Despite its high prevalence, not much effort has been made to protect the at-risk population group. This study identified HBV as a neglected biohazard of public health importance, especially in developing countries where infectious disease control are poor. It highlighted the strategies of early detection, control and prevention of HBV in endemic regions such as Nigeria using healthprotective tools (HPTs). This was a review study of 24 references majorly related to HBV in Nigeria and the population at risk. Two keywords: (HBV/HPTs in Nigeria) were used as search strategy to identify answers to research questions. Pub Med, Medline, Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, African Journal Online (AJOL) were the search database reviewed. A critical appraisal and integration of current evidences in identifying key issue worsening the HBV burden in Nigeria were captured. It further elaborated on the application of HPTs as strategies for preparedness and response plans to reduce the burden in the region. The recommendations from this study will go a long way in proffering replicable solutions on how to reduce the burden of HBV in developing countries including Nigeria.
The most important finding of the present study is that action planning significantly predicted healthprotective behavior (i.e. fruit consumption) as well as the restriction of health risk behavior (i.e., high-caloric snack consump- tion). Our results showed a better model fit when action plans were added to the model with only attitudes, social influences, self-efficacy and intentions, indicating that the prediction of both types of behavior significantly bene- fited from the incorporation of action planning, thereby conforming our first hypothesis. When viewed in the light of the literature on other health behaviors, such as physi- cal activity [20-22,31], sun protection behavior [34,59], and (vitamin) pill intake [60,61], our findings with regard to fruit consumption support the notion that action plan- ning may be an important strategy to promote health pro- tective behaviors and suggest that current social-cognitive models on healthprotective behavior should be extended by incorporating volitional cognitions that facilitate the transition from motivation to behavior. Whereas most previous observational studies that found a behavioral influence of action planning failed to incorporate a meas- ure of past behavior in the analyses, the present study accounted for the influence of past behavior in the extended analyses. Even after the inclusion of past behav- ior, which is generally the most powerful predictor of future behavior, action planning remained significant, which demonstrates that action planning significantly predicted behavior change. These findings corroborate results from several intervention studies, in which the for- mation of action plans has been shown to increase the performance of health behaviors [e.g., [20,25]]. The inter- play between action planning and past behavior was out- side the scope of the present study. Thorough examination of this relationship would, however, be an interesting direction for future research, as this may yield important information on theoretical modeling and prac- tical application of planning strategies in individuals with high and low levels of past behavior.
II. S EARCHING FOR C AUSE L AWYERING
Beyond demonstrating the many ways in which the LHPA employed law and legal process, this Article make an even broader claim – one that is perhaps quite controversial. It argues that the women of the Ladies HealthProtective Association, all without formal legal training, essentially functioned as cause lawyers. This claim is important for a number of reasons. First, there is essentially no history of cause lawyering or its origins. Thus this Article begins to formulate the claim that cause lawyering was not a new invention of the twentieth century but rather was already coming to fruition in the late nineteenth century city. Second, women and structures of gender profoundly influenced the development of cause lawyering. Third, by positing that women without formal legal training participated in cause lawyering, this Article destabilizes our understanding of what constituted the practice of law and also requires us to re-think who we imagine lawyers to be and what we imagine the process of lawyering to entail. Indeed in the late nineteenth century, before bar associations had fully monopolized the profession of law, and when many lawyers had not attended law school but rather clerked in law offices, the boundary of what constituted the practice of law were extraordinarily malleable. 12 At times, women,
Lycopene: It is a phytochemical that gives tomatoes their red color and appears to offer potential health benefits. Lycopene is a carotenoid. It is a linear hydrocarbon containing 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds; this particular chemical structure gives the molecule its physico-chemical properties. One of the most important properties is its Lipophilicity, for Lycopene is completely insoluble in water. Because of this chromophore, Lycopene possesses its characteristics red color and a specific UV-visible spectrum. Another consequence is the instability of the molecule under various conditions. Thus, when isolated, Lycopene is very sensitive to oxygen and light. The main subsequent degradation products are cis- isomers and cleavage compounds. Lycopene is more stable when present in the food matrix, in which it is somehow protected by other bio molecules. The antioxidant property of Lycopene refers to (l) its ability to quench singlet oxygen, even more efficiently than the other carotenoids and (2) its ability to quench free radicals. Tomato Lycopene is the most potent free radical scavenger of all the carotenoids. It is four times powerful than alpha- carotene regarding its anti carcinogenic effect on endometrial cells. It is known to reduce prostate cancer risk significantly.
transportation, and plain lifestyle (Kraybill, Johnson-Weiner, & Holt, 2013). [You need a clear transition between discussing the Amish and discussing depression. Please insert that here.]
