GaN on silicon transistors are just beginning this journey. Preliminary results, however, are encouraging. There are many large improvements that can be made in basic device performance as measured by the figure of merit. As we learn more about the material and the process, a factor of two improvement can be reasonably expected over the next three years and a factor of ten over the next 10 years. Higher voltage GaN transistors will eventually displace silicon Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors and even SiC- based transistors due to the lower manufacturing costs and lower conduction losses.
Abstract— In this article, we report the studies of various device architectures of organic light- emitting devices (OLEDs) incorporating highly efficient blue-emitting and ambipolar carrier- transport ter(9,9-diarylfluorene)s, and their influences on device characteristics. The device structures investigated include single-layer devices and multilayer heterostructure devices employing the terfluorene as one functional layer. It is found that, although these terfluorenes are capable of bipolar carrier transport, rather poor device performance of single-layer devices in comparison with multilayer devices indicates that the heterostructure is still essential for balancing hole/electron injection and currents, for achieving high emission efficiencies, and for full utilization of high luminescence efficiency of these terfluorenes. With the heterostructure of hole-transport layer/terfluorene/electron- transport layer and careful choice of carrier- transport materials, effective hole and electron injection, confinement of carriers, and confinement of excitons in terfluorenes are achieved. As a consequence, a highly efficient (4.1% quantum efficiency), low-voltage (~2.5 V turn-on voltage), and color-saturated non- doped blue-emitting device is demonstrated. Such high electroluminescent efficiency is consistent with high photoluminescent quantum yields of these terfluorenes and is competitive with those of efficient doped blue OLEDs.
Flip-flops can be either simple (transparent or asynchronous) or clocked (synchronous); the transparent ones are commonly called latches. The word latch is mainly used for storage elements, while clocked devices are described as flip-flops. Simple flip-flops can be built around a pair of cross-coupled inverting elements: vacuum tubes, bipolar transistors, field effect transistors, inverters, and inverting logic gates have all been used in practical circuits. Clocked devices are specially designed for synchronous systems; such devices ignore their inputs except at the transition of a dedicated clock signal (known as clocking, pulsing, or strobing). Clocking causes the flip-flop to either change or retain its output signal based upon the values of the input signals at the transition. Some flip-flops change output on the rising edge of the clock, others on the falling edge. The optimization to minimize area at all costs, has only been secondary to the fixation on increasing circuit speed and again our position is that this should be examined with respect to its effect on power consumption. Some of the techniques that will be presented will come at the expense of increased silicon area and thus the cost of the implementation will be increased.
0.46 log cdsm −2 evoking a rod response and a combined rod-cone response, respectively, highlighted the difference in b-wave amplitude in young APLP2-KO and WT (Fig. 3c). The average data at all flash intensities show that the ERG a-wave was similar in young APLP2-KO and WT in amplitude (Additional file 1: Figure S3A) and implicit time (Additional file 1: Figure S3C). In contrast, the ERG b-wave amplitude was reduced in young APLP2-KO (Add- itional file 1: Figure S3A). However, the b-wave implicit time was not altered in APLP2-KO compared to WT (Additional file 1: Figure S3C). The maximal b-wave ampli- tude was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in APLP2-KO (866 ± 191 μV) compared to WT (1218 ± 115 μV) with no alteration in half saturation luminance (K) or the slope of the b-wave sensitivity curve (n) (Additional file 1: Figure S3E). When b-wave amplitudes were normalized by calcu- lating the b/a-wave ratio, we observed that values from young APLP2-KO were significantly lower at the brightest flash intensity (b/a: 2.9 vs. 1.9 in WT vs. APLP2-KO, re- spectively). These data indicate the lack of APLP2 affects the amplification gain of synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors to the bipolar cells, whereas the photo- transduction in rod photoreceptors is not affected. To es- tablish whether ERG deficits of APLP2-KO were stationary or progressive, we repeated the scotopic ERGs in adults. Figure 3b shows a series of representative ERGs of adult WT and APLP2-KO mice. Superimposing the ERGs re- corded at a flash intensity of −1.9 log cdsm −2 and 0.46 log cdsm − 2 highlighted the difference in b-wave amplitude in adult APLP2-KO and WT (Fig. 3c). The average data show that the ERG-a wave of adult APLP2-KO was comparable with WT (Additional file 1: Figure S3B and D), indicating that photoreceptor functions remained normal in APLP2- KO overtime. Therefore, we excluded APLP2-KO as a model of the Riggs type. ERG b-wave responses of APLP2- KO declined in amplitude at the same rate in adult and young compared to WT of the same age (compare Add- itional file 1: Figure S3A with Additional file 1: Figure S3B), with no alteration in the K and n parameters (Fig. 3e). In adults, the maximal b-wave amplitude was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in APLP2-KO (772 ± 155 μV) compared to WT (1135 ± 211 μV) (Additional file 1: Figure S3E). At the brightest flash intensity, the b/a-wave ratio was significantly reduced in adult APLP2-KO compared to adult WT (b/a: 2.5 vs. 1.9 in WT vs. APLP2-KO, respectively), while simi- lar in young and adult APLP2-KO. Therefore, we hypothe- sized that APLP2-KO resemble the incomplete form of the Schubert-Bornschein type of CSNB.
