Health and medical education

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Introducing a health information literacy competencies map: connecting the Association of American Medical Colleges Core Entrustable Professional Activities and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Common Program Requirements to the Associ

Introducing a health information literacy competencies map: connecting the Association of American Medical Colleges Core Entrustable Professional Activities and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Common Program Requirements to the Association of College & Research Libraries Framework

Background: Librarians teach evidence-based medicine (EBM) and information-seeking principles in undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate medical education. These curricula are informed by medical education standards, medical education competencies, information literacy frameworks, and background literature on EBM and teaching. As this multidimensional body of knowledge evolves, librarians must adapt their teaching and involvement with medical education. Identifying explicit connections between the information literacy discipline and the field of medical education requires ongoing attention to multiple guideposts but offers the potential to leverage information literacy skills in the larger health sciences education sphere.
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Contribution of Medical Education to Rural Health

Contribution of Medical Education to Rural Health

There is another important learning in social accountability as we implemented at UBC what was essentially the first fully distributed medical education program of its order of magnitude in North America. We not only ensure that the training of doctors can keep up with the population needs and demographic shifts, but we also strive to achieve diversity among our medical learners that reflect the diversity of our communities, so that our learners are empowered with the skills and abilities to successfully practice in rural communities and serve diverse populations such as aboriginal communities. One example is the rural admission stream of the undergraduate medical program. We encourage medical applicants who come from or are interested in learning and practicing medicine in rural, remote, and/or northern communities. We have designed a process to assess each applicant's suitability for rural health training. A second example is the health care travelling roadshow, which is developed in conjunction with the University of Northern British Columbia, Northern Medical Programs Trust, and Rural Education Action Plan to increase the number of students who are inclined to practice in rural communities. Every year, UBC medical students travel to rural areas of the province to raise awareness among rural youth and parents about opportunities in health professions (including medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, midwifery). In May 2016, the travelling roadshow visited Haida Gwaii, Prince Rupert, Merritt, Princeton, and Keremeos, all of which are located in rural British Columbia. A third example is the aboriginal admissions program of the UBC undergraduate medical program. This program is strategically developed to encourage and empower prospective aboriginal students to consider a career in medicine by offering them with pre-admissions and admissions workshops, counselling support and peer mentoring opportunities early on. Since its inception, this UBC program has become a model for other Canadian faculties of medicine, and we are training more aboriginal physicians than ever before. In 2002, the aboriginal admissions program set a goal of graduating 50 more aboriginal doctors by 2020. In 2015, we were encouraged to learn that this goal was reached five years early.
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Medical education: an Italian contribution to the discussion on global health education

Medical education: an Italian contribution to the discussion on global health education

A dedicated commission was established from among the members of INGHE. The members of the commis- sion were young residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (Public Health) supervised by two professors from universities in Rome (Sapienza University of Rome) and Bologna (Alma Mater University). The first phase consisted of a broad-based literature review concerning “global health education” and “medical education”. A deep analysis of two official documents of the Italian Medical Association and The Permanent Conference of the Presidents of Degree Courses in Medicine was conducted, as they provided a mainstream, external per- spective. The second phase was characterized by brain- storming and discussion among the members of the commission, to identify the principal points that should be included in the document. The third phase resulted in the elaboration of the first draft of the paper. Finally, the draft was discussed and reviewed by all members of INGHE. No standardized methodologies have been used to reach the consensus. The draft was shared among the members of INGHE, all of whom were able to read and analyse it independently prior to the group meeting. Consensus was reached after discussions in the plenary session. In March 2015 the final paper was disseminated in Italy [28].
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Medical education in cyberspace: Critical considerations in the health system

Medical education in cyberspace: Critical considerations in the health system

Obviously the governments have the highest political level in all countries that influence the future orientation on cyber-based learning systems. In recent years, some of the core government plans of these issues have been around to create intelligent infrastructures, to enhance collaboration and to work on readiness indices (45, 46). Despite overwhelming evidence of policy initiatives in cyber issues, since 1980, there have still been some gaps between policy-makers objectives and what actually happens at the point of policy implementation (47), due to potential conflict of interest among leaders and stakeholders, which had a significant impact on implementation of formulated policies. Conflict management can improve enforcement of rules, quality of decisions, financial approach and competitive advantage on a national and international scale. Since the medical education on cyberspace consists of three structures including cyber system, learning system and medical system, different metaphors in these areas lead to important challenges such as overlapping powers and authority, interference of policies, practices and tasks, lack of cooperation among stakeholders and lack of accountability at this level. One important criticism at this level can be stewardship dysfunctions. Rasche suggested network governance model as the effective solution for stewardship of complex issues in complex systems (48). However, the best practice for developing networked stewardship in health system (especially on cyberspace) has yet to be fully understood. Researchers should attempt to bridge this gap by investigating the upstream process in health systems. We believe that integrated stewardship (49) is one of the key factors in governance level, which can have influences in the establishment and development of medical education in cyberspace. The optimized resource allocation and supported budgetary system are also critical mechanism for development of medical education on cyberspace. In addition, recognition and use of main index to supervise and assess this level is necessary; the indices mentioned above can be good governance indicators, finance metrics and collaboration indicators. Finally, we suggest “Integrated Governance” and “Stewardship Approach” as the most important mechanism for the development of medical education on cyberspace. 3- Ministry level in medical education on cyberspace:
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Reorientation of Medical Education for Primary Health Care

