Pyramiding of genes for resistant to major insect pests (thrips, jassids and pod borer) and diseases (yellow mosaic virus, anthracnose, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, etc.) for which high level of resistance is not available in cultivated germplasm, and identification of donors from diverse germplasm is of paramount importance. Pyramiding of useful genes to develop multiple stress resistant varieties is needed through deployment of molecular markers in breeding programs. Similarly, incorporation of bruchids resistance will help in minimizing post- harvest losses during storage. For a major breakthrough in yield, there is urgent need to broaden the genetic base by strengthening pre-breeding and developing core sets of germplasm; harnessing hybrid vigor through development of CMS-based hybrids in pigeon pea; mapping and tagging of genes/ QTLs and marker assisted selection for resistance to insect pests and diseases, yield and grain quality; gene pyramiding for stable resistance; development of transgenics in chickpea, pigeon pea for problems hitherto unsolved through conventional means like Helicoverpa pod borer and drought, and genomic research for understanding the structure and function of genes. High yielding and input-responsive genes are yet to be searched and transgressed in common varieties
Pyramiding of genes for resistant to major insect pests (thrips, jassids and pod borer) and diseases (yellow mosaic virus, anthracnose, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, etc.) for which high level of resistance is not available in cultivated germplasm, and identification of donors from diverse germplasm is of paramount importance. Pyramiding of useful genes to develop multiple stress resistant varieties is needed through deployment of molecular markers in breeding programs. Similarly, incorporation of bruchids resistance will help in minimizing post-harvest losses during storage. For a major breakthrough in yield, there is urgent need to broaden the genetic base by strengthening pre- breeding and developing core sets of germplasm; harnessing hybrid vigor through development of CMS-based hybrids in pigeon pea; mapping and tagging of genes/ QTLs and marker assisted selection for resistance to insect pests and diseases, yield and grain quality; gene pyramiding for stable resistance; development of transgenics in chickpea, pigeon pea for problems hitherto unsolved through conventional means like Helicoverpa pod borer and drought, and genomic research for understanding the structure and function of genes. High yielding and input-responsive genes are yet to be searched and transgressed in common varieties
ISSN: 2180-1053 Vol. 9 No.2 July – December 2017 106 welded joints, followed by basecurrent, pulse rate and pulse width. From the surface plots, it is understood that for a peak current of 6 Amps, basecurrent of 3 Amps, pulse rate of 60 pulses/second and pulse width of 30 % minimum pitting corrosion rates are obtained for both AISI 316Ti and AISI 321. The optimal welding conditions obtained are out of the 27 combinations as per design matrix; however their values are within the range of the chosen values of welding variables. From SEMEDAX, it is observed that there is depletion of depletion of 3.15 % (wt%) chromium after corrosion was noticed in AISI 321. This is due to high heat input generated because of welding current. The developed empirical mathematical model is valid for the chosen material, however the accuracy can be improved by considering more number of factors and their levels.
H.F.A.Verhaart et al  has carried out fast current measurement of avalanche development to get ionization coefficient and electron drift velocity over the range of E/P from 1 to 40 V/(cm.torr) at 1.01 bar. Main components of their system are 0.6 ns nitrogen laser and high speed digital oscilloscpe. Our experimental setup is based on their system. A schematic figure of the experimental setup is shown in figure 6. Gas pressure was measured by diaphragm vacuum gage (MKS Bratoron) below 13.3 mbar and Piezo type one (Balzer) over the range from 1 mbar to 1 bar.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the discussion of multi-pulse improved power quality ac-dc converter configuration, comparative factors and selection of specific. Reliable low distortion DC supply is a prime concern for medium and high voltage applications. Multilpulse converters is one of the popular device that furnishes low ripple DC output with the benefit of direct conversion from AC supply. The three-phase multi-pulse AC to DC conversion system have a phase-shifting transformer and a three-phase source. Every such type of converter provides a 6-pulse AC to DC conversion system, that’s why in order to produce more sets of 6-pulse systems,
containing granite stone. It looks like the alpha energy is much stronger but the activity appears to be smaller. As with the BPW34 one can see the beta/gamma pulses as well, which pop up with heights of up to about 1.6V (AC coupling to the scope). In addition strong alpha pulses appear partly driving the amplifier into saturation at -6V.
The necessity for micro holes spans across a wide range of industrial applications with nearly endless boundaries. From electronics and X-Ray apertures to micro fluidics and heat transfer phenomenon, the advancement of precision ablation will undoubtedly be of benefit. A novel use of micro holes is the creation of flexible circuits in which lasers ablate organic material from gold contact pads. The precision required is attributed to the need to remove material without damaging surrounding areas. Applications of such technology can be seen wherever electronics are present. Most notably, flexible circuits hope to advance the sciences of printers, automotive industries, as well as medical electronics. Medical devices lend themselves perfectly to the idea of micro-hole drilling; Catheters, irrigation needles, and precise orifices for oxygen regulators are some of the direct applications. Trends towards fabricating pinholes, air slits, collimators, and spatial filters for non-destructive, non-contact illumination devices are requiring high dimensional tolerance, repeatability, and resolution. Along with the medical device industry, pharmaceuticals and beverage packaging companies stand to benefit from precision holes. Improved leak test equipment is pushing the limits of calibrated leak holes. Smaller, more precise flow orifices are of high demand for accuracy and repeatability of flow calculations. Such innovations will immediately be used in foil packages in the medical device industry as well as blister packs and plastic ampoules for pharmaceutical reasons. Other applications currently employed are aerospace combustor liners, fuel injectors, filters, turbine blades, and air bearings.
