After get banished from the society, Hester has exhibited her strong sense of individuality. In The ScarletLetter, the author attempted to show that the ideologies of the Puritan society and the individuality of Hester was different than each other. Hester was a woman who has faced and fight against the law of the community. Though she has been banished from her own town place. She saw that the people of the town still felt for her and thought that she has done good by repenting herself through some good deeds. Being a person of philanthropist, Hester showed that she could do good for the general people, and as well as the community people accepted her and remarked that she can effect the society in a positive way. At first when the town’s people came to know about her sin, they considered her as evil and wanted to get rid from her. Hester was excluded by the Puritans as they were afraid that their community would fall apart. They only saw Hester as a sinner but didn’t see her as a woman of good behaviours and talents by which she was known at past. They did banish HesterPrynne but did lost a woman of individuality. The first step of her individuality was that to support herself and her daughter by her needlework and as well as she used to help the poor people of the community. Her work was the medium to prove her artistic mind which she exercised through sewing cloths, she did that for others and also for her daughter pearl. Usually Hester wore very plain and simple dress except the gown embroided with the letter A. Hester didn’t wear it by her won wish but she was compelled to wear it as a emblem of her sin. But that letter A didn’t able to upset her mind from being an individual person.
Dimmesdale’s death in the arms of HesterPrynne. The social significance of the child Pearl lies in her being a social stigma and disgrace for her mother as well as in her being a psycho-spiritual inspiration for her real father who, in the beginning of the novel, persuades the people to let the child remain with the mother, but in the end persuades himself to own the child as her father. The total price paid by both Arthur Dimmesdale and HesterPrynne at the alter of Puritan society to declare their bond as legitimately human and humanly justifiable. The Scarlet
group. Intoxicated by what saw as their heavenly mission, which expected them to cleanse the group of shrewdness, the general population of Salem started yielding different quantities of society to fulfill their want for discipline and requital. Arthur Dimmesdale in the ScarletLetter and John Proctor in the Crucible are comparable from multiple points of view. As it might be appeared nonetheless, Dimmesdale is tormented by his wrongdoing while Proctor, despite the fact that he denounces himself for his mix-up, sees the uncontrolled spread of preference in Salem and comprehends that transgressions of those that imagine heavenliness are substantially more prominent. Both of the stories in this manner manage mass daze and show man to be inclined on tainting even religion and the standards of good and equity. Strangely, both of the works are fixated on the possibility of infidelity. Arthur Dimmmesdale, a cleric, Communists infidelity with HesterPrynne and needs to live with this spot on his still, small voice while lecturing sacredness to others. John Proctor, a standard man living in Salem, has a two-faced association with Abigail Williams the reverend Parris' niece. In the two cases, the infidelity sets the scene for the social daze that bolsters on the suspicious of wrongdoing and malevolence inside the community. In the ScarletLetter, HesterPrynne brings forth a young lady while her significant other is missing from the town. While Hester’s sin is easily discovered by the eager society, Dimmesdale’s adultery remains hidden.
In this context, the “balcony” and the “market place” represent two contrasting positions. “Balcony” is only for the oligarchy, the center of emanating monologic, logocentric and absolute truth, whereas the market place where the crowd has assembled to demonstrate their repulsion of Hester’s sin, reflects their subordinated position to metanarratives of the Balcony. Hester on the other hand has her place on the scaffold, thus she stands a doubly marginalized figure. On the one hand, she, as subject of the powerful oligarchy must express subordination to arbiter of absolute truth and on the other hand, she is the sole object of public sarcasm. Wearing the accursed scarletletter “A”, she is the sole object of the condemnatory scrutiny of all those standing high in the gallery and the disdainful gaze of the people who have gathered there to show their repulsion of her act of adultery. One old matron asserts that "at the very least, they should have put the brand of a hot iron on Hester Prynne's forehead" (p. 56). One of these women adds sarcasm to the earlier expression saying "this woman has brought shame upon us all, and ought to die" (p. 56). Elbert (1990) categorize these old women as “micking the patriarchs of their community. They are no longer maternal, and therefore have no value in a patriarchal system, except what they can appropriate for themselves as faux men. They have denied their gender, their maternal power, and have no recourse in a patriarchal society but to adopt masculine power” (p. 175).
