In the Pacific atoll countries of Kiribati, Marshall Islands and Tuvalu there is a unique convergence of risk factors for TB that is coupled with the already devastating effects of climatechange in these highly vulnerable communities. Therefore, we argue that, in the Pacific atoll context at least, TB must be considered a climate-sensitive disease. Efforts towards addressing the causes and effects of climatechange in these small, poor, overcrowded, low-lying atoll countries must take into account the broad range of healthimpacts that climatechange entails, and the health sector should provide leadership in addressing these impacts via a ‘Health in all policies’ approach to adaptation and mitigation. In addition, efforts towards improved TB control should incorporate wider contextual issues such as social, economic and environmental factors driving disease transmission, and consider the unprecedented pressures that climatechange places on TB and other, hitherto overlooked, climate-sensitive diseases. Policies and interventions to improve the socioeconomic status of communities (including poverty reduction strategies and provision of adequate housing); increasing access to, and quality of, health services (particularly those related to TB, NCDs and reproductive health); and addressing the drivers and impacts of climatechange, will benefit population health, and have the potential to reduce TB transmission risk in the face of climatechange in Pacific atolls and other vulnerable communities elsewhere in the developing world.
The broad range of likely healthimpacts of climatechange in NSW and Australia means that a variety of methods and strategies should be applied for mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation and adaptation can have direct co-benefits for the health of individuals and communities and should be encouraged. Early warning systems have a range of appli- cations that can be used to assist communities to prepare for adverse conditions and the associated threats to health. Improving response teams and health systems (such as Table 1. Examples of the main co-benefits of mitigation and adaptive strategies as a response to climatechange
In Vanuatu, as far back as 1999, in the country’s Initial National Communication (INC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on ClimateChange (UNFCCC) consideration was given to the potential for climatechange-attributable healthimpacts to occur (INC, 1999). More recently, the healthimpacts of climatechange in Vanuatu were outlined in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, 2007). In 2010, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health (MoH) commenced a twelve-month project, supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) South Pacific, aimed at improving the understanding of the relationship between climate and health in Vanuatu and to develop adaptation strategies related to climatechange and health. This research was undertaken to identify potential risks to health, to evaluate the risks to determine their relative priority and then to develop potential adaptation strategies to minimise the impacts on ni-Vanuatu communities.
This article examines how social and health inequalities shape the healthimpacts of climatechange in the UK, and what the implications are for climatechange adaptation and health care provision. The evidence generated by the other articles of the special issue were interpreted using social justice reasoning in light of additional literature, to draw out the key implications of health and social inequalities for health outcomes of climatechange. Exposure to heat and cold, air pollution, pollen, food safety risks, disruptions to access to and functioning of health services and facilities, emerging infections and flooding are examined as the key impacts of climatechange influencing health outcomes. Age, pre-existing medical conditions and social deprivation are found to be the key (but not only) factors that make people vulnerable and to experience more adverse health outcomes related to climatechangeimpacts. In the future, climatechange, aging population and decreasing public spending on health and social care may aggravate inequality of health outcomes related to climatechange. Health education and public preparedness measures that take into account differential exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of different groups help address health and social inequalities to do with climatechange. Adaptation strategies based on individual preparedness, action and behaviour change may aggravate health and social inequalities due to their selective uptake, unless they are coupled with broad public information campaigns and financial support for undertaking adaptive measures.
Climatechange and health should not be viewed as a vertical programme, but rather one that expands across the entire health system and beyond. The real and po- tential negative impacts of taking a vertical approach to health system strengthening in low- and middle-income countries are well established. These include difficulties coordinating resources and activities, duplication of activ- ities, loss of staff to vertical programs due to better pay, and inequalities created by focusing on vertical programs at the detriment of other important services [32-35]. More than anywhere in the world, Pacific health systems cannot afford the luxury of vertical programs; the structurally lim- ited human resources, largely resulting from tiny popula- tions, within these systems are simply unable to meet the demand of such approaches. Integration of climatechange and health across the health system is an issue that re- quires careful thought and extensive consultation.
The climatechange and health vulnerability and adaptation assessment in Kiribati combined quantitative elements—utilizing disease surveillance and climate data where possible, to give an indication of climate and climate-sensitive disease trends—with a strong qualitative element, largely carried out via engagement with stakeholders from the MHMS, other government agencies, community representatives and the Kiribati Association of NGOs (KANGO). This mixed-methods approach utilized the key features from published guidelines such as those described in the Section Methodology above, in synergy with a pragmatic, “no regrets” approach—defined as that which “increases the capacity of society to manage climate risks with a view to reduce the vulnerability of households and maintain or increase the opportunities for sustainable development” —which has been recommended for smaller and/or developing countries and weaker health systems . This process also incorporated elements from the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) literature, which has been adapted to the climatechange and health context [19,65,66], particularly with respect to the health adaptation opportunities in non-health sectors (e.g., agriculture, energy, transport and infrastructure) and across the governance spectrum (e.g., from regulation and legislation to ecosystem intervention, research, technological innovation and infrastructure development).
