high glucose and palmitic acid

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Phytanic acid stimulates glucose uptake in a model of skeletal muscles, the primary porcine myotubes

Phytanic acid stimulates glucose uptake in a model of skeletal muscles, the primary porcine myotubes

Initially, the suitability of the primary porcine myotube model was tested, and assay conditions optimized in rela- tion to both glucose assay compound (2-DOG) and PA ex- posure. Viability assays were performed to determine an appropriate concentration of PA that did not compromise the cells metabolic activities. The viability of the myotubes was noticeably reduced when exposed to concentrations of PA equal to or above 20 μM (Table 1). The toxic effect of PA at 20 μM or above may be attributed to apoptosis of the cells, as shown previously by studies in human skin fibroblasts and rat liver [31,32]. The average concentration of PA in human plasma has been reported to be between 0.04-11.5 μM [18,19,33], with higher values found pre- dominantly in meat eaters and dairy product consumers [18,19]. Based on this, and the results from our viability studies, the working concentration of PA was chosen as 10 μM. Palmitic acid (PAM); a fatty acid of same chain length as PA but without the branching methyl-groups was used as a control, and we showed that 1 and 10 μM PAM had no effect on myotube viability. At concentra- tions of 50 μM PAM and above, the viability of the myo- tubes were reduced, possibly in a manner similar to that of higher amounts of PA [31,32].
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Lipase catalyzed regioselective synthesis of palmitolyglucose ester in ionic liquids

Lipase catalyzed regioselective synthesis of palmitolyglucose ester in ionic liquids

Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) was used as a catalyst in the synthesis of palmitolyglucose ester in the ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium triflu- oromethanesulfonate ([Bmim][TfO]), with glucose as a substrates and palmitic acid vinyl ester as the acyl donor. The effect of substrate ratio, lipase content, and temperature on the activity and stability of lipase was studied. The reaction conditions in [Bmim][TfO] re- sulting in the highest yield of the sugar ester were a temperature of 50˚C, enzyme concentration of 50 mg/ mL, and a molar ratio of glucose/vinyl palmitate of 1:3. The major reaction product was purified and char- acterized by FT-IR, HPLC, MS and NMR, as being 6-O-palmitolyglucose ester. The advantages of ionic liquid vs. organic solvent were noted.
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Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

Protection of palmitic acid-mediated lipotoxicity by arachidonic acid via channeling of palmitic acid into triglycerides in C2C12

concentration-dependent manner. The biological effect of TG accumulation on PA-induced lipotoxicity seems still controversial. Traditionally, TG accumulation is thought to be indicative of dangerous signal in the development of pathogenesis associated with disordered lipid metabolism. TG accumulation in pancreatic β-cells has been closely as- sociated with impairment in insulin secretion to glucose [37]. Moreover, it was claimed that lipotoxicity of β-cells was associated with glucose-dependent esterification of fatty acids into neutral lipids [38]. On the contrary, it has been published that unsaturated fatty acids with high abil- ity to synthesize TG are implicated in the prevention of PA-mediated apoptosis by sequestrating deleterious PA into TG storage form [15]. Also, TG has been proposed to play a critical role in trafficking and modulation of free fatty acids [39]. In our experiments, neutral lipid mass was augmented upon coincubation of PA with arachidonic acid (AA), accompanied with a decrease in PA-induced lipotoxicity. Cnop et al., has demonstrated that an inverse correlation is observed between the percentage of dead β- cells and their cellular TG contents [40]. It was further demonstrated that exogenously or endogenously gener- ated unsaturated fatty acids rescued PA-induced apoptosis in non-adipose cells by promoting PA incorporation into TG, accumulation of which represents an initial cellular
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Metabolic engineering for efficient supply of acetyl-CoA from different carbon sources in Escherichia coli

Metabolic engineering for efficient supply of acetyl-CoA from different carbon sources in Escherichia coli

