Significant increase (F= 176.1E3, P< 0.001 ) in Succinate dehydrogenase activity of gill, was observed in zebrafishes when exposed to mpn (10 ppm: 15.106 ± 0.049 U/mg protein; 20 ppm: 16.661 ± 0.069 U/mg protein) when compared against control (13.206 ± 0.061 U/mg protein). Liver also had shown response to MPN by producing increased Succinate dehydrogenase activity. As the MPN concentration increased, liver succinate dehydrogenase activity also gets elevated (10 ppm: 16.106 ± 0.049 U/mg protein; 20 ppm: 21.764 ± 0.014 U/mg protein), whereas, controlled showed succinate dehydrogenase liver activity of 15.153 ± 0.038 which were found significantly lower (F=6.753E3, P<0.001) when compared to the MPN treated ones. MPN significantly elevates (F=1.78E4, P<0.001) muscle succinate dehydrogenase activity on zebrafishes when compared to the control fishes (12.193 ± 0.098 U/mg protein). Carbamazepine at 10 ppm and 20 ppm showed muscle AChe activity of 16.281 ± 0.011 U/mg protein and 15.266 ± 0.012 U/mg protein, respectively as shown in table-3.
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity The free radical-scavenging activities of all samples were being estimated in terms of hydrogen donating or radical scavenging ability. Radical scavenging ability was estimated using the stable radical DPPH. A solution of 0.1 mM DPPH (Himedia, Mumbai) was prepared in ethanol; 1.0 ml of this solution was being added to 3.0 ml of all the extracts solution in water at different concentrations (1-10 µg/ml). 30 minutes later, the absorbance was measured at 517 nm. Ascorbic acid is used as a standard antioxidant. The results were expressed as IC 50 or inhibitory concentration 50 value, i.e., the concentration of
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects around 350 million of the global population. The current antivirals are laden with side effects as well as expense burden. An alternative medication based on Ayurveda is being proposed to counter this scenario. Hep-1 to Hep-6 are herbal formulations used for the treatment of hepatitis B virus. They are also indicated for alleviation of hepatotoxicity. The molecular mechanism involved in the anti-HBV activity of these formulations is being studied using in-vitro models for the first time. Inhibition of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion from the transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells, as well as inhibition of the surface antigen binding was taken up in the present study. These anti-HBV activities were detected by HBsAg specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 250µg/mL. The results indicate that the suppression of HBsAg production and inhibition were best observed at 150µg/mL across the extracts. This concentration was used to determine the hepatoprotectivity of these extracts in a Kupffer cell-hepatocyte in-vitro co-culture; determined by the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10, in presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Hep-1 was found to be the most suitable formulation showing both anti-HBV activity and optimum hepatoprotectivity during the study. This extract could thus be beneficial in the treatment of liver inflammation.
Serum levels of SGOT and SGPT are increased on damage to the tissues producing them. SGOT transaminase activity was found to be reduced by test drug, which is non significant shows that test drug is hepato-protective. SGPT activity changes do not correlate well with the above. If we con- sider in the light of the histopathological exami- nation- it can be seen that toxicant induced severe degenerative changes which might have incapaci- tated the liver to synthesize more of the enzyme hence- no significant elevation was observed in the above marker enzymes.
protective role of vitamin B12 in this animal model and in addition, this is the first study comparing the hepato-protectiveactivity of vitamin B12 with folic acid in experimentally induced acute acetaminophen toxicity in rats in order to identify the potentially less toxic alternative to NAC by evaluating the effects of vitamin B12 and folic acid on liver enzymes and
The ethnic compound medicine, Gurigumu-7, has a long history to be used for liver diseases in Mongolian and Tibetan medical clinics . The formulations of Gurigumu-7 on the market are bitter and astringent powder or bolus with a large dosage indicated (5 g every time for example). They are unpleasant to swallow and the administration may affect appetites. In this study, we separated Gurigumu-7 extract into three fractions by DIAION column and found MF, the methanol eluted frac- tion, demonstrated better bioactivity than Gurigumu-7. From 10.33 g of Gurigumu-7 extract, 1.78 g of MF was obtained, and indeed, a much lower dose (264 mg/kg) of MF showed more potent hepato-protectiveactivity than Gurigumu-7 at 1083.36 mg/kg. These results indicated that MF is one of the hepato-protective fractions of Table 4 Concentrations (mg/g unless otherwise indicated) of Gurigumu-7 constituents in the three fractions (Continued)
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled P reclinical evaluation of Siddha Polyherbal formulation Pitha Kamalai C hoornam for its Hepatoprotectiveactivity in wistar albino rats is submitted to the Tamilnadu Dr.M.G.R. Medical University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of M.D (Siddha) is the bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr. S. Sumithra under my supervision and guidance and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree, Diploma, Associate ship, Fellowship or other similar title.
Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) known as chue Mue, is a stout stragling prostrate shrubby plant with the compound leaves which gets sensitive on touching, pinousstipules and globose pinkish flower heads, grows as weed in almost all parts of the country (Ghani, 2003). Leaves and stems of the plant have been reported to contain analkaloid mimosine, leaves also contain mucilage and root contains tannins (Ghani, 2003). Mimosa pudica is used for its anti-hyperglycemic (Uma maheswari, 2007), antidiarrhoeal (Balakrishnan, et al., 2006), anti-convulsant (Bum, et al., 2004) and cytotoxic properties (Sadia Afreen Chowdhury, et al.,2008). The plant also contains turgorins, leaves and roots are used in treatment of piles and fistula. Paste of leaves is applied to hydrocele. Cotton impregnated with juice of leaves is used for dressing sinus. Plant is also used in the treatment of sore gum and is used as a blood purifier (Ghani, 2003). The present study reports the anti hepatoprotectiveactivity of an ethanolic extracts of Mimosa pudica in CCl4 Induced liver injury in rats.
The reducing activity on the 1,1 – diphenyl 1-2 –picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical, oh radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by terbutylhydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stree. Five species, e.g Tamarindus indica, Lippa alba, Pimentia dioica, Rheedia aristata and Curcuma longa displayed IC50 less than 30microg/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC50 less than 32microg/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta diocia and curcuma longa showed also a 20 percent inhibition of the in vitro induced OH attack to deoxyglucose, Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentration ranging from 150 to 400 µg/plate.
Family: Ranunculaceae, Parts used: Seeds. Chemical constituents: It contains melanthin, nigellin, nigellone, cymene, d-limonene and carvone. Medicinal uses: It is used in intestinal worm infestation, diarrhea, dysentery, tumors, stomatitis and rhinitis. Pharmacological activity: It is gastro protective and antiseptic. Study (I): Khaled and his colleagues concluded in their study that Nigella sativa has gastro protective potential. They carried out study in hypo thyroidal rats and found that Nigella sativa oil prevents formation of stress gastritis 48 . Study (2): Kanter et al reported
Probiotics are living microorganisms, which applied in sufficient quantities, provide a health benefit to the host and contribute to reducing the risk of disease. They are subject of increasing interest due to their proven immunostimulating, antioxidant and anti-cancer effect. [3, 4] The use of probiotics is considered as effective and safe alternative treatment for hepatotoxicity. Detailed studies of the hepatoprotective effect of probiotics on carbon tetrachloride model in rats were conducted by Georgieva M et al. 2002.  As a result of the systemic toxicological and clinical pharmacology studies carried out on Biostim LBS, containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus, its extremely hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity was established.  A comparable hepatoprotective effect with silymarin has been demonstrated.  Lactobacillus bulgaricus DWT1 is a new original strain, isolated from spring water in Bulgaria. In 2015, Georgiev K et al., conducted a study on the antiproliferative effect of Laktera Nature, containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus DWT1, on a human coloncarcinoma cell line. The study shows that at high concentration, Laktera Nature inhibits the proliferation of the HT-29 carcinoma cell line. 
Historically, the nations like the Indians, the Greeks, the Chinese, and the Egyptians have a rich account of using medicinal plants. The bulk of the population in many developing as well as developed countries still use traditional medicines, which have not been fully discovered or appreciated in modern science-based therapy. The present experiment was conducted for 07 days to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of plant Elytraria acaulis in CCl 4 (1ml/kg) treated rats. The extracts were
of compounds showed high activity; one of them incorporating imidazolyl- indole system revealed significant cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma. This indicated that the attachment of functionalized imidazolyl ring to the 2-phenylindole core enhanced activities more than triazine and thiazole systems. The results encourage next studies for performing structural modifications of compounds similar to the most active derivatives aiming for enhancing selectivity; e.g. substitution on imidazolyl ring linked to 2-phenylindole for studying the structure-activity relationship toward better cytotoxicity results.
Objectives: This study investigates the Hepatoprotective activity of the green tea extract against mercuric chloride induced toxicity was investigated in rats. Methods: Twenty four adult rats weighing between 180-200 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided four groups (A,B,C & D) whereby group A served as the control while groups B,C and D served as test groups. The parameters studies were liver and kidney marker enzymes and bilirubin in serum. Results: The alterations in lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in liver & kidney. All these levels are increased in mercuric chloride induced rats in green tea extract treated rats. wistar strain rats were pretreated with mercuric chloride, the levels of enzymes were significantly decreased. these alterations were prevented by green tea extract. Showed the above parameters attained near normal levels and the hepatoprotective activity of green tea extract. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study strongly indicated that Green tea extract has a hepatoprotective action against mercuric chloride induced hepatic damage in experimental animals.