Results: The majority (61%) were willing to pay to reduce future increases in climatechange-related deaths in Britain. Those regarding climatechangeimpacts as not at all serious were less willing to pay than those regarding the impacts as extremely serious (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.09). Income was also related to WtP; the highest-income group were twice as likely to be willing to pay as the lowest-income group (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.40-3.29). Conclusions: There was public support for policies to address future healthimpacts of climatechange; the level of support varied with people ' s perceptions of the seriousness of these impacts and their financial circumstances. Our study adds to evidence that health, including the health of future populations, is an outcome that people value and suggests that framing climatechange around such values may help to accelerate action.
These are select examples of research (and knowledge gaps) on the healthimpacts of climatechange in children. Pediatricians are positioned to reframe this urgent debate from one of political interests to one of monumental global health importance. We must advocate for child-specific research on climatechange and health as well as incorporation of child-specific needs in disaster preparedness plans and climate adaptation policies. 39
Fig. 2. The above cartogram shows two different maps revealing the growing ethical crisis of climatechange. The top map of the globe shows conflations and deflations of geographical areas of the globe according to carbon dioxide emissions. For example, countries like the US are much larger than usual, and some countries like Africa are much smaller than their normal geographical size—revealing the discrepancy of varying carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions globally. The lower map shows mortality in populations worldwide due to four climate-sensitive health effects (malaria, malnutrition, diarrhea, and inland flood-related fatalities). As shown, some nations that are least responsible for CO 2 emissions are not experiencing some of the greatest healthimpacts of climatechange. Countries like Africa are disproportionally impacted by climate-sensitive health effects, whereas countries like the US have much less of an impact, hence the shrunken geographic size of the US in the lower geographical map.
Results: Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio- temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climatechange, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo-referenced multi-scale indicators that were identified by Canadian specialists and end-users as relevant for the surveillance of the public healthimpacts of climatechange. This system was developed in a multidisciplinary context involving researchers, policy makers and practitioners, using BI and web-mapping concepts (more particularly SOLAP technologies), while exploring new solutions for frequent automatic updating of data and for providing contextual warnings for users (to minimize the risk of data misinterpretation). According to the project participants, the final system succeeds in facilitating surveillance activities in a way not achievable with today's GIS. Regarding the experiments on
There is a broad scientific consensus that the global climate is warming, the process is accelerating, and that human activities are very likely ( ⬎ 90% probability) the main cause. This warming will have effects on ecosystems and human health, many of them adverse. Children will experience both the direct and indirect effects of climatechange. Actions taken by individuals, communities, businesses, and governments will affect the magnitude and rate of global climatechange and resultant healthimpacts. This technical report reviews the nature of the global problem and anticipated health effects on children and supports the recommen- dations in the accompanying policy statement on climatechange and children’s health.
Health is one of the GoK’s priority sectors and has been included in the coun- try’s comprehensive strategic policy “Kazakhstan 2030”. Th e policy has identifi ed seven priorities for the country’s development (UN 2010): (1) national security, (2) domestic stability and social cohesion, (3) economic growth, (4) health, education and welfare for the citizens of Kazakhstan, (5) energy resources, (6) infrastructure, transport and communications and (7) a professional state. As a consequence, in order to improve the health-care system, the GoK initiated a 5-year long (2005 to 2010) health-care reform and development program, which is currently under implementation. Th e key objectives outlined in the program are (GoK 2005): the creation of an effi cient system of medical care with due consideration of principles of joint responsibility for health protection between an individual and the State with emphasis on primary medical care, the adoption of international principles of medical-care administration, the improvement of maternal and child health care, the improvement of the medical and demographic situation, the decrease of the social-disease morbidity rate and the improvement of the social status and image of medical doctors and technicians. Admittedly, the realization of the objectives still largely remains elusive.