Reorientation of Medical Education for Primary Health Care

Reorientation of Medical Education for Primary Health Care Med J Malaysia Vol 42 No 1 March 1987 EDITORIAL REORIENTATION OF MEDICAL EDUCATION FOR PRIMARY HEALTH CARE INTRODUCTION There is universal co[.]

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Developing a household survey tool for health equity: A practical guide in Islamic Republic of Iran

Developing a household survey tool for health equity: A practical guide in Islamic Republic of Iran

Since the 1979 revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran has made many attempts to reduce inequity and deprivation in dif- ferent domains including health. Providing Primary Health care to all people based on the constitutional law, I.R. of Iran's vision for 2020 (13) and the five-year socio- economic and cultural development plans (14) are some examples to display the ef- forts of the Iranian government to reduce inequalities. In the recent years, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoH & ME) has developed the Health Equity Monitoring System to help formu- late evidence based actions and plans (15), mostly based on the experience obtained from the urban HEART project in Iran in 2008 (16,17). The Health Equity Monitor- ing System in Iran includes 52 indicators in different domains such as health, environ- ment and infrastructure, economic devel- opment, social and human development which had been approved by the cabinet of ministers in 2011. Indicators, their varia- bles as inequity disaggregators and means of data collection were finalized by work- ing groups comprising experts outside and inside the Health system using the Consen- sus-Oriented Decision-Making (COMD) method (15). In this system, working groups identified 38 of 52 indicators col- lected from the Iranian Routine Information Systems, and the data of the rest of the in- dicators were gathered through conducting a survey. Table 1 indicates all the 14 health equity indicators generating from the sur- vey (Table 1). This study aimed to intro- duce a survey tool on the above mentioned indicators, including the study design, sam- pling method, reliable questionnaires and
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Advancing Medical Education Training in Adolescent Health

Advancing Medical Education Training in Adolescent Health

During the rotation, residents receive at least some training on a wide variety of adolescent health issues. Yet, in our survey, a third or more of adolescent medi- cine faculty responsible for the one-month rotation re- port that, in terms of clinical practice and application, exposure to key adolescent medicine topics is limited. Faculty report that areas such as anticipatory guidance, health promotion, disease prevention, chronic illness, mental health and behavioral health are only somewhat covered or not covered at all.

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Prevalence of drug use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and measure of socioeconomic-related inequalities of drug use among Iranian people: findings from a national survey

Prevalence of drug use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and measure of socioeconomic-related inequalities of drug use among Iranian people: findings from a national survey

The PERSIAN Cohort is the largest and most im- portant cohort among 18 distinct areas of Iran. This study launched nationwide by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) in Iran to provide information about Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) among Iranian adults (aged 35 and above). The PERSIAN Cohort Study is a prospective study with purpose to include 180,000 Iranians aged 35– 70 years from 18 geographically distinct areas of Iran. While the MoHME oversees the project, re- searchers at local Iranian medical universities carry it out. The cohort has started in 2014 and collects information between 5000 and 10,000 people from all Iranian ethnic groups in each district area. The financial support for the study is provided by the MoHME, and the deputy of research in the medical universities in the 18 distinct areas of Iran. The protocol of PERSIAN Cohort study (including: objec- tives, outcomes of interest, design of study, site se- lection, participant selection, sample size, sampling methods, inclusion criteria, and quality assurance and quality control was published in American Jour- nal of Epidemiology [18] and Archives of Iranian Medicine [19]. The Iranian people comprise individ- uals of many ethnicities. Appendix 1 shows the char- acteristics of cohort sites in Iran.
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Incorporating one health into medical education

