV RNA confirmation among anti-HCV positive individuals was only 7.3% (95% CI: 0.0, 24.3). Conclusions: Hepatitis B is highly prevalent in Malawi. There is a paucity of epidemiological data from rural areas where 85% of the population reside, and the Northern region. Priority research needs include large-scale representative community studies of HBV, HDV and HCV seroprevalence, assessment of children following introduction of the HBV vaccine in 2002, prevalence estimates of viral hepatitis among individuals with cirrhosis and HCC and data on HCV prevalence using PCR confirmation, to support a viral hepatitis strategy for Malawi.
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Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Zimbabwe

Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Zimbabwe

A total of 12 (20%) PHC patients were positive for anti- HCV and 8 (67%) of these patients were over 45 years of age (66.7%) and the other remaining 4 (33%) were below 45 years. All the control patients from blood donors were negative for anti-HCV antibodies. The difference in males and females infected with HCV was not significant (p > 0.05). The mean age of patients who were positive for anti-HCV was 51.26 years and the age range was 16-70 years. The odds ratio or relative risk for the development of PHC in anti-HCV positive patients could not be ascer- tained because none of the control individuals was posi- tive and the calculation required an integer for the reference sample. Of the 12 patients who were anti-HCV- positive, 4 had AFP levels greater than 400 ng/ml whilst two had their AFP levels within the normal range (0-10 ng/ml). The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher than that of anti- HCV both in PHC patients and controls (p < 0.05). The presence of both anti-HCV and HBsAg was noted in 5 patients. It was also noted that more than half of the patients had infection with HBV and/or HCV. The relative risk of developing PHC was strongly associ- ated with HBV infection. The unadjusted odds ratio for PHC development was high (1.615; 95% CI 0.69 - 1.65) for overall HBV infection. For those patients with HBsAg alone, the risk for PHC development, using the cases which were negative for HBsAg as a reference group and healthy individuals as controls, was still high (odds ratio
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SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

Co infection with all the three viruses was noted in 3 cases(1.5%) out of 200 cases, which happened to be from STD O.P. 7cases(3.5%) out of 200 cases were positive for HIV and HCV of which all 7 were STD patients. 4 (2%) patients from STD group were positive for both HIV and HBV. One out of 16 HBsAg positive cases was HCV positive also. With regard to HCV and HIV the co-infectivity was relevant in I.V.drug users and Hemophiliacs. Interactions between HIV and Hepatitis Viruses may alter the natural history of both the diseases [26] .
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Association of markers of chronic viral hepatitis and blood mercury levels in US reproductive-age women from NHANES 2001–2008: a cross-sectional study

Association of markers of chronic viral hepatitis and blood mercury levels in US reproductive-age women from NHANES 2001–2008: a cross-sectional study

The modest negative association (0.72, p = 0.05) we observed between HCV-positive status and GM TBHg concentration was inconsistent with our hypothesis. However, a finding of different outcomes for HBV and HCV is plausible scientifically. While we hypothesized both HBV and HCV would lead to reduced MeHg elim- ination into bile, the EH cycle can also be accelerated by liver and gallbladder dysfunction reducing uptake into hepatocytes or altering metabolism [18]. For example, MeHg has been found to be eliminated more quickly in laboratory animals with ligated cystic ducts, in which re- absorption to the gallbladder is prevented [16]. Cirrhosis – a more frequent longer-term outcome of HCV than of HBV – has been shown to lead to reduced hepatic up- take due to lower perfusion of cells [18]. Presence of gallstones, associated in the epidemiological literature with HCV but not HBV [30,31,44,45], has also been associated with faster gallbladder emptying [46]. In a re- cent study, flavonoligands of silymarin – which are eliminated through an EH cycle in circumstances of nor- mal liver health – were found not to undergo EH cycling in HCV patients, whereas substantial EH cycling was found in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients [47]. The authors hypothesized HCV-specific changes in hepatobiliary function led to the observed absence of EH cycling. Our HCV findings of lower adjusted MeHg levels among HCV-infected women appear consistent with this research.
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Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low.