As an American novelist during this interesting time of contrasting intellectual and literary philosophies, Nathaniel Hawthorne weaves both transcendentalism and anti-transcendentalism thread into his immediately successful novel The ScarletLetter to give readers a chance to evaluate different beliefs and different aspects of the early American life at the New England settlement in the seventeenth century. His story revolves around the life of a young and married HesterPrynne who is punished by her Puritan village to perpetually wear a scarletletter “A” on her bosom for committing adultery in the absence of her husband, Roger Chillingworth. She gives birth to Pearl, an illegitimate child from her secret affair with the Puritan Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. At times, Hester and those immediately related to her seem to espouse both or even wrestle between these two contradictory transcendentalist and anti-transcendentalist belief systems, as Hawthorne explores the psychological effects of sin and guilt while simultaneously examining the inner struggle between good and evil through his characters.
While many literary critics recognize the malevolent nature of these characters, labeling them as vampiristic figures not only categorizes the three men as evil, but also compels readers to consider their victims. HesterPrynne – victim of Dimmesdale’s hypocritical intrigue and selfish hints of love – falls under the weight of her adulterous sin. Elizabeth – victim of Hooper’s carefully positioned black veil – loses her hopes of a loving marriage as a piece of black crape defeat’s her community’s joy. Georgiana – victim of Aylmer’s selfish scientific drive – dies, willingly and thankfully to sustain her husband’s life so that he may live triumphant in his ambitions, gratified by a cheek free from what he considered its revolting, crushing mark.
The main four characters in the fiction are HesterPrynne, Roger Chillingworth, Pearl and Arthur Dismmesdale. Each one in the story is a symbol of the time, the society and the ideology that the story set in. The research briefly introduces all four above mentioned characters to follow them in the subsequent sections and to show how the mentioned story figures in their place represent a symbol. During the nineteenth-century, many male authors, including Hawthorne, at best created two-dimensional female characters in their novels and at worst, failed to include feminine heroines. Hawthorne, however, created female characters that became legendary figures in American fiction because of his unique representation of women. The women in Hawthorne’s family, particularly, the women from his maternal side of the family, the Manliness, are the basis of what are, arguably, the most distinguishable, dynamic characters in Hawthorne’s fiction. The ScarletLetter is about HesterPrynne and her life, but the fiction is not so much a consideration of her innate character as it is an examination of the forces that shape her and the transformations those forces effect.
the elements of ultimate salvation, then, surely, it would enjoy all the fairer prospect of these advantages by being transferred to wiser and better guardianship than Hester Prynne’s. Among those who promoted the design, Governor Bellingham was said to be one of the most busy. It may appear singular, and, indeed, not a little ludicrous, that an affair of this kind, which in later days would have been referred to no higher jurisdiction than that of the select men of the town, should then have been a question publicly discussed, and on which statesmen of eminence took sides. At that epoch of pristine simplicity, however, matters of even slighter public interest, and of far less intrinsic weight than the welfare of Hester and her child, were strangely mixed up with the deliberations of legislators and acts of state. The period was hardly, if at all, earlier than that of our story, when a dispute concerning the right of property in a pig not only caused a fierce and bitter contest in the legislative body of the colony, but resulted in an important modification of the framework itself of the legislature.