Incorporating one health into medical education

One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools. In the research setting, One Health opens up new avenues to understand, detect, and prevent emerging infectious diseases, and also to conduct translational studies across species. In the clinical setting, One Health provides practical ways to incorporate environmental and animal contact considerations into patient care. This paper reviews clinical and research aspects of the One Health approach through an illustrative case updating the biopsychosocial model and proposes a basic set of One Health competencies for training and education of human health care providers.
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Transgender health care: improving medical students' and residents' training and awareness

Transgender health care: improving medical students' and residents' training and awareness

Transgender populations experience health inequities in part due to the exclusion of transgender-specific health needs from medical school and residency curricula. Currently, transgen- der medical education is largely composed of one-time atti- tude and awareness-based interventions that show significant short-term improvements but suffer methodologically from the lack of long-term assessment, the lack of emphasis on clinical skills, or the evaluation of patient outcomes. Consen- sus in the existing literature supports educational efforts to shift toward pedagogical interventions that are longitudinally integrated and clinical skills based. We believe the integra- tion of transgender health topics into their related medical domains, and increased emphasis on clinical skills will create a curriculum that addresses attitudes, knowledge, and skills and will ultimately alleviate the dire health inequities faced by the transgender community.
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Global health education in U.S. Medical schools

Global health education in U.S. Medical schools

D. In 2007, Houpt et al recommended the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) establish a thirty hour standard curriculum in global health as a necessary minimum for future physicians to be competent to treat changing populations [1]. This group ’ s definition of Global Health was “ the global commonality of health issues that transcend national borders, class, race, ethnicity, income, or culture. ” Some examples of such global health issues include poverty, limited access to health care, status of women, environmental degradation, political instability, war, genetic susceptibility, and the experience of industrialization which can lead to chronic health issues. Thus, Houpt et al concluded that the distinction between domestic and international health problems is no longer useful.
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<p>Massive open online courses (MOOCs) for continuing medical education &ndash; why and how?</p>

<p>Massive open online courses (MOOCs) for continuing medical education &ndash; why and how?</p>

Abstract: Continuing medical education (CME) is meant to not only improve clinicians ’ knowledge and skills but also lead to better patient care processes and outcomes. The delivery of CME should be able to encourage the health providers to accept new evidence- based practices, and discard or discontinue less effective care. However, continuing use of expensive yet least effective and inappropriate tools and techniques predominates for CME delivery. Hence, the evidence shows a disconnect between evidence-based recommendations and real-world practice – borne out by less than optimal patient outcomes or treatment targets not being met especially in low- to middle-income countries. There is an ethical and professional obligation on CME-providers and decision-makers to safeguard that CME interventions are appraised not only for their quality and effectiveness but also for cost- effectiveness. The process of learning needs to be engaging, convenient, user-friendly and of minimal cost, especially where it is most needed. Today ’ s technology permits these char- acteristics to be integrated, along with further enhancement of the engagement process. We review the literature on the mechanics of CME learning that utilizes today ’ s technology tools and propose a framework for more engaging, ef fi cient and cost-effective approach that implements massive open online courses for CME, adapted for the twenty- fi rst century. Keywords: continuing medical education, health care, learning management system, massive open online courses, non-communicable diseases
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Health system's response for physician workforce shortages and the upcoming crisis in Ethiopia: a grounded theory research

Health system's response for physician workforce shortages and the upcoming crisis in Ethiopia: a grounded theory research

The demand for physician workforce and gaining political acceptance were cited as main reasons which motivated the government to scale up the medical education rapidly. However, the rapid expansion was beyond the capacity of medical schools ’ human resources, patient flow, and size of teaching hospitals. As a result, there were potential adverse consequences in clinical service delivery, and teaching learning process at the present: “ the number should consider the available resources such as number of classrooms, patient flows, medical teachers, library …”. In the future, it was anticipated to end in surplus in physician workforce, unemployment, inefficiency, and pressure on the system: “… flooding may seem a good strategy superficially but it is a dangerous strategy. It may put the country into crisis, even if good physicians are being produced; they may not get a place where to go …”.
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2362.pdf

2362.pdf

What happens to medical students who complete an honours year in public health and epidemiology. Medical Education 2001; 35: 134-136[r]

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Development of a neonatal curriculum for medical students in Zimbabwe – a cross sectional survey

Development of a neonatal curriculum for medical students in Zimbabwe – a cross sectional survey

