Some recent developments in the methodology of riskassessment, in particular the application of genetic science to riskassessment, give cause for optimism that the credibility and usefulness of risk assessments will improve. Some of these developments are summarised in the short history of quantitative healthriskassessment presented in this editorial. There is no doubt that, in good hands, risk assessments can contribute to good decisions about risk. There is also no doubt that these decisions are increasingly the subject of close scrutiny by a scientifically literate and sceptical public. The articles in this issue of the Bulletin attest to the utility of the intelligent application of riskassessment to common problems in public health practice. First, Andrew Langley discusses some of the philosophical underpinnings of the methods of healthriskassessment. Geoff Richards gives a ‘worked’ example of the calculations made in a typical request for risk information. Community consultation is an integral part of all riskassessment, and Alison Rutherford describes an example of this often difficult negotiation. An intriguing application of riskassessment is found in Craig Dalton’s article on selenium contamination in Lake Macquarie in the Hunter region. Finally, Cris Hickey and Christine Cowie examine applications of riskassessment methods in the derivation of standards for
Apart from high blood pressure, other health risks were identified in the workers. More than half of all staff (64 %) were obese, and almost half (49 %) had above normal total cholesterol levels and 12 % had blood glu- cose indicative of diabetes. This indicates the burden of risk in this corporate worker group which otherwise would have gone undetected. In this relatively younger and working population, healthriskassessment in the work place provides a great opportunity to identify healthrisk and link persons at risk to health care. The adoption of regular educational sessions with appropri- ately selected health topics addressed by experts, depart- mental health education sessions, health and safety meetings, training of first aid personnel and peer
These results also revealed that among the water pollutants, hexavalent chro- mium was the most toxic genetic substance and fluoride and lead among the non-genetic toxicants whose harms to human were the most serious. Further- more, the mean fluoride concentration increased in the process of water alloca- tion from factory to pipe and the mean lead content changed little, which me- chanism is still no known and the implications of this should be further ex- plored. In addition, it showed from this study that the genetic toxic chemicals are greater risk comparing with the non-genetic substances, and the rather risk of children than adults. It should be pointed out that, of course, some uncer- tainty factors should be taken into account, such as only considering drinking water exposed way, representativeness on exposure parameters and characteris- tics because of different race and living habits between the eastern and western population, and so on   . Therefore, it is basic and key for healthriskassessment that sensitive detection techniques on water contaminants and data- base establishment on Chinese exposure parameters and characteristics.
There were only 10 of 56 kinds of detected organic substances that were controlled by the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard. Many pollutants still lack standard controls. The healthriskassessment results of detected organics were shown in Table 2. The results showed that: the carcinogenic risk of phthalates, PAHs, phenols and VOCs increased successively. The carcinogenic risk of the other three types of substances was about an order of magnitude higher in wet season than dry season, except for the phthalate lipid pollutants, which showed again that non-point source pollution was an important factor affecting water quality. The carcinogenic risk of various pollutants was within the acceptable risk range recommended by US EPA (10 -6 -10 -4 ). The types and concentrations of VOCs detected were not high, while the carcinogenic risk was the highest. Among 92 pollutants, chloroform and 1,2- dichloroethane were the two pollutants with the highest carcinogenic risk. Therefore, the control of VOCs needs special concern. 3) The range of non-carcinogenic risk was 8.84×10 -5 -4.63×10 -2 , which was far less than 1, within the safe range.
Of course, this study was referenced to the methods of pesticide residues in drinking water exposure to human healthriskassessment in USEPA, and we only considered the exposure way of water intake average, and other exposure ways, such as food intake, swimming, bathing, and skin exposure pathway, were out of consideration. The reference dose selection, ethnicity, living habits, and the mechanism of various pesticides are different because of the lack of exposure parameter standards in China. Therefore, there may be some bias in the results of this evaluation   . The comprehensive study of environmental ex- posures to pesticides, including food and water intake, skin and respiratory ex- posures, is needed in the further.
Abstract—The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of the intake of the substance to its reference dose, is usually used in the healthriskassessment (HRA) of a noncarcer substance. However, the values of HQ cannot inform any specific human health effect. Compared to HQ, using epidemiological studies in HRA can improve the defect. This study attempts to examine the potential of the use of epidemiological studies for HRA. Previous epidemiological studies help to construct the linear concentration-response relationships between air pollutants and associated diseases and two case studies are used to demonstrate this method.
