HCV and HBV

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Reactivation of occult HBV infection in an HIV/HCV Co infected patient successfully treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir: a case report and review of the literature

Reactivation of occult HBV infection in an HIV/HCV Co infected patient successfully treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir: a case report and review of the literature

To date, risk of HBV reactivation during treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir seems low, and our patient is only the second case described in literature [7]. Regard- ing frequency of the event, reassuring data are available from a recent study by Sulkowski et al., which retro- spectively reanalyzed HBV markers in serum samples of 173 HCV-infected patients without active HBV or HIV infection and treated with a combination of ledipasvir/ sofosbuvir. Notably, HBV reactivation during or after HCV clearance was found in none out of the 103 previ- ously HBV-exposed patients [12]. Differently, in patients with HCV and HBV co-infection, transitory HBV DNA reactivation rate seems very high, reaching 88% of a small case series treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir [13]. Since accurate information regarding risk of HBV reacti- vation in patients undergoing DAA therapy is lacking, an important prospective study is ongoing in patients
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Status of Health related Quality of life between HBV and HCV Patients of Pakistan

Status of Health related Quality of life between HBV and HCV Patients of Pakistan

The aim of the study is to explore the factors those differentiate health related quality of life (HRQOL) among hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) patients. Different public and private hospitals of Sargodha district were visited and 120 patients of hepatitis B and C were interviewed. World health related quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to construct HRQOL instrument. Multiple regression analysis was performed to observe the collision of demographic, medical, economic and physical and psychological factors on patients HRQOL. Results showed that HBV patients enjoyed better HRQOL then HCV patients. 86.4% HCV patients faces death threat while, 67.3% HBV faces this threat. 93.5% HBV patients feels depression while, 97.8% HCV patients feels depression. Urban patients HRQOL scores were superior then rural patients in both HCV and HBV case. Moreover, male patients HRQOL scores were better as compared to female patients. Age of the patient, disease severity, use of drug, pain, depression, financial hindrance and threat of death negatively influence the HRQOL of both HBV and HCV patients while, vaccination, income, sleep, opportunity of leisure and better living condition were positively related to HRQOL.
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Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Zimbabwe

Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Zimbabwe

In our study, 48.3% of 60 PHC patients were HBsAg pos- itive and 20% were anti-HCV positive. In a previous study in Zimbabwe, HBsAg was detected in 42.6% of the PHC patients of the 62 patients studied [33]. Positivity for anti- HCV was in 23.8% using a lesser sensitive and specific sec- ond generation assay [33]. The two studies show that HBV remains the major infection of hepatitis viruses in the region. The prevalence of HBsAg in controls (13.3%) was less than the prevalence of 24.2% observed in a study of 660 health individuals [37,38]. This probably was due to the smaller proportion of the present study group (30 blood donors). The observation of no anti-HCV positive cases in controls is agreement with data from the National Blood Transfusion Service which show a prevalence of less than 1% in healthy blood donors. However, another study in Zimbabwe has observed an anti-HCV seropositiv- ity of 8% in healthy rural individuals [22]. Co-infection by HCV and HBV was found in this study. Although HBV and HCV may be independent risk factors of PHC, dual infection is likely to increase the risk of primary hepatocel- lular carcinogenesis. Some studies have also reported dual infection by HBV and HCV in PHC [20,23,30]. However, the absence of serological markers for either HBV and/or HCV in PHC in some PHC patients could not rule out the role of the two viruses in carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that hepatic tissues could have viral genomic sequences in one-third or more of the serologically nega- tive subjects [38]. It was also suspected that aflatoxin con- tamination could also have played a significant role in PHC development since Zimbabwe has been found to have this post-harvest problem [39]. This study and previ- ous ones, therefore, demonstrate that HBV and HCV are
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SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-HCV ANTIBODIES & COEXISTENCE OF HBV IN ANTI -HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AT SMS AND ALLIED HOSPITALS

SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTI-HCV ANTIBODIES & COEXISTENCE OF HBV IN ANTI -HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AT SMS AND ALLIED HOSPITALS

 We conclude that HCV directly affects epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, socioeconomic and preventive aspects. It is very important that the priority for HCV control is concentrated on early detection and effective treatment of both HCV and HBV of which may offer the greater chance of prolonging the life of those suffering from HCV infection. It is suggested that education of public at large to increase the general awareness towards the transfusion transmitted diseases and how to prevent them. The prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection is definitely present in the general population as is shown by the present study, the extent of which may vary from region to region and the study group screened. Both viruses contribute to the development of a chronic liver disease entity complementing each other during the progressing pathology. Reusage of unsterilised, contaminated needles and syringes were perhaps the main reason determined for the spread of HBV and HCV or both. This calls for stringent screening measures for blood borne viruses at departmental laboratories and blood banks for all sera/blood processed.
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Kupffer cells in immune activation and tolerance toward HBV/HCV infection