Results: A metabolically engineered E. coli strain for NAG production was constructed by overexpressing N-acetyl- glutamate synthase from Kitasatospora setae in E. coli BW25113 with argB and argA knockout. The strain was further engineered to utilize glucose, acetate, and fatty acid to produce acetyl-CoA. When glucose was used as a carbon source, the combined mutants of ∆ptsG::glk, ∆galR::zglf, ∆poxB::acs, ∆ldhA, and ∆pta were more efficient for supply- ing acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) pathway and acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase (ACK-PTA) pathway from acetate to acetyl-CoA were investigated, and the ACK-PTA pathway showed to be more efficient for supplying acetyl-CoA. When fatty acid was used as a carbon source, acetyl-CoA supply was improved by deletion of fadR and constitutive expression of fadD under the strong promoter CPA1. Comparison of acetyl-CoA supply from glucose, acetate and palmitic acid revealed that a higher conversion rate of glutamate (98.2%) and productivity (an average of 6.25 mmol/L/h) were obtained when using glucose as a carbon source. The results also demonstrated the great potential of acetate and fatty acid to supply acetyl-CoA, as the molar conversion rate of glutamate was more than 80%.
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Chemical Extraction and Property Analyses of Marula Nut Oil for Biodiesel Production

Chemical Extraction and Property Analyses of Marula Nut Oil for Biodiesel Production

To identify and develop alternative and renewable sources of fuel for the transport sector is a present chal- lenge for engineers and researchers. This work was carried out to assess yield of marula (Sclero carrya/birrea) nut and chemical properties of crude marula nut oil for biodiesel production in Botswana. Chemical extrac- tion of marula oil was done to establish actual oil content by use of hexane/iso-propyl alcohol solvent in a soxhlet set up. Distillation was carried out on a Rotavapor system prior to oil purging using nitrogen gas. The results indicated that marula nuts have about 58.6% oil content. Characterisation of the extracted crude oil was carried out to determine its chemical composition using the Waters GCT Premier Time of Flight (TOF) Mass Spectrometer (MS) coupled to the Agilent 6890 N Gas Chromatography (GC) system. Ethyl oleate (ethyl ester) was found to be the dominant fatty acid. Trans-Oleic acid was also abundant but could not be quantified because it was not found in the standard mixture. Crude marula oil was also found to have an ester content of 93.7%, acid value of 1.4 mg KOH/g, and free fatty acid content of 0.7%. These results are mar- ginally out of specifications for biodiesel by international standards, implying that crude marula oil is a po- tential substrate for biodiesel production.
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 MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF SAPONIFIED VIRGIN COCONUT OIL AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

 MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF SAPONIFIED VIRGIN COCONUT OIL AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

In the present study, the effect of saponified Virgin coconut oil on S.mutans was evaluated.Virgin Coconutoil (VCO)is defined as the oil resulting from the fresh and mature kernel of the coconut (Cocosnucifera L.) through mechanical and natural means, either with the use of heator not, provided that it does not lead to alteration or transformation of the oil (Asian and Pacific Coconut Community(APCC) 2003). VCO has many advantages, which include the health benefits from the retained vitamins and antioxidants, the antimicrobial and antiviral activity from the lauric acid components and through its easy digestibility from the medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). VCO is predominantly made up of lauricacid. The total lauricacidall concurred with the APCC (2003) standard for VCO, Codex (2001) standard for coconut oil (45.10 – 53.20%) (Marina AM and Che MI, 2009; Dayrit F M et al., 2007).
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THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERIPHERAL TRANSPORT OF C14 LABELED PALMITIC ACID

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERIPHERAL TRANSPORT OF C14 LABELED PALMITIC ACID

The majority of Gordon's observations PALMITIC ACID-1-C"4 AND TOTAL IPLASMA FREE FATTY ACIDS FFA DURING CONSTANT INFUSION OF PALMITIC ACID- of the arteriovenous differences of total FFA [r]

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF RHIZOPHORA APICULATA (A MANGROVE PLANT)

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF RHIZOPHORA APICULATA (A MANGROVE PLANT)