An example of a dataset which could be used to study glo- bal change and HABs in the future is the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey which provides near unbroken monthly coverage of transects across the north- east Atlantic and North Sea from 1946. Most of the region sampled by the CPR is further than 1 km offshore in open ocean waters, and is therefore relatively unaffected by anthropogenic eutrophication that is generally concen- trated along the coast . Even though most HA species are too small to be captured by the CPR, changes in the relative abundances of functional groups of phytoplank- ton (i.e., diatoms and dinoflagellates), and of some larger HA species, such as Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp., can be assessed. Using this long-term dataset, the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the spatial distri- bution of these larger HA species was determined inde- pendently from the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication . Distinguishing these effects lends credence to predictions of climatechangeimpacts on HABs based on their response to warm phases of large- scale patterns of climate variability. Monitoring programs with comparable spatial and temporal resolution to the CPR, but specifically targeting smaller size fractions of plankton containing HA species, will be required to eluci- date climatechangeimpacts in the future.
We thank Dr. Yuanyuan Fang, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution For Science, Stanford University for her advice in key areas. All authors acknowledge the UK research councils Living with Environmental Change (LWEC) program for funding and Dr. Sari Kovats, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and LWEC fellow, for guidance and advice. RMD and MRH also acknowledge the cross UK-research councils Environmental Exposure and Human Health Initia- tive grant NE/I008063/1. FMO ’ C is also supported by the Joint UK DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101).
CLIMATEchange is the biggest global threat of the 21st century and is increasingly recognized as a public health priority . Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world which is highly vulnerable to Natural Disasters because of its Geographical location, Flat and low-lying landscape, Population density, Illiteracy, Poverty, Lack of Institutional setup etc. The objective of this paper is the actual situation and condition about the real impact of climatechange and vulnerability to climatechange and its negative impacts in public health, environmental resources, such as, water and air quality, temperature increase, poverty, natural disasters and other subjects, especially in Bangladesh. Human induced climatechange threatens ecosystems and human health . Climatechange will have its greatest and most impact on those poorest in the world and it will deepen inequities and the effects of global warming will shape the future of health among all
589 Southerly-distributed species were those most likely to have benefited from climatechange, 590 along with woodland, unimproved grassland and pest species. Climatechange is therefore 591 already having a major impact on the abundance of some butterfly and moth species, with 592 potential implications for their conservation. More broadly, it is also leading to a general 593 decline in national moth populations, as previously documented for a single species by 594 Conrad et al. (2002), and by Martay et al. (2017). Given the importance of these species as 595 pollinators, as keystone species within ecosystems and food webs, and in some cases, as 596 agricultural and horticultural pests, these declines have wide implications for ecosystem 597 health and functioning, for natural capital and if they lead to impacts on food production, for 598 human health and wellbeing (Fox et al., 2010). Given projected trends for warmer, wetter 599 winters in the UK due to future climatechange (Jenkins et al., 2009), these trends are likely 600 to be exacerbated in the future.
The afternoon and the following day are filled with more panels: on health, tourism, climate justice, infrastructure adaptation, and solar energy to name a few. Since many of my students choose careers in health care, I pay close attention to the physicians presenting their latest findings. Asthma rates and allergies have risen due to an increase in pollen and a longer allergy season, they say. Patients in poorer communities bear the brunt; one in nine African Americans has asthma, one of the panelists explains. People from lower socio-economic background suffer especially because many cannot pay for air conditioning or other preventive measures. Vector- borne diseases such as Zika, dengue fever, and West Nile, are on the rise, too, increasing anxiety among women who hope to become pregnant or are already expecting because Zika, for
prevalence of extreme events combined with an acceleration of warming, glacier retreat and sea-level rise, regional changes in mean precipitation, and increased risks of land degradation and crop loss from agricultural pests. There should be a determined effort from developed and developing countries to make industrialization environment friendly by reducing greenhouse gases pumping into the atmosphere. In the same fashion, awareness programmes on climatechange and its effects on various sectors viz., agriculture, health, infrastructure, water, forestry, fisheries, land and ocean biodiversity and sea level and the role played by human interventions in climatechange need to be taken up on priority basis. In the process, lifestyles of people should also be changed so as not to harm earth atmosphere continuum by pumping greenhouse gases. Reference:
great role in the health of flora and fauna of any region. Any change in the climate can cause enormous loss of biodiversity affecting both individual species and their ecosystems in turn affecting our economic growth and well being. It is very difficult to estimate the overall result of ClimateChange on animal and plant Kingdom. If the present scenario continues to exist, it can cause devastating effects on the native habitats of many plants and animals; and may lead to their extinction. Mass extinctions of the earth's flora and fauna have occurred before also, but it happened through natural process. However, if there will be extinctions of flora and fauna it will be only due to adverse impact of human activities. The exponential growth of human population around the world along with the increasing pollution and loss of habitat is setting the conditions for mass extinctions large