One of the elements of an eﬀective network devices choice for speciﬁc communication tasks is to determine their performance. Currently, there are several applications and hardware solutions which are used to generate the test traﬃc which load the examined network device. In this paper we check whether the statistical properties of the gen- erated traﬃc have an impact on performance of the tested device. The purchase price of advanced, highly specialized network devices is very high. Such a purchase, without previous performance tests simulating the conditions in which the equipment will work, can be very risky for the project budget. Performance testing can make a preliminary assessment of the equipment suitability in the context of the challenges posed to it. Currently the measurements mainly relate to: one-way delay, maximum delay, delay variation, packet loss rate, bandwidth, ﬁle transfer time, resource consumption (cpu, memory, buﬀers, queue) [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ].
helps in execution of user-written Hadoop code on GPU native threads which are heterogeneous and consumes low power. Hadoop integration with GPU is possible by using any of the four approaches which are JCUDA, JNI, Hadoop Streaming and Hadoop Pipes. Authors have implemented all the four approaches and done a detailed analysis. A comparison of these four approaches shows that JCudais the highest performing and Hadoop Streaming is worst performing. It is difficult to test JNI. but it is also the most expensive for development and translation.Hadoop Pipes show above average performance in all criteria and have not shortcomings. Hadoop Streaming shows best results in all criteria except Highperformance. Sufengniu et al., 2014 5
In 1994, Zhang ,  initiated the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets as a generalization of fuzzy sets. Bipolar fuzzy sets are an extension of fuzzy sets whose membership degree range is [−1, 1]. In a bipolar fuzzy set, the membership degree 0 of an element means that the element is irrele- vant to the corresponding property, the membership degree (0, 1] of an element indicates that the element somewhat satisfies the property (see , ), and the membership degree [−1, 0) of an element indicates that the element somewhat satisfies the implicit counter-property. Although bipolar fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets look similar to each other, they are essentially different sets . In many domains, it is important to be able to deal with bipolar information. It is noted that positive information represents what is granted to be possible, while negative information represents what is considered to be impossible. This domain has recently motivated new research in several directions. In particular, fuzzy and possibilistic formalisms for bipolar information have been proposed , because when we deal with spatial information in image processing or in spatial reasoning applications, this bipolarity tend to occur too. For instance, when we assess the position of an object in a space, we may have positive information expressed as a set of possible places and negative information expressed as a set of impossible places. As another example, let us consider the spatial relations. Human beings consider ”left” and ”right” as opposite directions, but this does not mean that one of them is the negation of the other. The semantics
Figure 3-2. (a) Design of the microwave resonant cavity. (b) Illustration of the operation of the microwave resonant cavity.....………………………………………………..…...52 Figure 3-3. (a) Diagram of TRMC instrument showing VCO: voltage controlled oscillator (microwave source), I: isolator, At: 10-20dB attenuator, C: microwave circulator, RF switch, spectrum analyzer, D: microwave power detector, A: amplifier(s), HP: high pass filter, S: oscilloscope, and computer. Also shown is the laser and optics for controlling and delivering the light to the sample. WP: rotating half wave plate, P: polarizer, BD: beam dump, FS: UV-fused silica window, and P M: power meter. (b) Example photoconductance transient……………………………………………………54 Figure 4-1. Diagram of the home-built, TRMC setup showing the VCO: voltage controlled oscillator (microwave source), I: isolator, At: 10dB attenuator, C: microwave circulator, microwave switch, spectrum analyzer, D: microwave power detector, A: amplifier, HP: high pass filter, S: oscilloscope, and computer. Also shown is the laser (532 nm) and optics for controlling and delivering the light to the sample. WP: rotating half wave plate, P: polarizer, BD: beam dump, FS: UV-fused silica window, and P M: power meter.......................................................................................................................64 Figure 4-2. Rendering of the TRMC resonant cavity. The thin plate with an iris acts as a below-cutoff waveguide. The flange is attached to a microwave antenna (Penn Engineering) that converts coaxial microwaves to WR90 waveguide. Both the optical aperture and the below-cutoff waveguide are sealed with aluminosilicate glass (Delta Technologies), and the top plate seals the cell using an o-ring.........................................66 Figure 4-3. Resonant microwave peak for the cavity loaded with a sample. The data are shown in blue, and the fit in red.........................