The widespread reports in recent years on useful biological activities of tritepenes, indicate their potential. Triterpenes are found to show antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activity (Mahato et al., 1997). In the present investigation hexane and chloroform extracts of Rhizophora apiculata were found to contain triterpene hydrocarbon, urs-12 ene (>30 and 10%, respectively). Ursolic acid was reported to be cytotoxic against A- 549, L-1210 and KB tumour cells (Yamagishi et al., 1988). 23-Hydroxy-3-oxo-urs-l 2-en- 28- oic acid was found to exhibit anti-ulcer properties (Fourie et al., 1989). So, the antimicrobial activity of present study may be due to terpenes and sesquiterpenes (Bryon and Eric, 2003). The fatty acids composition of the leaf is also studied by FAME analysis. It mainly contains palmitic acid as major constituent (54.65%). Two important poly unsaturated fatty acids i.e., Linoleic acid (w-6, 1.54%) and 9, 11-0ctadecadienoic acid (3.25%) are also present along with arachidic acid (2.56%).
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Magnetically recyclable nanocatalysts based on magnetite: an environmentally friendly and recyclable catalyst for esterification reactions

Magnetically recyclable nanocatalysts based on magnetite: an environmentally friendly and recyclable catalyst for esterification reactions

Moreover, Amberlyst 15 resin was also used as solid heterogeneous catalyst under similar reaction conditions used for PTSA. It is well documented that this ion-exchange resin presents high concentrations of acid sites (Hykkerud et al., 2016) and offers a catalytic activity comparable to other catalysts used in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In fact, under the experimental conditions applied herein (i.e., solvothermal), the conversion obtained using this solid stood at 97.5%. Other studies have also reported on the application of this resin as catalyst for heterogeneous processes (Barros et al., 2013; Hykkerud et al., 2016). However, it should be noted that this resin presents poor thermal stability which could result in catalyst degradation and reduced activity after a single use depending on the experimental condition (Aafaqi et al., 2004; Hykkerud et al., 2016). This would in turn adversely affect the effective reuse of the catalyst.
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PRODUCTION OF DESIGNER FOOD: EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF OMEGA -3 – FATTY ACIDS ENRICHED SOURCES ON FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN EGG AND MEAT

PRODUCTION OF DESIGNER FOOD: EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF OMEGA -3 – FATTY ACIDS ENRICHED SOURCES ON FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN EGG AND MEAT

The present study was undertaken at Centre of Advanced Studies in Poultry Science, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal. Layer and broiler biological experiments were conducted to study the effect of various Omega-3- fatty acids sources such as fish, linseed and rapeseed oils (at one, two and three per cent levels) to enrich Omega-3- fatty acids in chicken egg and meat. The supplementation of n-3 lipid sources in layer and broiler ration had significant (P<0.01) increase of omega -3- fatty acids composition such as linolenic acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), total n-3 fatty acids and a significant reduction (p<0.01) in palmitic and stearic acid concentrations. The total unsaturated fatty acids concentration in egg yolk and breast and thigh meat of broilers showed an increase in all the treated groups due to incorporation of various n-3 lipid sources in feed.
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Application of Peanut Butter to Improve the Nutritional Quality of Cookies

Application of Peanut Butter to Improve the Nutritional Quality of Cookies

Fatty Acid Composition of raw materials Fatty acid analysis of vegetable fat showed that it contains highest proportion of total SFA which is (60.35%) followed by 37% total MUFA and 2.62% total PUFA (Table 1). Wherever the highest oleic acid was (34.56%) in vegetable fat as in which palmitic acid (44.65%) as SFA and linoleic acid (2.62%) as PUFA, however other fatty acids were recorded in lower concentrations (Table 1). 37% oleic acid, 24% palmitic acid and 21.1% linoleic acid in vegetable fat were recorded. Change in fatty acid content of vegetable fat was varied based on the amount of vegetable fat used in its production 18 .
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Investigation on Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted from Carica papayaL. Seed

Investigation on Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted from Carica papayaL. Seed