Kupffer cells in immune activation and tolerance toward HBV/HCV infection

apoptotic T lymphocytes; the number, antiviral effect and immune function of T lymphocytes were obviously promoted when the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway was blocked by a PD-L1 antibody. Thus it may be concluded that negative regulation of the replication and immune function of T lymphocytes depends on the activation of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway by the binding of PD- L1 expressed by KCs and PD-1 expressed by T lympho- cytes. HBV’s escape from host immune surveillance, the chronicity of HBV infection and immune tolerance are closely related to the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. Al- though it has been stated that HCV core protein can in- duce PD-L1 expression, it is not clear whether it is caused by the direct influence of the virus or the negative feed- back system induced by continuous infection. 3
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Sero Prevalence of HBV, HCV and HEV among the Egyptian Pregnant Females

Sero Prevalence of HBV, HCV and HEV among the Egyptian Pregnant Females

The overall HBs-Ag sero-prevalence in the pregnant women included in this study was 7 cases (2.7%). Given the study inclusion criteria, this HBVsAg most likely indicates chronic carrier state “chronic infection”. For HCV-RNA PCR was 4 cases (1.5%). Of the total study participants, none of them (0%) were an- ti-HEV IgM positive and 48 cases (18.4%) were anti-HEV IgG positive. Vaccined women against HBV were 42 (16.1%) cases only, as shown in Figure 1.

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Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections among Blood Donors in Northeast Libya

Transfusion of blood and blood product is a life- saving measure and benefits numerous patients worldwide. However, transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infection to the recipients. In 2005, all member states of WHO signed a document that commits them to the provision of safe and adequate blood and blood products to patients [1]. Transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases remain a major topic of interest for those involved in blood safety [1]. To avoid infection by blood transfusion, safety is very important because of blood transfusion is an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Therefore, the tests for HIV, HBV, HCV syphilis and malaria are mandatory in the blood bank [2]. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a major global public health problem warranting high priority efforts for prevention, control and treatment [3]. Testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the commonly used screening test in developing countries [4]. The hepatitis C virus was discovered in 1989. It is transmitted via blood and blood products, both parenterally and through sexual contact [5]. Libya, a developing country of approximately 6 million people, belongs to the intermediate endemicity countries with a wide variance of sero-positivity among different regions and populations [6]. A national serological survey for HBV and HCV infections among the general population was performed in Libya during 2003 and revealed prevalence of 2.2% and 1.2% for HBV and HCV, respectively [7]. A local surveys reported that the rate of HBsAg positivity among blood donors ranged from 1.3% to 4.6% [8], while the rate of HCV antibodies was 1.2% [9,10]. Very recently, the frequency of HBsAg positive blood donors and anti-HCV among this sample was 0.8% and 0.7% respectively in blood donors in western Libya (Tripoli) [11]. There has
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Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Multivalent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Virus-Like Particles Carrying HBV and HCV Epitopes

Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Multivalent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Virus-Like Particles Carrying HBV and HCV Epitopes

A multivalent vaccine candidate against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was constructed on the basis of HBV core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) as carriers. Chimeric VLPs that carried a virus-neutralizing HBV pre-S1 epitope corresponding to amino acids (aa) 20 to 47 in the major immuno- dominant region (MIR) and a highly conserved N-terminal HCV core epitope corresponding to aa 1 to 60 at the C terminus of the truncated HBc ⌬ protein (N-terminal aa 1 to 144 of full-length HBc) were produced in Escherichia coli cells and examined for their antigenicity and immunogenicity. The presence of two different foreign epitopes within the HBc molecule did not interfere with its VLP-forming ability, with the HBV pre-S1 epitope exposed on the surface and the HCV core epitope buried within the VLPs. After immunization of BALB/c mice, specific T-cell activation by both foreign epitopes and a high-titer antibody response against the pre-S1 epitope were found, whereas an antibody response against the HBc carrier was notably suppressed. Both inserted epitopes also induced a specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) response, as shown by the gamma interferon (IFN- ␥ ) production profile.
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<p>Management Of Patients With Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation Post&ndash;DAA Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection In HCV&ndash;HBV Coinfected Patients With Pretreatment HBeAg Seroconversion And Early Degree Of Hepatic Fibrosis</p>

<p>Management Of Patients With Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation Post&ndash;DAA Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection In HCV&ndash;HBV Coinfected Patients With Pretreatment HBeAg Seroconversion And Early Degree Of Hepatic Fibrosis</p>