The FOP is a fiber optic amplifier for KEM gear flow meters used in high- voltage applications. Its integral pickup detects the r.p.m. of the gears and the FOP provides a flow-proportional light pulse signal. The OPTV receiver will convert the light pulses into a current or voltage squarewave signal which may be used for evaluation.
To characterise the plasma reflectivity of the selected FPM substrate material, the Vul- can PW laser was used to investigate the reflectivity of a PPM, made from the same transparent PMMA material, as a function of incident laser intensity. The sample was irradiated with p-polarized pulses, at a 35° incident angle relative to the mirror surface (the same as the operational incident angle of the FPM design). The laser intensity was varied by changing the distance between the optic surface and the laser focus, at which a maximum intensity of approximately ∼ 10 16 Wcm − 2 is achieved using ∼ 0.25 J pulses. The energy of the incident and reflected light was measured using a Gentec pyroelectric energy meter for absolute calorimetry. The specular reflectivity as a function of incident laser intensity is shown in Fig. 2.
Conventionally, two approaches have been developed to generate ps electrical pulses. The most common one is to use the step recovery diode (SRD). In the SRD, the diode functions as a charge- controlled switch and its p-n junction is charged and discharged by application of a step voltage . The dynamic characteristics of the SRD have been used as an electrical pulse shaper for producing short electrical pulses with very fast rise and fall time. However, due to the ﬁnite transient time as well as various parasitic eﬀects, it is very hard to conﬁgure the SDR for generating electrical pulses with high-speed, ultrashort pulse duration, and ultrashort rise and fall times . In a recent experiment , a pair of step recovery diodes was used to generate 100 MHz pulse repetition rate, 62 ps pulse duration, and 30–150 ps rise and fall times. However, it is very diﬃcult to further improve the pulse repetition rate. Also, the ringing trails and pulse distortion from an ideal ﬂat-top temporal proﬁle are clearly observed .
The latest developments in laser diodes have made them ideal pump sources for Nd:YAG lasers [24, 25]. The perfect spectral match between the GaAlAs laser diode emission and the narrow absorption band of Nd^+in YAG around 810 nm means that laser diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers have a very high efficiency, with consequently low heating of the YAG crystal and this means the 946-nm line can be made to lase even without forced cooling. The purpose of this chapter is to model the 946-nm Nd:YAG laser when longitudinally pumped by a spectrally clean light source, and to see how the performance is affected by relevant parameters, such as the working temperature , the Nd ion concentration, the pump light absorption coefficient, the laser light reabsorption cross section, and the other optimizable design parameters. We try to provide a general comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption loss by comparing them occasionally with a well understood four-level counterpart, the 1.064 jim laser.
Abstract: Placebo analgesia is being increasingly appraised as an effective support of pharmacological and surgical treatments of pain. The understanding of its neurobiological and psychological basis is therefore of high clinical relevance. It has been shown that placebo analgesia is somatotopically organized and relies on endogenous opioids. However, it is not clear whether temporal fluctuations of cue-dependent spatial attention account for the site specificity of placebo analgesia or whether a somatotopic placebo effect is possible without an attentional focus on the respective location. To address this issue we induced placebo expectations for one specific foot in healthy subjects, the other foot serving as a control location. The feet were stimulated in random order by painful laser stimuli. Half of the pulses were cued for stimulus location, whereas in the other half of trials the subjects were naïve about the location. We found that about half of the subjects exhibited a somatotopic placebo effect that was statistically inde- pendent of the spatial cue. We suggest that, after the induction of an initial expectation, placebo analgesia is spatially specific but does not necessarily depend on momentary fluctuations of spatial attention. This result rather suggests that the somatotopy of placebo analgesia relies on the creation of spatially guided expectations or conditioning, but can be maintained without ongoing monitoring of the affected body part.