There has been a call for medical training reform within the college so that graduands are better aligned with the health needs of the country. The award of a Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) Grant to UZCHS by the US government in 2010 was pivotal in driving new medical education initiatives at the college. Partner institutions on this grant included University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCSOM), University of Colorado Denver Evaluation Center (UCDEC), and Stanford University. With collaboration from the US in- stitutions, the Novel Education Clinical Trainees and Re- searchers (NECTAR) program was launched at UZCHS [10]. The NECTAR program sought to improve faculty through medical education courses, research support, and strengthening of both undergraduate and postgradu- ate courses. A major objective of NECTAR was curricu- lar review and development. This work was formally commenced in 2013. Part of the preparatory activities for this work involved identifying and adopting desired competencies for college graduands. These are: 1) med- ical expert 2) ethical professional 3) scholar 4) commu- nicator/relationship builder 5) community health advocate 6) educator and 7) manager/leader. These com- petencies were based on the CanMeds framework [11]. Similar initiatives have been adopted elsewhere [12, 13].
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Pediatric Education and Managed Care: A Literature Review

Pediatric Education and Managed Care: A Literature Review

ABSTRACT. Managed care is becoming the dominant form of health care delivery and financing in the United States, necessitating changes in pediatric education. This transition is redefining the questions of what needs to be taught, who should be teaching it, where it should be taught, and how to pay for this education. We performed a literature review and examined reports from policy and professional groups to seek answers to these questions. We have identified curricular, administrative, and finan- cial challenges to pediatric education in managed care. Although road maps for innovation have been described, there is a deficiency of research and information in key areas of pediatric education in the managed care environ- ment. Pediatrics 1998;101:739 –745; managed care, gradu- ate medical education, pediatric residency, health care fi- nancing, pediatric training.
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Assessment of health professional education across five Asian countries—a protocol

Assessment of health professional education across five Asian countries—a protocol

There are a number of innovations on health profes- sional education interventions, such as recruitment of secondary school students from rural areas for nursing and medical education in Bangladesh, laddering ap- proach of production of nurses [such as 2 years training, post in rural hospitals for a few years, and continued training for years 3 and 4 for a professional nurses, up- grading training of medical assistants for a physician], rural retention strategies such as mandatory government bonding for health professional graduates, additional financial and non-financial incentives for health workers in rural areas, different innovative training such as inter- professional education, exposure of nurse and medical students to rural communities, problem-based learning and continued professional development. An assessment of these interventions, what works and what does not work, and documenting good practices are essential to support scaling up effective interventions in a country. This study provides a platform for an assessment of these innovations by capturing individual country expe- riences and presenting them to the other countries in the network for cross-learning.
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Decentralised training for medical students: a scoping review

Decentralised training for medical students: a scoping review

Finally, there is, in fact, a golden thread seamlessly linking all of the themes, which is that of relationships between students and their supervisors, students and their patients, students and the community, the commu- nity and the facility, the community and the institution and so forth. These relationships include both the crit- ical formal relationships amongst stakeholders, which are essential to the concept of symbiosis as a basis for quality medical education [126], and the deep interper- sonal relationships arising from ongoing interactions amongst role-players in a decentralised clinical environ- ment; the latter are more serendipitous and difficult to define and thus more challenging to achieve, yet essen- tial in reaching the expected outcomes of decentralised student training. It is particularly important to foster such relationships in the complicated health systems that characterise many LMICs, where competing public and private systems may fail to deliver adequate health services to underserved populations in both urban and
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Developmental and Psychometric Properties of a Belief-based  Reproductive Health Behavior Questionnaire for Female  Adolescents

Developmental and Psychometric Properties of a Belief-based Reproductive Health Behavior Questionnaire for Female Adolescents

This study was prospected to develop and vali- date an instrument for assessing the adolescents’ reproductive health and behaviors. In this study, the constructs of the modified theory of TPB were evaluated using the direct method (24). EFA was conducted for TBP structures and it led to removal of 10 items from the original ques- tionnaire. The final form with 104 items was clas- sified into six subscales. Having both exploratory and factor analyses applied, the results indicated a good structure for this new instrument. Explora- tory factor analysis indicated that the six-factor structure of the questionnaire could jointly account for 67% of the cumulative observed variance. Moreover, according to the results of CFA, the questionnaire with 4 given domains is a good in- strument for measuring the reproductive health among adolescents in Iran.
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Socioeconomic inequality in oral health behavior in Iranian children and adolescents by the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method: the CASPIAN- IV study

Socioeconomic inequality in oral health behavior in Iranian children and adolescents by the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method: the CASPIAN- IV study

There are limited evidence-based studies on measuring oral health inequalities. Most studies have only evaluated the association between lower SES and caries, without assessing the reason for such associations [7–11]. There- fore, it is very little known about specific oral hygiene behaviors such as tooth brushing in families with differ- ent SES [12, 13]. According to a national study, Iran has equal or higher oral health habits compared with other countries specially in tooth brushing; the frequency was found more in girls than boys and more in urban areas than rural areas [14].
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