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Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Testing for HbsAg may not identify donors with occult HBV infection who have isolated anti-HCV anti- bodies. Anti-HCV remains positive lifelong in all the donors with an HBV infection in the past. However, it remains useful to screen for anti-HCV, since for the purpose of blood transfusion it is better to exclude all anti-HCV- positive donors to prevent transfusion-related HBV infection. Since 1997 blood units were routinely examined for anti-HCV in all blood banks in Libya, which should reduce the transmission through blood transfusion. Our data do not necessarily represent the true hepatitis B and C prevalence among the general population and thus are in need of further updating. To the best of our knowledge, this is few large-scale study to examine the prevalence of sero-markers in blood donors in East of Libya. However, there are some limitations to this study, due to the lack of information such as the history of blood transfusion, dental extraction, surgical operation, cupping and tattooing. Future studies will be needed to explore these areas. One possible limitation of the study is that it included only blood donors, and this may not reflect the real prevalence in the whole society. Generally, Libya is experiencing a major challenge regarding its geographical, political and social-ethnic identity. Thus, future planning regarding infectious disease should be prioritized [19]. Hence, further studies are needed to elucidate the different factors associated with the higher prevalence of HCV among Libyan blood donors.
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SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-HCV ANTIBODIES & COEXISTENCE OF HBV IN ANTI -HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AT SMS AND ALLIED HOSPITALS

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-HCV ANTIBODIES & COEXISTENCE OF HBV IN ANTI -HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AT SMS AND ALLIED HOSPITALS

Within a few years of Hepatitis C virus discovery, its has been recognized as a major pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world including India. More than 200 million carrier of HCV exist in the world and constitute the reservoir of this infection. The carrier rate of HCV infects ranges from 10-20%. Background: Since year 1991 Screening of blood for HCV antibody in blood banks has been made mandatory in many parts of world. In India screening of blood for HCV Antibodies become mandatory from 1 st July, 1997. HCV is the commonest cause of post transfusion hepatitis accounting for nearly 80-90% of cases.HBV and HCV have become a major public health problem throughout the world. HCC is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. Objectives: The aims of this study are:-To find out the seroprevalence of anti HCV antibodies in different categories of individuals from different OPDS, wards and ICUs of SMS Hospital and AlliedHospital Jaipur and also To evaluate the coexistence of HBV infection in anti HCV antibody positive patients. Methodology: The present study was conducted in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the S.M.S. Hospital, Jaipur from period of 1 st January, 2007 to 13 th November 2007 to evaluate the prevalence of anti HCV Antibody in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals of various categories. Categories were identified based on clinical evaluations & various investigations. RAPID Test and ELISA TEST was done at clinical microbiology laboratory S.M.S. Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur Result: In Our present study a total no. of 1857 samples were tested out of which 34 samples (1.83%) were positive for antibody to HCV. Out of 1318 samples of males, 32 (2.42%) were positive (2.42%) whereas 539 sample of females, 2 (0.37%) were positive. This clearly shows HCV seroprevalence were more in males than females. Highest prevalence of anti HCV antibodies was observed in the age group of 31– 40 years and lowest prevalence in 0 – 20 years of age. There is a scarcity of information on HCV prevalence particularly in developing countries like India, hence present study was conducted for early detection & prevention of HCV infections. Out of 34 HCV positive samples, there were only 3(8.82%) samples reactive for HBsAg. Male and female ratio were 2:1.
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HBV and HCV seroprevalence and their correlation with CD4 cells and liver enzymes among HIV positive individuals at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

HBV and HCV seroprevalence and their correlation with CD4 cells and liver enzymes among HIV positive individuals at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

All ART naïve adult HIV positive individuals who visited ART clinic for CD4 and liver enzyme level determina- tions for their pre-ART follow up during the study period were included. But individuals who were on ART follow up and those ART naïve but who refused to give informed consent were excluded from the study. Individ- uals who have been vaccinated against HBV and those who visited ART clinic and requested for laboratory in- vestigation for the second and consequent follow up at the time of the study period were also excluded from the study to avoid duplication. Patients who had TB, mal- aria, leishmaniasis, opportunistic infections (OIs), drug induced hepatotoxicity and chronic alcoholism were assessed and excluded as per the HIV management guidelines of Ethiopia [26].
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Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