The letter A demands an imaginative power to interpret the reality. It is not easy to take A as the initial letter of 'Adulteress.' In appearance it may be so however, other implications help to bring other suggestions to the mind. Hawthorne in Endicott and the Red Cross (1837) has written about the embroidered "fatal token" he had in mind to mean "Admirable, or anything rather than Adulteress" (Doren, 1966, p. 130). People eventually misread the letter and do not associate Adulteress for the letter A which is a signification of the fact that they also subvert the Puritan-defined system of laws as if defined by God. So the letter A does not attract the world's anger but it is something "to be sorrowed over, and looked upon with awe, yet with reverence too" (Harding, 1990, p. 263).The sexton notices "a great red letter in the sky, --the letter A, -- which we interpret to stand for Angel" (p. 158), and even Harding (1990) believes that the narration is in step with the "strategy of subversion," for "the narrative … undermines the stability of the system of signs by which the values of the Puritan theocracy are maintained" (p. 21). Thus A can stand for Angel or Able. It may stand for Arthur – Hester's lover – or Alone – in such a society – or Against – such a culture – or Affection – Hester's religion – or Anew – building a new life and religion. Hester is Alone in the world "as to my dependence on society, and with little Pearl to be guided and protected, – alone, …" (p. 164). People conclude, "it meant Able; so strong was HesterPrynne, with a woman's strength" (p. 161). If Christianity is a religion of love, then Hester is a real Apostle spreading the teachings of Christ in that Puritanical environment. Besides, the letter with the effect of a cross gives the wearer a kind of sacredness like a "nun" (p. 163) connecting Hester and the Virgin Mary.
Nor does she disappoint in this matter. When ordered to reveal the name of her lover, Hester refuses. Even though the clergyman John Wilson remarks that Mr. Dimmesdale “could the better judge what arguments to use, whether of tenderness or terror, such as might prevail over [Hester’s] hardness and obstinacy,” she remains silent (Hawthorne 65). Michael Pringle asserts that “silence is part of Hester’s strategy for resistance […] Hester’s limited power lies in the secret of her lover’s identity” (41). Although oppressed by the stern judgment of the magistrates, Hester pushes back against them with silence, presently the only form of rebellion open to her. She knows the limits of her power but uses her silence to its full potential. Exhortations from her minister, Dimmesdale, appear to have no effect on her. While her child “held up its little arms, with a half pleased, half plaintive murmur,” Hester continues silent (Hawthorne 67). When she finally does speak, she vehemently refuses to name her lover, calling instead upon God as her child’s father. Lauren Gail Berlant points out that “HesterPrynne is the conventional sign of the law, and also of the law’s failure to deter, regulate. Accustomed to the public display of her impropriety, Hester has long been the limit of what
Many Nineteenth-century American fictions, as Gregg Crane suggests, “simultaneously embrace and reject various forms of social mobility, such as the greater autonomy and freedom of women or the crossing of class, racial, or ethnic boundaries” (6). One prominent instance is The ScarletLetter (1850). Nathaniel Hawthorne in his illustrious introduction to The House of the Seven Gables (1851), makes a distinction between the romance and the novel. He comments that an author by calling his or her work a romance “need[ed] hardly [to] be observed that he wishes to claim a certain attitude, both as to its fashion and material;” the romance “as a work of art […] must rigidly subject itself to laws and [it] sins unpardonably, so far as it may swerve aside from the truth of the human heart” (Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables ix). Michael Davitt Bell suggests that for “Hawthorne the domain of romance is a world of balance or reconciliation” (qtd. in Michael McKeon 632). Jonathan Arac relates this „balance‟ to the public and private domains: “Hawthorne‟s romances emphasize the private as the reality that public life either mocks or conceals. In the “Custom House” preface … the document about HesterPrynne left by Surveyor Pue are available for Hawthorne‟s imaginative use” (qtd. in Cassuto and Eby and Reiss 139). Because as Hawthorne remarks, they were not “official, but of a private nature” (Hawthorne, The ScarletLetter 26) and “this emphasis on the private,” Arac continues, “joins Hawthorne to a practice of writing that we usually think of him as opposing” (qtd. in Cassuto and Eby and Reiss 139).