The study enrolled 140 patients coinfected with HCVHBV. All patients had HBV PCR ≤ 2,000 IU/mL, normal pretreatment liver enzymes, and showed HBeAg seroconversion with development of HBeAb. In sum, 77 (55%) were F0 and 63 (45%) F1, mean age was 32.4±8.02 years, and 96 (68.6%) were male and 44 (31.4%) female. Four patients (2.86%, three male, mean age 23.7±2.7 years) showed HBV reactivation in the form of raised liver enzymes and HBV DNA PCR 1 month after DAA therapy (Table 1). On liver-function tests, all patients showed decreased mean ALT at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months post:treatment: 24.9± 14.2, 24.4 ±10.8, 23±8.2, and 13.2±3.5 U/L, respectively (P=0.001). Signi fi cant improvement in AST levels was also detected, reaching 13.7±3.5 U/L at 1 year posttherapy. (P=0.001). Bilirubin, INR, and platelet counts showed signi fi cant improvement at 1 year posttreatment (Table 2, Figures 1 and 2). Patients showed decreased mean HBV PCR levels: from 913.4±1,362.4 IU/mL (before treatment) to 760.8 ±379.02 IU/mL (6 months after starting treatment) and 396.1±124.8 IU/mL (12 months after starting treatment).
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Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

Prevalence of viral HBV and HCV among different group patients in Gujrat Pakistan

In this study we analyzed blood samples collected from 400 high risk patients for the prevalence of an inflammatory viral disease hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the help of standard kit assay and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the samples were selected randomly from the various places of District Gujrat, Pakistan. All the selected cases were first divided into four groups according to the age and sex (Group 1, Male below age 35 years; Group 2, Male above age 35 years; Group 3, Female below age 35 years; Group 4, Fe- male above age 35 years), each group was comprised of 100 individual patients and analyzed for different parameters for the presence of HBV and HCV in comparison with positive and negative controls. The prevalence of HBV and HCV was higher in groups 2 (22%) and 4 (39%) respectively. Assay profile re- vealed that the incidence of HCV was higher in fe- male patients as compare to the male patients. The present study indicates that more than 60% of the cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the Region is attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
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Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

Investigation of Hepatitis Functioning through Bilurbin at Blood Donors with HBV and HCV Positive

The analysis of the liver functioning through bilurbin dosage has been up on fifty blood donors. The reactive bandages have been used to seek bilurbines in the urines of those patients considered as carriers with HBV and HCV. After analysis, this descriptive study has shown that out of 31 cases found at men more than 25 years old, 27 cases whose livers don’t function present a hyper degree of bilurbine when there is hepatitis. The doorstep of 3.9 μmol/L hold 65.2% of hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Whereas at the doorstep of 1.5 μmol/L and 7.8 μmol/L, the HBV has got respectively 8.7% and 26.1% of cases; and HCV has also got 33.3% and 26.7% of cases.
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Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

Objective: To assess the prevalence of HBV,HCV and HIV among replacement donors and voluntary

The TTI’s include Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and malaria. To reduce risk of TTI, careful selection of donors is needed so that the blood is safe and is not collected from the people who are likely to be carriers of infectious agents. Evaluation of TTI are essential for assessing the safety of blood supply and monitoring the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures 6 . Poor health infrastructure, lack of health awareness camps, unhygienic life standards and failure to implement strict norms of
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Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

Management of HIV, HBV, HCV, Human Bites, and Sexual Assaults in Prison Populations

The BOP Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Medical Management of Exposures are based on the recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). These guidelines provide specific recommendations for medically managing BOP inmates who have experienced potential exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) through various means, including human bites and sexual assaults. Section 3, which discusses a step- wise approach for managing these exposures, can be used in conjunction with the Postexposure Worksheet in Appendix 1.
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Systematic review and meta analysis of HIV, HBV and HCV infection prevalence in Sudan

Systematic review and meta analysis of HIV, HBV and HCV infection prevalence in Sudan

systematic review was aimed to provide pooled seroprevalence estimates of the three viruses in Sudan. Structured review of the literature was conducted to obtain relevant studies published in both national and international databases. After assessment of quality and bias in all proposed studies, 57 prevalence studies were included. Meta-analysis was conducted for all studies and subgroup analysis was also approached. The total sample size of participants in included studies providing HIV antibodies prevalence was 15,479. Based on information retrieved from these studies, HIV prevalence ranged from 0 to 18.3% among different study populations. However, pooled prevalence estimate for HIV antibodies was 1%. Kassala, Eastern Sudan was the most endemic State (4.18%). The HBV reported seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.1 up to 26.81% among different populations and the overall pooled prevalence was 12.07%. For HCV antibodies; 2.74% was determined to be the pooled prevalence. Khartoum State was the most endemic State of both HBV and HCV with seroprevalence of 12.69% and 6.78%, respectively. Based on data reviewed and synthesized; there is no evidence for an HIV endemic in the general population of Sudan. However, both HBV and HCV seroprevalence rates are indicating otherwise. Reducing the overall burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections will require new measures and national strategies and the recognition of the infections as one of the country ’ s priority issues.
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SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

SEROPREVALENCE OF HIV, HBV & HCV IN HIGH RISK GROUPS

Two hundred samples from various risk groups were screened for anti HIV, HBsAg and anti HCV belonging to different risk groups. HIV, HBV and HCV are major worldwide health problems. The emergence and Pandemic spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have posed the greatest challenge to public health in modern times.