…………………………………………67 Figure 4-4. Deconvolution. The original TRMC trace is in blue, and the deconvolved sample response is in red………………………………………………………………...68 Figure 4-5. (a-d) TEM images and normalized (e) FTIR and (f) NIR absorption spectra of (a) an OA-capped PbSe QD thin film (black) and of PbSe QD thin films treated with (b) MPA (orange), (c) Na 2 Se (red), and Na 2 Se immediately followed by PbCl 2 for 1 min
ing conditions, the variable performance systems exhibit characteristic M-shaped inspiratory waveforms, illustrating the effect of inspiration and the entrainment of room air on the delivered gas ﬂ ow. Even among oxygen masks classiﬁ ed as ﬁ xed performancedevices there is considerable variation in performance. In a comparison of ﬁ ve masks (Blease OEM Mixomask, Inspiron Accurox, Hudson Venturi, Sandoz Lifeline, and Vickers) only the Vickers was found to provide a consistent FiO 2 (within 4% of the set value) in varying
Magnetic random access memory (MRAM), ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM), and phrase change memory (PCM) devices are indispensable to various nonvolatile electronic applications in portable electron devices [1–4]. Because of the excellent compatibility integrated circuit (IC) processes, long retention cycles, low operation voltage, and low electric consumption, the various resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices are investigated and discussed in recent memory device search [5–10]. Among these RRAM device applica- tions, the different metal element-doped silicon dioxide thin films prepared by various physical vapor disposition methods are widely considered and fabricated [1–10].
The Harmonic scalpel (HS) is a device that uses ultra- sonic energy for cutting of the tissues, tissue dissection, and coagulation . Numerous studies have described the advantages of ultrasonic sealing and cutting devices over conventional electrosurgery including better hemostasis with minimal thermal damage, reduced risk of nerve dam- age, fewer instrument changes due to the combined vessel- sealing, tissue cutting and dissecting functionality, and lower visual obstruction from mist or smoke [3, 4, 7, 8]. Hemostasis is achieved by coaptation of the vessels and sealing with a denatured protein coagulum as well as mechanically breaking tertiary hydrogen bounds in protein molecules by transducing the mechanical energy to tissue. The HS works at lower temperatures than other electro- surgical devices and has been shown to be safe with less lateral thermal damage in laparoscopic surgery [9, 10]. Many systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses have demonstrated the significant clinical benefits of using HS in various types of surgeries, including a reduction in operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drainage volume, post-operation complications, and duration of hospital stay [11–17].
formance of the heat pipe. Wong et al.  also carried out several experiments on wicks sintered by irregular or spherical shaped powders with dierent size distributions. Their results illustrated that ne pores at the wick bottom help to sustain a thin water lm under large heat loads that leads to better thermal performance and consequently makes large heat loads reachable. Liou et al.  reported that low wick permeability limited the reduction of evaporation resistance and prompted dry-out. Deng et al.  tested some types of powders and their eects on capillary performance. Their results showed that the irregular copper powder is better than the spherical one for the application in LHPs (loop heat pipes). The reason was attributed to the increased perme- ability and better capillary performance. Tsai and Lee  compared thermal performances of sintered heat pipes with dierent powder shapes and sizes. They reported that the spherical powder structures achieved twice the eective thermal conductivity of dendritic powder ones for each powder size. Further- more, Li et al.  showed that the size of powder particles aects the performance of the heat pipe, and there exists an optimal size for particles in which the maximum operating power and minimum start-up temperature are reached. Jiang et al.  reported that sintering process inuences thermal resistance, and porosity thickness and powder diameter aect heat transfer limit. Their results also illustrated that an optimal sintering process should keep balance between high porosity and proper radial shrinkage for mandrel pulling out.