Induction of oxidative stress is the major mecha- nism of toxicity of surrounding nanoparticles (39). By disturbing the balance between antioxidant and oxi- dant processes, nanoparticles enter the cell and induce intracellular oxidative stress. Extravagant oxidative stress may also modify proteins, lipids and nucleic ac- ids, which stimulates the defense system of antioxidant or even leads to cell apoptosis (40). He et al. (41) dem- onstrated that with elevated concentrations of AgNPs, epithelial cells morphology can change to become mo- re fusiform and less polyhedral, rounded and shrunken, because AgNPs elevate the levels of oxidative stress by decreasing the levels of GSH and SOD, and increasing lipid peroxidation, which finally leads to apoptosis by increasing DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Upon AgNPs interaction with proteins membrane, AgNPs and Ag + may trigger lipid peroxidation and in- crease cell membrane permeation. Cell membrane da- mage leads to cytoplasmic contents leakage, such as LDH, and eventually ends up with cell necrosis, while rupture of lysosomal membranes releases cathepsins into the cytoplasm, activating lysosome-mediated apoptosis (40). Furthermore, mitochondrial damage
The drinking water was prepared freshly by consid- ering the volume consumed on the previous day. The body weight changes were noted every week and the amount of food and water intake was noted every day. Any changes in the animal behavior and activity were recorded. The animals were euthanized by terminal anesthesia with isoflurane followed by decapitation. All animal experimental protocols were reviewed and approved by the Animal Experimental Committee of Fu Jen University (IACUC No. A10056), and the study was conducted in accordance with the principles of laboratory animal care .
In conclusion, our study revealed that AETA has shown protective action against alcohol induced hepatic and renal injury by ameliorating both the nitrosative and oxidative stress basically by enhancing the antioxidant status of the system. The results are supported by histopathological observations of both the tissues where in AETA administration was found to be effective in maintaining the normal physiological and morphological functioning of both the tissues. Phytoprinciples of Terminalia arjuna could have functioned in a synergistic fashion conferring an enhanced medicinal property to the tree and also, this would have been the reason behind the observed amelioration of alcohol induced organ and biochemical pejoration in the present study.
The hypolipidemic activity of our beverage may also be due to the action of various tannins comprising proanthocyanins (PA) and flavanols like cyanidin, protocatechuic acid, quercetin which in numerous studies have been found to control cholesterol levels, activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase for prevention of platelet aggregation and adhesion, inhibit LDL-oxidation and possess a regulatory effect on heart diseases. 26, 33 Querectin has also been found to alleviate triglyceride levels in clinical trials. 34 The increase in HDL-C may be due to the presence of ethanol in the beverage. Ethanolic beverages have been found to increase HDL-C and the effect is more pronounced when the beverage is polyphenol-rich. 35, 36
or total replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein sources in tilapia diets (El-Sayed, 1999; Abdel-Warith, 2008). In general, high substitutions of plant protein sources as a complete replacement for fishmeal protein have resulted in poor growth and feed efficiency in fish (Venou et al., 2003). Several studies have shown that replacement of high-quality fish meal with plant protein sources causes a reduction in growth (Francis et al., 2001; Lin and Luo, 2011; Antolovic et al., 2012). Soybean meals (SBM) is low in methionine, and contain several antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, lectins, phytic acid, saponins, phytoestrogens, antivitamins and allergens (Francis et al., 2001; Hussain et al., 2011). However, many studies have shown considerable success in partially or totally replacing FM with SBM in diets for tilapia (El-Sayed, 1999; El-Saidy and Gaber, 2002). High trypsin inhibitor activity in inadequately heated soybean meal decreases protein and energy digestibility in Nile tilapia (Davies et al., 2011), growth performance in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Sorensen et al., 2011).
transcriptional activator and does not undergo proteolytic processing as for Gli2 and Gli3 , allowing AKT pathway dispensable for Gli1 signaling. Surprisingly, inhibition of PI3K pathway partially increases Gli1 transcriptional activity in pancreatic cancer cells . Activation of PI3K/ AKT signal transduction pathway indicates unfavorable outcomes in neuroblastoma patients  and is critical for neuroblastoma cell survival, growth and tumor progression in vivo . Recently, isoform based studies of AKT have gained importance as the functional differences among them are becoming increasingly apparent. AKT1 plays a critical role primarily in cell survival and proliferation in cancers, while AKT2 isoform has been implicated in tissue invasion and metastasis [10, 11]. Crosstalk between PI3K/AKT signaling and Gli1 transcriptional activity and thereby, induction of Gli1 downstream targets, may act as a critical determinant in favor of or against Gli1-mediated cellular differentiation in neuroblastoma.