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Evaluation of CD64 Index in HBV and in Chronic HCV Infections

Evaluation of CD64 Index in HBV and in Chronic HCV Infections

Background and aims: CD64 [Fc gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI)] is a promising biomarker used in predicting severe bacterial infection. The study was de- signed to assess their level in all stages of HBV infection and in chronic HCV infection before and after treatment with direct acting antiviral therapy as a possible biomarker of inflammation. Patients and methods: A case-control study was conducted, 50 patients with different disease stages of HBV infec- tion (10 acute, 15 chronic hepatitis, 15 liver cirrhosis (LC) and 10 with hepa- tocellular carcinoma (HCC)), twenty patients with chronic HCV and 15 as a control group. Laboratory and imaging studies were evaluated. The levels of CD64 expressions in peripheral blood and CD64 Index were measured for all patients by flowcytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD64 monoclonal antibody. Results: The levels of CD64 expressions in peripheral blood and CD64 index were significantly higher in patients with HBV and HCV than in control group (P value = 0.01, 0.01 and 0.000, 0.000 respectively). They were increased significantly with disease progression in patients with HBV infection, acute hepatitis B infection showed the highest values. Their levels were significantly decreased in patients with HCV infec- tion post treatment than before treatment. Conclusions: The levels of CD64 expressions in peripheral blood and CD64 index are considered good bio- markers of inflammation in viral hepatitis both B and C and could detect disease progression and also suppression of inflammation after antiviral therapy.
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Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo

Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low.

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The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

The Prevalence of HCV, HBV, HIV in Blood Donors of Golestan Province, (2006-2008)

ﯽﺑﺎـﯾزرا رد ﮏـﻤﮐ ﻦﻤـﺿ ﺪـﻧاﻮﺗ ﯽﻣ نﻮﺧ نﺎﮔﺪﻨﻨﮐاﺪﻫا ﺖﯿﻌﻤﺟ رد ﺎﻬﺳوﺮﯾو ﻦﯾا ﺎﺑ ﺖﻧﻮﻔﻋ عﻮﯿﺷ تﺎﻋﻼﻃا.. ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﮏﯾ رد نﻮﺧ نﺎﮔﺪﻨﻨﮐاﺪﻫا ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ناﺰﯿﻣ,[r]

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Alteration in gut microbiota associated with hepatitis B and non-hepatitis virus related hepatocellular carcinoma

Alteration in gut microbiota associated with hepatitis B and non-hepatitis virus related hepatocellular carcinoma

Interestingly, Ren et  al. [18] indicated the butyrate- producing bacteria declined in early HCC patients, such as Ruminococcus, Feacalibacterium, Clostridium. How- ever, the butyrate-producing bacteria presented hetero- geneity in HBV and non-HBV non-HCV related HCC in our study. This further indicated HBV indeed play a role in changes of gut microbiota. Meanwhile, our study involved middle-aged adults (mean year is 56, Table  1, Additional file 1), whereas much older than the previous study [18]. In addition, 30 microbial markers were predi- cated using to identify early HCC in the previous study [18]. But some bacterial markers were not detected in the present study, such as Gemmiger. The conflict find- ings are possibly due to the individuals with differ- ent regions. The population of our study were all from Jiangsu Province. It has been reported that the diag- nostic model of one location may be not used in other location, especially diagnostic efficiency declined with the geographic scale increased [43]. The characteristic changes of gut microbiota had a strongest relationship with the host location [43]. Thus, the diagnosis poten- tial of microbial markers should be considered the geo- graphic differences.
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Metabolic syndrome and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a hospital-based case&ndash;control study in China

Metabolic syndrome and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a hospital-based case&ndash;control study in China

Our research has the following strengths. First, this is the first Chinese study to investigate the relationship of meta- bolic syndrome with CCA risk (including ICC and ECC). We newly identified metabolic syndrome as risk factors for all CCA subtypes. In addition, we explored the role of other common risk factors on CCA incidence as well, including cholecystolithiasis, choledocholithiasis/hepatolithiasis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, HBV infection, HCV infection, alco- hol intake and smoking. Thus, this is the most comprehensive study with a large sample size (303 CCA patients and 606 controls) to evaluate the possible risk factors for CCA, and its results may be of interest to CCA researchers and of help to clinicians aiming to develop a means of preventing the development of CCA. Second, all CCA patients included in our study were confirmed by pathological and radiological examinations. Therefore, we could avoid ascertainment bias due to misdiagnosis.
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