According to Kessler, Petukhova, Sampson, Zaslavsky, and Wittchen (2012), 16.6% of Americans will experience a major depressive disorder during their lifetime. Over 600 million adults currently suffer from either depression or anxiety worldwide (World Health Organization, 2017). There are several studies that show disorders such as depression and anxiety are significantly lower in the Amish population (Furman & Bender, 2003; Lambert, 2006, Raheja et al., 2013, Weber, Cates, & Carey, 2010). In this study, I focused on the phenomena that may promote reduced mental illness among the Amish. I examined the experiences that may be protective in relation to mental illness, those that may result in a lower prevalence of mental illness or result in the reduction of reports of mental illness. Significant social implications resulted from this study that could positively affect the mental health of non-Amish in the United States.
Teachers’ self-efficacy: a protective resource?
Albert Bandura (1997) mentions that self-efficacy beliefs are “beliefs in one’s abilities to organize and implement the required courses of action that will produce certain achievements or outcomes” (p.3). Self-efficacy is considered a cognitive mediator of the effect the medium has on human behavior. Each person has their own belief system, made up of the joint perception of specific skills for the proper handle of various actions. Therefore, a person’s efficacy beliefs are diverse and vary according to the specific activity he/she carries out (Bandura, 1997, 1999). These beliefs play an essential role in teachers’ thinking. It is known that educators must enjoy different knowledge and skills, but it is also essential that they feel able to teach and achieve good results with their students (De Luis, 2007). Through extensive research, it has been proved that teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs influence professional The Maslach model is a three-factorial one, based
Abstract: Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase healthprotective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes.
In a survey of 796 motorcyclists in NSW, de Rome et al (2002), found that one in ten riders did not wear gloves, 15% did not wear motorcycle designed boots and 57% did not wear motorcycle pants. Over half reported normally wearing jeans when they rode (54%). The situation was markedly worse for pillions – 40% did not wear motorcycle designed boots and 64% did not protect their legs. Almost two thirds (64%) of the de Rome et al sample were members of motorcycle clubs indicating a high level of involvement in the sport and possibly a higher level of awareness of the value of protective clothing. Motorcycle club members were more likely to wear motorcycle boots (89% vs 75%) and motorcycle pants (52% vs 36%) than were non- club members. However if one can assume that club members might be expected to be more aware of the value of protective clothing, it is disappointing that almost half still normally wear jeans.
Some limitations should be mentioned. First of all, the use of categorical IQ measures reduced the statistical power of our analyses. The categorical levels were included due to our focus on children with an IQ-level within the normal range and higher, and it should be mentioned that an analysis of the full range of FSIQ- scores did not change the results concerning the impact of IQ on mental health problems. Secondly, the IQ-dis- tribution of the CI-group was skewed. Only 3 children had an IQ-level above the normal range (>115), com- pared to 12 children in the NCI-group. This skewness probably reflects what the case is for children with CI as a group: compared to their peers, they have a higher fre- quency of general and specific learning disabilities, which in turn is associated with lower mean IQ . Finally, although the protective effect of normal to high IQ was not more substantial in children with CI in the present study, it is still an important protective factor in relation to risk of mental health problems in this group of children. However, IQ only explained some of the association between CI and mental health. In future stu- dies we will include other factors considered important for the mental health of children with CI.
unmanageable. It appeared the participants viewed acculturation as a process, one they felt familiar with as time passed. However, participants who felt acculturated often had friends and family from similar ethnic backgrounds around them in the community. Those who did not have exposure to this felt less acculturated and lonely. Stodolska and Livengood (2006) demonstrated that selective acculturation might also occur when refugees accept some aspects of the host culture and reject others. An example is young Muslim women who choose to retain their traditional clothing, but still participate in western culture. The participants in the research were able to embrace the new culture and still accept parts of their own culture and this development can be attributed to them being amongst other people from similar/same ethnic groups. Berry’s (1995) four strategies of acculturation – integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalisation are valuable in understanding the participants in the research. Most participants depicted integration, an individual who retains strong ethnic identity while also identifying with the new society is considered to have an integrated identity. Successful acculturation has been defined in terms of mental and physical health, psychological satisfaction, high self-esteem, competent work performance and good grades in school (Leibkind, 2001). Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) suggests strong links between group identification and self-concept. People strive to achieve or maintain a positive social identity, thus boosting their self-esteem. This perspective suggests that a strong ethnic identity makes a positive contribution to psychological well-being and research provides support for this view; maintenance of a strong ethnic identity is generally related to psychological well-being among members of acculturating groups (Liebkind, 2001).
The statistics in China show that there were 43 deaths and 330 injuries of firefighters from 2000 to 2005 because of firefighting or rescue activities . As the most important protective equipment for firefighters, the thermal protective performance (TPP) of the firefighter’s protective clothing (FPC) directly affects firefighter’s personal safety and the efficiency of the rescue activities. It is known that 20% of the accidents of the workers in thermal protective clothing are caused by physical stress and 16% by flame . Therefore, high heat-resistance and flame- resistance are important to FPC.