Abstract: Objective We conducted a public healthriskassessment program for the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region for typhoon disaster, to provide scientific evidence for public health emergency response and preparedness. Methods The public healthriskassessment model for natural disaster is established through literature reviews, brainstorming, Delphi’s expert consultation and evaluation, based on theories of management, sociology and epidemiology. Basic data related to natural disasters and public health were extensively collected before the riskassessment. 34 public health experts from different professional fields identify the risk factors based on the basic data, conduct risk analysis according to the scoring criterion, calculate the risk values of risk factors according to the evaluation model, and then conduct the risk evaluation. Results 20 major public health risks which could seriously affect the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region for typhoon disaster, were identified and assessed. The results of risk analysis showed that trauma, typhoid or paratyphoid, cholera, infectious diarrhea and hepatitis A were the top five high risk factors. Conclusion This study is the first time to apply the riskassessment theory for public health emergency preparedness before the natural disaster. Try to establish assessment index system, and then calculate risk value by semi-quantitative assessment method. This study provides a technical support for early warning surveillance and dynamic riskassessment of public health events. It will eventually improve capacity of public health emergency preparedness and response on natural disaster.
Notes: The HRA program was applied as part of the worksite health management program in a Dutch company worksite in 2008. During this period 2149 employees were invited to complete the HRA. employees were divided by day and month of birth in an early and late invitation group. early invitees who participated in the HRA program were invited for follow-up measurements, six months after the initial program invitation. At that same time the late invitation group was invited for their initial participation. The primary outcome was the change in CVD risk between baseline and follow-up among 176 early participants. To account for time trends, baseline variables between early and late participants were compared. nonresponse bias was checked by comparing baseline values of 176 early participants who attended follow-up with 192 who did not. Dovepress effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a Web-based healthriskassessment
This study evaluated the healthrisk of VOCs in the operation room based on the assessment model of atmospheric environmental healthrisk. It was a valuable and meaningful study. However, due to the differences of economic development, operating room environment, medical level and human species in different countries, there would be some differences in human exposure and dose-response relationship. The selection of model and parameters were mainly from the USEPA. Because some factors were ignored, the selected criteria may had some impact on the calculation results. Therefore, there were some uncertainties and limitations in the calculation of risk value and healthriskassessment, which need further research and improvement.
Quantitative riskassessment entails updated values as well as quantitation of the consequences arising from the incidents. In safety management system, these conse- quences fall into four categories as shown in the Table 2: 1) Human casualty, 2) Dam- age to asset (including: property, cargos, installations, equipment and vessels), 3) Envi- ronmental damages (particularly marine environment) and 4) Damage to stakeholders (adverse impacts of the incidents to the operation of a port negatively affecting the in- terest of the stakeholders) . Prominent advantages of this categorization of incidents include giving a clear and understandable quantitative definition of incidents and risks in port areas and establishing the damages in quantitative and financial manner  .
In order to assess the risk of exposure of human health to the pesticide residues, first of all, the individual com- ponents of dietary intakes must be known , taking into account different age groups (e.g. infants, toddlers, school children, adults etc.), as it relates to body weight and nutritional prevention. The assessment of chronic (long-term) healthrisk of consumers connected with the consumption of apples from north-east Poland containing pesticide residues was conducted on the basis of avail- able epidemiological studies done for the British. There is a lack of full studies done for Polish consumers since these studies only take into account general population and av- erage consumption (50 percentile) , and therefore had no practical application in the current study. Accordingly, 13 GEMS/Food Consumption Cluster Diets were devel- oped based on FAO Food Balance Sheet data from 183 countries.
health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in the latex glove manufacturing industry. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2015;17:S3. 12. Huang D, Zhang J, Liu M. Application of a healthrisk
Once particles have entered the respiratory tract via the nose or mouth, the primary factors affecting particle pene- tration into the lower respiratory tract (i.e., beyond the lar- ynx) are airways size and structure, breathing pattern (flow and volume), route of breathing (nose vs. mouth), and in- haled particle size. With regard to particle size, we have considered particles whose deposition is governed by their inertial properties, i.e., ≥ 0.5 μm. Breathing patterns vary mainly by sex, age, and activity. Table 1 provides the breath- ing patterns, subject groups, and activity patterns from the ICRP  model that were used in our assessment.