zones could be associated either with local compositional deviations increasing the likelihood of crystallization or with thickness variations and/or surface defects of the ribbons practically unavoidable during melt-spinning. In multicomponents metallic glasses, nanoscale composi- tional heterogeneities were predicted by Fujita et al.  using molecular dynamics simulation while mesoscale (submicron) heterogeneities were experimentally observed by Caron et al. . In the present work, a bin- ary metallic glass crystallizes and shows non-uniformities in the microstructure, whose scale is tens of microns. The surface of the initial amorphous ribbon etched under the same conditions as the crystallized ribbons reveals certain features that could appear as a result of the initial surface roughness of the as-spun ribbons. The scale of these features and their random distribution coincides with the scale and distribution of non-unifor- mities observed in the crystallized ribbons as droplet-like featureless areas. This allows us to draw a conclusion that the thickness variations and surface defects play a significant role in determining the behavior of the rib- bons during crystallization under electrical current. The fact that the same ribbons when heated conventionally show a uniform microstructure clearly indicates that the observed non-uniformities formed as a response of the alloy ribbons to the passing electrical current. The as- spun ribbons are not ideally flat and the thinner areas of the ribbons are heated up to higher temperatures relative to the average temperature of the sample such that the alloy locally melts in the corresponding regions. The areas that crystallized first reduce their resistivity and at later stages evolve lower Joule heat compared to the regions that are still amorphous. This forms a non-uni- form temperature field in the sample, which also rapidly changes in time as the parameters of the electrical cur- rent change during the pulse. The non-uniform tempera- ture field in the samples creates mechanical stresses further contributing to the microstructural development in the crystallized sample. Since the pulses used in this work are very short, the non-uniform microstructures formed in the crystallized samples and metastable phase compositions are quenched and can be later observed at room temperature.
As mentioned above, a crucial property of UWB channels is the fact that each multipath component can show delay dispersion by itself. That means that a short pulse that, for example, undergoes only a single diﬀraction will arrive at the receiver with a larger support (extent in the delay domain) compared to the originally transmitted pulse. The reason for this is that the diﬀraction coef- ficient is frequency-dependent. Qiu describes in Section 2.3 the mathematics of these processes. Exact and approximate formulations, based on the uniform the- ory of diﬀraction, allow a modification of the classical Turin model, so that the impulse response in a multipath environment is now the sum of distorted, scaled, and delayed pulses. This has important implications for the design of correlation receivers, which are also addressed in this section. From a more experimental point of view, Molisch and Buehrer discuss the impact of frequency-selective reflection coe ﬃ cients in Section 2.5.5. The results from these sections can be combined with classical ray tracing approaches, resulting in a deterministic channel prediction and modeling method.
Evaluation of alternating current on the disinfectants potency 10 ml of a 1.5×10 8 cells per milliliter broth culture (monitored spectro-photometrically at 600 nm) were used as inoculum in 90 ml fresh sterile trypticase soy broth. Samples were tested under alternating current. AC current was delivered with biphasic electrical stimulation (sine wave) at the different frequency and voltage for a period of 2 hours (S. aureus) and 2.5 hours (P. aeroginosa) and then was added to the test and control tubes. Finally bactericidal effect of the test and control samples was evaluated by MBC method (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration).
significant hardship and damage in patients who suffer from the disorder. Treatment of eating disorders is often lengthy and complex, and part of the difficulty in reaching recovery is the variation in etiology of disease. While no single event or trait is known to cause an eating disorder, current literature suggests that genetics likely play a significant role in the
described later, a radar may scan horizontally 360° at anywhere from four to fourteen different vertical angles. The standard elevation angle is 0.5° above the horizontal, which is referred to as a base angle. This elevation gives the name “base X” to many radar products, where X is one of many products, such as reflectivity or velocity. When radar finishes scanning in 360 degrees at one elevation angle, it tilts up to the next elevation angle and scans 360 degrees at that angle, too. It does this until it has scanned at all elevation angles. For this reason, with some software, it is possible to visualize radar data in 3D. However, none of the products at the links provided will allow you to see that. Unfortunately, you must purchase software that can cost upward of $250 to view radar in 3D. Therefore, this manual will not focus on methods of observing 3D radar. However, it will show some cool things that can be seen with higher than 0.5° tilts.
Figure 4 shows the average amplitudes of the motions on the body surface at each measurement point. While there are differences between the amplitudes at each measurement position, cyclic oscillations are found at all positions. Especially, the amplitudes for the carotid ar- tery are naturally large, because motion is measured di- rectly on the artery. In contrast, the motions on the front of the body have amplitudes of about 0.1 - 0.2 mm, and those on the back are about 0.1 mm high. It should be noted that the dorsal region does also move, despite this movement being slightly smaller than that for the front.
Recently, due to the high price of oil and the concern for the environment, renewable energy is in the limelight. This scenario has stimulated the development of alternative power sources such as photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and fuel cells –. Among renewable energy systems, photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to play an important role in the future and, as such, a great deal of research effort is dedicated to enhancing their performance and efficiency at the component and system levels. As two influential factors in regards to the performance and efficiency of a PV system, the impact of characteristic mismatches amongst PV cells and the phenomenon of maximum-power drop due to partial shading have been the subject of intense research. The distributed generation (DG) concept emerged as a way to integrate different power plants, increasing the DG owner’s reliability, reducing emissions, and providing to command the voltage source inverter (VSI) additional power quality benefits . The cost of the distribution power generation system using the renewable energies is on a falling trend and is expected to fall further as demand and production increase. The energy sources used in DG systems usually have different output characteristics, and for this reason, power electronic converters are employed to connect these energy sources to the grid. In a PV system, PV modules are connected in series and in parallel in order to enable power generation and processing a tan adequately large voltage level and efficiency. However, when PV cells in a module are shaded, they experience a significant power output drop