The sample Carica papaya L. seeds were collected from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Then the seeds were washed with distilled water then dried in sunlight for 7 days. The dried seeds were grinded by mortar to make powder and it used for the extraction of oil. Analytical grade chemicals and reagents namely Acetone (Fischer Scientific), Petroleum ether (Merck, Germany), n-hexane (Merck, Germany), Methanol (Merck, Germany), Hydrochloric acid (Sigma Chemical Co. USA), Boron trifluoride 12% (1.5 M) in Methanol (Acros Organics, USA), NaOH pellets (Loba Chemie Pvt Ltd., India) and Anhydrous sodium sulphate (Loba, Chemie Pvt Ltd., India)were used for all the analyses.
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Phycochemical Property of Pithophora Oedogonia (Mont). Wittrock With Special Reference to its Neutraceutical Significance

Phycochemical Property of Pithophora Oedogonia (Mont). Wittrock With Special Reference to its Neutraceutical Significance

Pithophora oedogonia also as a nutraceutical product. In recent years, dried biomass or cell extracts produced from Chlorella (Lee, 1997; Yamaguchui, 1997) Dunaliella (Avron and Ben Amotz, 1992), and Spirulina (Vonshak, 1997) have dominated the neutraceutical market. In the search for sources of cheap proteins, minerals and essential amino acids, filamentous algae have not received due attention like unicellular forms mainly because of the rigid cellulosic cell walls. A thick cellulosic cell wall of untreated algae is indigestible by nonruminants. However, with advancements made in post harvest processing technology in recent years, a rigid cellulosic cell wall may not pose a big problem for algae like Pithophora oedogonia. Fiber content is very high in this alga and only the protein content is not to the level reported for unicellular forms. Through genetic manipulations and selection techniques, it might be possible to increase the protein content of the alga in future. However, it is only a theoretical possibility at present.
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A REVIEW ON LEPIDIUM SATIVUMAsra Jabeen*, Dr. S. Rani,  Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim, Abdul Saleem MohammadDOWNLOAD/VIEW

A REVIEW ON LEPIDIUM SATIVUMAsra Jabeen*, Dr. S. Rani, Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim, Abdul Saleem MohammadDOWNLOAD/VIEW

alpha linoleic acid which could give it nutritional advantages (Diwakara et al., 2008). The primary fatty acids in Lepidium sativum oil were oleic and linolenic acids and was found to contain high concentrations of tocopherols. It contains good amount of lignans and antioxidants, which can stabilize the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in its seed oil. The primary phytosterols in Lepidium sativum were sitosterol and campesterol, with avenasterol. The plant is known to contain imidazole, lepidine, semilepidinoside A and B, β-carotenes, ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, sinapic acid and sinapin. Benefits of Garden Cress [16-21]
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Oil of Mesua ferrea L. Seed as a Promising Pharmaceutical Excipient in Lipid Based Nanoformulation

Oil of Mesua ferrea L. Seed as a Promising Pharmaceutical Excipient in Lipid Based Nanoformulation

The separation and identification of the components of the M. ferrea L. Oil was performed by analytical TLC method using some probable standard components along with the test sample (Asha 2015). TLC plates were prepared by pouring thick slurry of silica gel G on a glass plate (15cm×20 cm) followed by activation of the plate by heating at 120˚C for 30 minutes. Standard components (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, cholesterol, vitamin E) and the sample were dissolved in petroleum ether and the spot was applied on the TLC plate with capillary tubes (Sasidharan et al., 2011). The spots were air dried and TLC was run with ternary mixture of n-Hexane, diethyl ether, acetic acid (70:30:1) as the mobile phase. The diluted sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O = 1:9) was
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Method of Making Fatty Acid N Acylalkanolamines

Method of Making Fatty Acid N Acylalkanolamines

radecenoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmi toleic acid, cis-9-hexadecenoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, heptadecenoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic[r]

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Physical characteristics, Chemical composition and Distribution of constituents of the Neem seeds ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in Senegal

Physical characteristics, Chemical composition and Distribution of constituents of the Neem seeds ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in Senegal