• If HIV status is unknown: Obtain history of HIV risk factors; obtain HIV test in accordance with BOP policy. Whenever the source case is known, the HIV status of the exposure source patient should be determined to guide appropriate use of HIV PEP. Rapid HIV testing should be available at each institution in order to facilitate timely decision making regarding the need for HIV PEP after exposure to sources whose HIV status is unknown. FDA-approved rapid tests can produce reliable test results within 30 minutes. Rapid HIV testing should be performed test per local policies and procedures, as well as guidance from the BOP Medical Director. Administration of PEP should not be delayed while awaiting test results. If the source patient is determined to be HIV negative, PEP should be discontinued, and no follow-up HIV testing for the exposed patient is indicated. • If HBsAg positive: Obtain HBeAg.
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Determination of hepatitis B, C and D prevalence among urban and Amerindian populations from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon: a cross sectional study

Determination of hepatitis B, C and D prevalence among urban and Amerindian populations from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon: a cross sectional study

Respondents were assured about confidentiality, that their participation was voluntary and that they had full rights to withdraw from the study at any time. All par- ticipants were given a verbal explanation of the objec- tives and methodology of the research and were included in the study only after obtaining written signed informed consent. Parent or guardian gave written signed informed consent on behalf of any participants under the age of 18. All individuals who tested positive were sent to public health clinics to receive treatment. Table 1 Hepatitis B and C virus markers among individuals from Amerindian tribes and urban areas of Tocantinopolis city ( n = 948)
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Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection

Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection

Several studies have shown that the HBV and HCV interact with each other and affect immune responses. HCV infec- tion can suppress HBV replication, as demonstrated by studies showing that patients with chronic hepatitis B who are coinfected with HCV have lower HBV DNA levels, decreased activity of HBV DNA polymerase, and decreased expression of HBsAg and hepatitis B core anti- gen in the liver [16-18]. Furthermore, patients with chronic HBV infection who become superinfected with HCV can undergo seroconversion of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBsAg to respective antibodies [19-21]. Sheen et al. [22] conducted a longitudinal follow-up study of a large series of HBV infected patients and found that the annual incidence of HBsAg seroconversion was 2.08% in coinfected patients compared to 0.43% in patients with HBV monoinfection, and a subsequent study confirmed these results [23]. Several mechanisms of replicative interference of HBV by HCV have been pro- posed. Shih et al. implicated the hepatitis C core protein in suppression of HBV [24]. A subsequent study found that the hepatitis C core protein suppressed HBV enhancer activity, thereby affecting transcription [25]. This inhibi-
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Kupffer cells in immune activation and tolerance toward HBV/HCV infection

Kupffer cells in immune activation and tolerance toward HBV/HCV infection

Once CD14+ KCs or other macrophage-derived mono- cytes are bound to HCV core protein and NS3, they can produce inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, interferon beta (IFNβ) and TNF-α, to inhibit HCV repli- cation, accompanied by secretion of immune-suppressing mediator IL-10. HCV core protein and a type of ligand of TLR2 are involved in immune regulation. Tu et al. found that when recombinant HCV core protein was added to a  culture, human KCs would significantly increase the production of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10. 11 After bonding to

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Status of Health related Quality of life between HBV and HCV Patients of Pakistan

Status of Health related Quality of life between HBV and HCV Patients of Pakistan

After discussing the descriptive results of our survey, multiple regression analysis was performed under four models, demographic model, medical model, economic model and physical and psychological model. The dependant variable is HRQOL and independent variables are gender, age of the patient, region, disease severity vaccination and use of drugs. Results show that all the variables are highly significant except gender and vaccination in the case of HCV. All the signs are according to expectations. In demographic and medical model, HBV patients model have better R2 as compared to HCV patients model. Age of the patient, disease severity and use of drugs are negatively significant related to HRQOL in both HBV and HCV models. Magnitude of disease severity and age of the patient is high for HBV patients as compared to HCV patients. Positive sign of male shows that if a male is a patient of HBV he have better HRQOL then females and negative sign of male under HCV model shows that male patients HRQOL is worse then females.
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Hepatitis B and C viruses and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study in Italy