In comparing gapped graphene nanoribbons to wide graphene with no gap, there are several differences we may expect to see. First, since graphene nanoribbons have a strongly suppressed current at energies inside the gap, we may see an increased transconductance. Also, we could see larger and more fully saturated current in the “kink” region, as the presence of a gap causes the “kink” to more closely resemble pinch-off in a traditional MOS- FET. We may also see the effects of edge roughness. In narrow ribbons where edge roughness constitutes a signif- icant portion of the total ribbon width, this could lead to a decrease in maximum current carrying capabilities, or cause the devices to degrade more quickly.
biological and psychological tr eatments, it has a high rate of morbidity and mortality (5). Also, it can cause functional and psychological disability (6) and increase the risk of suicide (7). According to the undermining and recurrent nature of bipolar disorder (8), early diagnosis and intervention may reduce its negative consequences. The prevalence of bipolar disorder in general population is different among studies. Hardoon et al. (9) stated that these different statistics may be due to various sampling methods, various diagnostic tools, locational diversity, and varied observational periods. Blanco et al. (10) found the 12-month prevalence of bipolar disorder type 1 to be 1/5% to 2/1%, based on DSM- 5 criteria, and found no difference between males and females. The aggregate lifetime prevalence of all types of bipolar disorder was reported to be 5% (11). Previous studies showed that bipolar disorder is accompanied by special Iran J Psychiatry 2019; 14: 1: 60-66
Bosc and Pivert  said that “Bipolarity refers to the propensity of the human mind to reason and make decisions on the basis of positive and negative effects. Positive information states what is possible, satisfactory, permitted, desired, or considered as being acceptable. On the other hand, negative statements express what is impossible, rejected, or forbidden. Negative preferences correspond to constraints, since they specify which values or objects have to be rejected (i.e., those that do not satisfy the constraints), while positive preferences correspond to wishes, as they specify which objects are more desirable than others (i.e., satisfy user wishes) without rejecting those that do not meet the wishes”. Therefore, Lee [5,6] introduced the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets which is an generalization of the fuzzy sets. Recently bipolar fuzzy models have been studied by many authors on algebraic structures such as; Chen et. al.  studied of m-polar fuzzy set. Then, they examined many results which are related to those concepts can be generalized to the case of m-polar fuzzy sets. They also proposed numerical examples to show how to apply
We started our journey of using a computing machine from abacus computer system which is used for a simple calculation. But now in this era, we need a super computer. The super computer is used not only to solve a personal complex problem but also used to solve a worldwide problem. Now, a question arises how the computer becomes a super computer. It is the technology which provides drastically improvement in both hardware and software to design a high speed computing machine, machine to develop according to the increase in service demand. On the other context, availability means fault tolerance which continuously provides the services even though hardware or software failure occurs. While designing future generation computer which will ensure scalability and availability. One should give attention to the performance(execution time) and cost metrics in terms of power consumption. In 1980’s, the speed of computer measured in IPS(instruction per second). In the 1993,the performance of the system is measured in MIPS(millions instruction per second) or FLOPS(floating point operation per second). Then in 1995, the topmost super computer was designed by Japan named Numerical wind tunnel which was having computation speed 124 GFLOPS(Giga FLOPS).In 1997, the performance of super computer touched some TeraFLOPS. It was ASCI Red HPC(highperformance computing) system whose performance upgraded upto 3.1 TFLOPS. In 2008, a super computer named Road runner machine was designed by IBM ranked no.1 crosses the performance TFLOPS and entered to PETAFLOPS.Again in 2017,
We recall the concept of bipolar soft sets with some crucial definitions, properties and operations which are required for our work. Before that we will fix some notions. The symbol S stands for the universal set, P (S) is the power set of S, W represents the set of parameters and K, H and R are non empty subsets of W .
When using the inverting drivers in the MIC4426 or MIC4428, individual ground returns for the input and output circuits or a ground plane are recommended for optimum switching speed. The voltage drop that occurs between the driver’s ground and the input signal ground, during normal high-cur- rent switching, will behave as negative feedback and degrade switching speed.
Device fabrication followed the same process steps described in Ref. 9, but somewhat smaller SLEDs, with nomi- nal diameters of 15–35 lm, were selected for packaging and RF testing. SLEDs were mounted in the same type of package that has been employed previously in the evaluation of differ- ent types of NDR devices in the GaAs and InP material systems, 13–17 including SLEDs. 8–10 All SLEDs from Wafers 1 and 2 were first evaluated in the fundamental mode in a resonant-cap full-height WR-6 waveguide cavity. A subset of these SLEDs was then evaluated at fundamental-mode fre- quencies of 160–175 GHz in a resonant-cap full-height WR-5 waveguide cavity. To confirm fundamental-mode operation, the mechanical tuning range, i.e., oscillation frequency vs. back short position, was first determined. For SLEDs with oscillation frequencies up to 160 GHz, second-harmonic power extraction was then measured. Figure 1 shows the waveguide configuration for this method where a WR-3 waveguide, which cuts off all signals at frequencies below 174 GHz, is connected to the WR-6 output flange of the cavity.