Hester’s story of her ‘childlessness’ was told during three interviews, with Hester’s adopted daughter, Florence, taking part in the last one. The term ‘childless’ is ironic, since Hester had given birth to twins and has an adopted daughter. However, she does not have a living biological child and is therefore not regarded as a ‘real’ mother by her community. The conversations were transcribed from audiotape. The 60 pages of verbatim text were then condensed into a four-and-a-half page poem. I adopted social scientist Laurel Richardson’s (1992:126) idea of presenting her interview with someone called Louisa May in the form of a poem. Richardson had a number of reasons for choosing the poetic form. Firstly, she wanted something other than the dull academic style of paraphrasing case studies or simply quoting interviewees directly. Secondly, she argued that, by allowing Louisa’s language to shape the poem, she decentred herself as the ‘expert sociologist’ and reached a sensitive, ethical solution to the issues of ‘authority/authorship/ appropriation’ whereby she felt she could use her ‘skills and resources in the service of others less beneficially situated’ (Richardson 1992:131). It was inevitable that she did interpret Louisa May’s words, life and experiences, but, presenting them in a certain pattern that meticulously reflected the speaker’s tone, diction and meaning and using only Louisa May’s words, she tried to do so with subjective integrity. Thirdly, Richardson liked the idea of finding a union between the sociological and the poetic, because this is an important part of how she prefers to express herself as a sociologist and an individual. What she found, in the end, was that, in writing about Louisa May, she also rewrote her own self. Coming from a narrative point of departure, I could identify with Richardson’s thinking and, in telling Hester and Florence’s story, I was inspired to make use of poetic representation in a similar way.
Dimmesdale,a brilliant young minister with a great expectation, is destined to be suppressed by a community possessing the qualities of aging public males. In order to make himself a pet of the oligarchs, Dimmesdale has to hold back his flaming passion inside. His sin is nothing but an impulsive release of self-disciplined energies against the restrictions imposed on the young by the aging rulers. What he does is human nature, and nothing is wrong. But the problem is Dimmesdale is more pious to his God than he is faithful to his lover. He is a coward, and a hypocrite, too. Unlike Hester, who never doubts the sacredness of her love and is ready to protect her lover at any price, Dimmesdalefirmly believes that he betrays his God forhe breaches what he preaches. But henever screws up his courage to stand on the scaffold with his beloved and their daughter to face the public condemnation, let alone go back into town with his family, hand in hand.
Hall combines a slightly shaky philosophical terminology with some incisive readings of poetic detail; Píetrzak constructs a more stable philosophical frame- work that at times reads over more than from within Prynne’s poems. There is a slightly preliminary, under-worked feel to both volumes (for which the publisher, Cambridge Scholars, might hold some responsibility), but Levity of Design and On Violence in the Work of J. H. Prynne coalesce in their motivation to understand bet- ter Prynne’s refusal of what Píetrzak calls ‘the textualist perception of the world’ (LD, p. 8). Through a study of the forms of expression, representation and erasure of subjectivity and of violence in Prynne’s work, respectively, the two critics present an image of how the question of difficulty in Prynne’s work ultimately concerns a ques- tion of difficulty in the world.
According to Baker, I.e., the species occurs also in Nyasaland and Angola. Its distribution overlaps that of E. caffra from Port Shepstone to Bashee M outh and extends further inland, it inhabits drier situations than E. caffra, such as scrub forest, coastal sand dunes, dry savannah and rocky, wooded slopes, rarely exceeding 40 feet in height and usually considerably less. The flowers are normally brilliant scarlet, the main variants being a pink-flowered form near U m kom aas and a tree with orange / scarlet flowers at M arburg Mission near Port Shepstone. The vexillum is relatively long and narrow, arched to a smaller extent than in E. caffra and folded to enclose the stamens. The wings and keel are comparatively short, rarely exceeding 1-5 cm. in length, while the peduncle is seldom shorter than 6 cm.