Parietal constituent’s content: The method of Van Soest and Wine also known as ADF-NDF assay makes it possible to determine lignins, celluloses and hemicelluloses 19 . It is based on the difference in solubility of the components. The NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) attacks and solubilizes all the compounds except the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The first ADF (Acid Detergent Fiber) permanganate attack solubilized the compounds except cellulose and lignin. The second ADF attack left only cellulose. These attacks are carried out in a device called a Tecator Fibertec M1017.
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The Effect of Addition of Arabic Gum to Amino Acid Profile and Fatty Acid Profile of Albumin Powder Cork Fisk ( Channa striata

The Effect of Addition of Arabic Gum to Amino Acid Profile and Fatty Acid Profile of Albumin Powder Cork Fisk ( Channa striata

In this study, the concentration of arabic gum is 50% (from cork fish) was used. 250 g of cork fish was extracted using a vacuum extractor at 70 ° C for 12.5 minutes. Furthermore, the albumin extract obtained was added by maltodextrin and arab gum according to each treatment. Then the cork albumin extract was dried using vacuum drying with a temperature of 49 ° C for ± 6 hours. The test parameters used in the main research were albumin, protein, water, ash, fat content, fatty acid profile and amino acid profile.

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Metabolic regulations of a decoction of Hedyotis diffusa in acute liver injury of mouse models

Metabolic regulations of a decoction of Hedyotis diffusa in acute liver injury of mouse models

Identification of crucial metabolites using ICA analysis ICA was an available and alternative application to be designed to recognize the sample pattern. As shown in Fig.  5a, control group and LPS/GALN group was separated obviously on IC01, and IC02 depicted the obvious differentiation between LPS/GALN and LPS/ GALN + HD groups. Because of a clear sample discrimi- nation by ICA in Fig. 5a, it was possible to detect the sig- nificant metabolites differentiating LPS/GALN and LPS/ GALN + HD. In Fig. 5b, the loadings of different inde- pendent component IC01 and IC02 were visualized in a heat map. Ranking of the varied metabolites displayed that 25 metabolites (blue boxes in Fig. 5b) have the larg- est loading in IC01 and IC02. Out of these metabolites, d-glucose, fructose, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, glycine, l-alanine, myo-inositol, succinic acid, arachi- donic acid, eicosanoic acid, DHA, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and linoleic acid were the shared significant metabolites found in above pathway enrichment analysis, while oth- ers were the new crucial metabolites detected in ICA analysis. More interestingly, only tryptophan, lactic acid and cholesterol were differentiated significantly between control and LPS/GALN group, as well as between LPS/ GALN and LPS/GALN + HD group (Fig. 5c).
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Beta-palmitate – a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas

Beta-palmitate – a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas

The energy requirements of a baby are high. An important component of human milk, as in milk formulas, is fat, which presents an important source of energy (approxi- mately 50 % of the energetic content of human milk and formulas). Up to 98 % of human milk lipids is in the form of triacylglycerols, in which saturated and non-saturated fatty acids are bound to the skeleton of glycerol. Palmitic acid, the major saturated fatty acid in human milk, usually represents about 20–25 % of human milk fatty acids. Sixty percent (according to some authors, up to about 86 %) of palmitic acid is esterified to the sn-2 position in the triac- ylglycerols (the so-called β-position) [2–4]. The shortened name for palmitic acid bound to glycerol in the β-position (sn-2) is β-palmitate. However, in the majority of supple- mental milk formulas, with vegetable oils as commonly used source of fat, have palmitic acid bound to the 1 st or 3 rd carbon of glycerol (sn-1 and −3 positions). [4]. Cow’s milk, as well as plant fats, have lower content of β- palmitate compared to human milk (cow’s milk only about 40 %, plant oils even only 5–20 %) [5]. Besides saturated fatty acids, milk also contains polyunsaturated fatty acids with a long chain, as well as essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and α-linoleic). The balanced content of these fatty acids is necessary for the correct maturation of the
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