The caries risk potential of an infant can be deter- mined by the use of the Caries RiskAssessment Tool. However, even the most judiciously designed and implemented caries riskassessment tool can fail to identify all infants at risk of early childhood dental caries. If an infant is assessed to be within 1 of the following risk groups, the care requirements would be significant and surgically invasive; therefore, these infants should be referred to a dentist as early as 6 months of age and no later than 6 months after the first tooth erupts or 12 months of age (whichever comes first) for establishment of a dental home: • Children with special health care needs • Children of mothers with a high caries rate • Children with demonstrable caries, plaque, demi-
The below Table 5 was shown the daily intake of metals (mg/kg.bw) by an adult person including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn were in the following amount 0.0037, 0.376, 0.0064, 0.0082, 4.4431, 0.0269, 0.3217. Again HealthRisk Index was also calculated in this study indicated that the HRI values of Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were greater than 1 except Ni and Cu. The HRI of each metal through consumption of vegetables decreased in the order of Cr>Cd >Pb>Fe>Zn>Ni>Cu. HRI values obtained in the research
We therefore could only characterize the public health impacts of congestion as the total impacts during peri- ods of congestion, rather than the marginal difference between these impacts and the impacts if the infrastruc- ture were expanded, a potentially significant limitation. Future studies should explore other emissions modeling frameworks that better capture the effects of congestion on emissions, linked to more detailed traffic flow mod- els. For example, micro-simulation techniques have been developed to evaluate the impact of improved traffic flow on vehicle emissions , capturing both the near- term decrease in emissions and the long-term effect of induced vehicle traffic. However, this model does not capture all pollutants or provide insight about the effects of changes in technology over time. The MOVES2010 emissions model  became available subsequent to our analysis, which provides some insight regarding start-and-stop traffic, and this modeling framework could be explored in future studies.
Abstract: - Heart attack is one of the leading causes of death in both developed and developing countries. The abnormal physical activity of the person which leads to heart attack determined using data mining techniques over data gathered from their smartphone`s sensors like accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetic sensors. One of the primary challenges is to detect lack of real time response to the risk because Physical activity monitoring datasets are quite large and involves heavy computations for classification. These tasks are often complex and computationally expensive which result in a demand for high performance computing platforms. Random Forests (RF) has been proven to be a competitive algorithm regarding both computation time and classification performance and it is a suitable candidate for parallelization; implement random forest algorithm using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) can increase the performance of classification. We present an alert management tool that supports cares in their task of validating alarms raised by the system using ontology techniques.
Elevated Nitrates concentrations are associated with methemoglobinemia and gastro-intestinal cancers and other health effects and the risk is higher when wa- ters are bacterially contaminated. Nitrates in Groundwater of artesian wells in six villages, located in an intensive agriculture land in Akkar plain, were ana- lyzed during one year. We found that Nitrates concentrations are below the drinking water standard (50 mg/L) in almost all locations but they are still high- er than concentration in natural unpolluted groundwater, which indicates that Nitrates sources are probably surface soil fertilizers, wastewaters and their ac- cumulation in groundwater is quite possible. Groundwater pollution normally appears long-delayed in wells, springs and streams resulting in a very slow process of recovery of aquifer’s quality once it is polluted, often during a few decades. Since groundwater moves slowly through the subsurface, the impact of anthropogenic activities may last for a relatively long time. From this point and regarding the deep depth of artesian wells (at least 100 m, see Table 1), the en- vironmental measures should be mainly focused on the prevention of the pollu- tion.
Researches in Spain showed that alu- minium content in reduced milk-based baby food stuffs was 0.24-0.69 mgr/l, and 0.93 mgr/l in soy-based ones . The obtained data were used as a ground to carry out an ad- ditional assessment of aluminium intake with those foodstuffs and the figure was 0.2-0.6 mgr/kg per week for children aged 3 months weighing 6.1 when milk-based products were used; it was equal to 0.75 mgr/kg per week in case of soy-based products. In cases of signif- icant intakes those values were 0.3-0.9 mgr per 1 kg of body weight per week and 1.1 mgr per 1 kg of body weight correspondingly . The obtained data revealing higher aluminium con- tent in children’s food products (dairy prod- ucts, biscuits, dry grain mixes, desserts, fish, fruit sauce, meat, macaroni, rusks, and vegeta- bles) were confirmed by a number of research- es [4, 8, 29].