The importance of community and culture in enhancing and expanding mental health are 2 key themes of all the articles in this review. All authors place emphasis on establishing and maintaining healthy relationships with family and community members, while simultaneously nurturing culturally specific relationships with the land, animals and plants, and developing cultural-based skills and activities (3,711,14,16,17,41,43,56). More specifi- cally, a sense of belonging to caring and supportive communities and families is crucial to making good decisions and to leading a healthy life (41,43,54). Physi- cally being in one’s home community emerged as a protective factor from one of the most recent articles in which Indigenous youth who were studying outside of their home community participated (8). These youth felt that they had to return home to feel better or heal from bad experiences while living away from their community (8). Although Elders interviewed in the same study described their experiences away from home as similar to the experiences described by the youth, the difference between the 2 generations was that Elders used their cultural identity to situate themselves in a larger shared Table VIII. Causal pathways identified for protective factors around one’s social environment including family, peer, and community relationships
well into account the effects of the tax on national income. If import sector producers are able to form lobbies, the self-interested government chooses the tax rate as if maximising the sum of tax revenues and import-sector producer surplus, thus trading off tax revenue and political contributions (see section 5 below). In either case, the government disregards domestic consumer surplus completely. A possible rationale for this assumption is that consumption of the excisable good is potentially associated with negative externalities or permanent negative effects on individuals’ health (Bonnet and Réquillart, 2013). As long as society (or a majority of voters) deems it worthy to discouraging (excessive) consumption of the excisable good, and provided the optimal Pigouvian tax cannot be computed exactly, the government will legitimately set its excise tax policy independently of its effects on consumer surplus. This assumption seems reasonable for goods such as alcohol, tobacco or soda drinks. It is also consistent with the view taken by policy-oriented economists (Acheson, 1977: 248; Bird and Wallace, 2010). 2
Hence, for individual in employment, unemployed or homemakers aged less or equal to 55 years old, having a social participation in addition to a paid job, to familial constraint and to search for employment is likely to lead to a poorer perceived health status. The obligation associated with multiple social roles in addition to time and energy constraint lead to role strain which seems to be detrimental to the self-assessed health status. Conversely, for individual retired, disabled or homemakers aged more than 55 years old, having a social participation increases the probability to be in the best health category. This population does not combine a paid job and have fewer familial constraints so that they do not have a multiple roles burden. They do not have to cope with many expectations and obligations like the “active” population. Thus for the defined “inactive” population, social participation may offers individuals personal enrichment or gratification, a connection to social group and social support and through these relationships the perceived health status of older or inactive persons is better.
The mounting procedure study employed the use of all consistent types of firefighter protective hoods, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) masks, firefighter helmets and earflaps. The hoods (listed here as Hood 3) were all new, unused two-layer, 100% meta-aramid, non-particulate hoods that were each tested one time to evaluate performance. This hood was chosen because meta-aramid based hoods are widely used in the fire service due to their protective performance abilities and low cost, and it was also anticipated that this hood could become a control hood for future testing to maintain consistency. The masks used were Scott™ AV-3000 full-face mask respirators and the helmets were LION® American Legend™ helmets with LION® issued earflaps with the fittings and visors removed. The masks and helmets were used because they were the materials that were on hand or provided by a manufacturer. As a result of material limitations, cost restrictions and material durability, masks and helmets were replaced after three tests. However, the earflaps were replaced after each test since they were destroyed after each test. A total of 27 hoods, six masks, three helmets and nine earflaps were used and tested.
CIF value falls below the minimum import price. Romania and US notified the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body that they had reached a mutually satisfactory solution in 2001. - Hungary requested consultations in 2001, and later on that year even the establishment of a panel, accusing that a joint decree of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Industry and Forestry, Ministry of Family and Health and the National Consumer Protection Authority prohibited the import of wheat and wheat flour which does not meet certain quality requirements, while the domestic products were not subject of the same quality requirements. Hungary withdrew its request for the establishment of a panel in January 2002.
It has now become necessary to extend the investigation outside the borders of the subculture. Looking closely at these designations, both cultures (suburban and bug chasing) have built and defined their own intimate spaces that are, in the most fundamental ways, contrary to the other. My personal attraction to this subculture has direct antithetical correlations to my suburban upbringing (the use of the prefixes, "sub" and "counter" support the oxymoronic value of "antithetical" and "correlations"). As a result, Bugchaser: Protective Measures is extroverted and somewhat bellicose, demands reflection amongst a larger public, and points to the ways in which certain public authority or dogma fails.