Hepatitis B and C viruses and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study in Italy

Subgroup analyses of the association between NHL and the presence of HCV RNA or HBsAg were per- formed for the main histological subtypes (Table 3). The prevalence of HCV RNA positivity was 11.7 % among B- cell NHL subtypes, whereas only two out of 37 (5.4 %) T-cell NHL cases were found to be positive for HCV RNA. HCV RNA + people, as compared to anti-HCV − , showed an elevated risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; OR = 4.08, 95 % CI: 2.46–6.76), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL; OR = 8.62, 95 % CI: 3.43–21.69), lym- phoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL, OR = 8.43, 95 % CI: 2.26–31.52), and small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL; OR = 7.96, 95 % CI: 2.95–21.48). Regarding HBV, the proportion of HBsAg- Table 1 Distribution of 571 NHL and 1004 controls with ORs and 95 % CIs for selected characteristics. Italy, 1999 – 2014
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Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Multivalent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Virus-Like Particles Carrying HBV and HCV Epitopes

Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Multivalent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Virus-Like Particles Carrying HBV and HCV Epitopes

Chimeric HBc ⌬ –pre-S1, HBc ⌬ -HCV core, and HBc ⌬ –pre- S1–HCV core proteins were purified and evaluated by Western blot analysis with mouse monoclonal anti-HBc and anti-pre-S1 antibodies and polyclonal anti-HCV core antibodies (Fig. 2), as well as by electron microscopy with negative staining (Fig. 3). The expression level of chimeric proteins was around 5% of the total intracellular protein. The presence of VLP-like struc- tures was detected by double radial immunodiffusion using polyclonal rabbit anti-HBc antibodies. Chimeric proteins were precipitated by anti-HBc antibodies with the same efficiency as nonchimeric HBc ⌬ VLPs, suggesting efficient formation of correctly folded VLPs (data not shown). The morphology of particles in the chimeric VLP preparations did not differ significantly from that of the particles in the nonchimeric HBc ⌬ VLP preparation (Fig. 3). The HBc ⌬ , HBc ⌬ -HCV core, and HBc ⌬ –pre-S1–HCV core preparations demonstrated sim- ilar levels of the T ⫽ 3 particles: 23, 20, and 16%, respectively. It is surprising that HBc ⌬ –pre-S1 showed a much higher con- tent of T ⫽ 3 particles (35%).
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Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

Out of 10569 blood donors, 402 cases screened positive. Overall prevalence of TTI was 3.82%, Voluntary donors forms the majority (63.9%) of our study that shows good awareness among the population. In our study prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV in voluntary donors was 1.52%, 1.59%, 0.061% and in replacement donors was 7.79%, 11.79%, 0.044% respectively. Among transfusion transmitted infections HCV was more common in both voluntary and replacement donors.

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The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

ﯽﺑﺎـﯾزرا رد ﮏـﻤﮐ ﻦﻤـﺿ ﺪـﻧاﻮﺗ ﯽﻣ نﻮﺧ نﺎﮔﺪﻨﻨﮐاﺪﻫا ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ رد ﺎﻬﺳوﺮﯾو ﻦﯾا ﺎﺑ ﺖﻧﻮﻔﻋ عﻮﯿﺷ تﺎﻋﻼﻃا.. ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﮏﯾ رد نﻮﺧ نﺎﮔﺪﻨﻨﮐاﺪﻫا ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ناﺰﯿﻣ,[r]

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Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

In this group out of the 100 selected samples only 6% were those having their HBV positive test. In the same group 14% patients were highly affected with HCV. Bi- lirubin assay profile showed that total 18% patients had the higher Bilirubin level (1.48 ± 1.94) as compare to the normal value (up to 1.2 mg/dl) (Figure 1). While other, 23% had the higher value of Alakaline phosphtase (345 ± 18) than that of the normal limits (80 - 306 U/L), (Figure 2).

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