the pole frequency of 3.36 MHz and Q = 0.65, while calculated value of pole frequency from (7) is 3.38 MHz (deviated by 0.59 %). The results shown in Fig. 4 are the gain and phase responses of the proposed filter obtained from Fig. 2. It is clearly seen that the proposed filter can provide low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, dependent on digital selection as shown in Tab. 1, without modifying circuit topology. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 display gain responses of band-pass function for different I B2 and I B3 values. It is shown that the quality
rences in the form of noise and harmonics. These unwanted signals pose problem to certain specified desired bands of frequencies. In many state-of-the-art equipment or systems, such as receivers, EEG and FDM etc., high quality factors and fast roll-off rate filter networks are used to select/reject or separate/combine signals at differ- ent frequencies . The common filters are the resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) based-filter networks. Others are the switched capacitor based filters using MOS switches rather than resistors or inductors. At high frequencies ( ≥1 MHz), inductance based filters are favourable, but become bulky and expensive at low-medium frequencies ( ≤1 MHz). The RC-filters utilizing operational amplifiers as active element and resistors and capa- citors as passive elements are best suited for low-medium frequency responses. However, high quality capaci- tors having superior stability characteristics are also expensive and large in size, while physically small capaci- tors such as ceramic capacitors, exhibit relatively poor stability characteristics  . These smaller capacitors when used as part of the filter capacitance may cause the filter to be highly Q-sensitive to circuit element value changes and thus exhibit unstable or severe amplitude peaking or attenuation .
This section presents design of the proposed NBBPF based on what is presented in Section 2. BPFs are generally designed using the insertion loss method . In this method low pass ﬁlter (LPF) prototype values can be obtained by the speciﬁcation given, such as insertion loss at some frequency in the passband of the ﬁlter and attenuation in the stopband. LPF prototypes values can be transformed into BPF values by using frequency transformation deﬁned as . Three CDRs have been used in this design. Obviously, with increasing number of CDRs, the order of the ﬁlter increases, and achieving narrower bandwidth will be easier. On the other hand, in order to avoid increasing the structure dimensions, three CDRs have been selected. In this design, each CDR is placed on a low-permittivity dielectric support as shown in Figure 1(c). The design parameters of the BPF such as external Q-factor (Q ex ) and coupling coeﬃcient (K i,i +1 ) can be determined by Eqs. (3) and (4) . It is necessary to
Abstract- The performance of a highpassfilter (HPF) and a bandpassfilter (BPF) with and without defected ground structure (DGS) was analyzed in this specific work. The Defected ground structure includes rectangular and circular etched shapes in ground plane. Calculation and comparison of the response of both filters was done separately. Parameters of the proposed configuration were calculated at the centre frequency of 1.5 GHz and also proposed designs were fabricated with dielectric constant of 4.4, loss tangent of 0.02 and substrate height of 1.6mm. Results were simulated using computer simulation technology software (CST) and fabricated structures tested on a spectrum analyzer. The undesired sidebands and fluctuations of response were reduced by using defected ground structure (DGS). Also the cut off point of the highpass filer is shifted to a higher frequency and an improvement in selectivity is achieved in the case of bandpassfilter (BPF).
A Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization (BB-BC) is developed for the optimal FIR filter design problems. This method consists of a Big Bang phase where candidate solutions are randomly distributed over the search space, and a Big Crunch phase working as a convergence operator where the center of mass is generated. The comparison of numerical results of optimal FIR filter design problems using the BB–BC method with the results obtained by other heuristic approaches like PSO and GA are performed to demonstrate the robustness of the present algorithm. The BB-BC optimization has several advantages over other evolutionary methods: Most significantly, a numerically simple algorithm and heuristic methods with relatively few control parameters; and the ability to solve problems that depend on large number of variables. Further research is required to evaluate this scenario for digital filter design especially in a dynamic environment.
The recent research and development practical applications of EBG structures have improved realizing compact EBG structures filters. EBG structure recently is developed rapidly due to its unique properties to suppress the propagation of surface wave in microstrip filters. EBG structure is also known as a high impedance surface due to its ability to suppress the propagation of surface wave at the certain operational frequency. This structure is also has ability to block the effect of mutual coupling effect in array application.
This is intended for low-level signal amplification where low noise, low thermal and time drifts, high input impedance an accurate close loop gain are required. Besides, high CMRR and high slew rate are desirable for superior performance. The two signals entering the differential amplifier are subtracted to cancel the common noise present in the signal. Because of instrumentation amplifier common noise gets cancel with the advantage of strengthening the signal. EOG signally is of the very low voltage of some millivolts. We have used instrumentation amplifier to strengthen this low power signal and obtain a required output.
Abstract: This paper present realization of an efficient reconfigurable distributed arithmetic (DA)-based digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter using field programmable gate array(FPGA). Usually In case of reconfigurable DA based filter Lookup tables (LUTs) are implemented using RAM. For DA computation shared-LUT concept is proposed because it is economic. In DA processing to store partial inner product result of different bit positions DA units will share the register .To implement a DA based FIR filter we are using FPGA. The proposed filter supports for maximum input sampling frequency of 442MHz and it requires less number of LUTs and Slice registers so it is area efficient design. The proposed design for different LUT partition is implemented on Xilinx vertex-5 FPGA device (XC5VSX95T-1FF1136).
A new active highpassfilter, comprising of two general purpose operational amplifiers (OA’s), five resistors and one capacitor is presented. The analytical expressions are obtained and the performance of the proposed circuit is examined in relation to the conventional circuit. Simulation and experimental results are presented which establish the superiority of the proposed highpassfilter over the conventional circuit.
The simulation of 5 th order highpassfilter is shown in fig 4. FR4 (lossy) material with dielectric constant 4.4, loss tangent .02 and height of substrate 1.6mm are used in design. The graphs obtain after the simulation (CST software) of highpassfilter without defected ground structure are shown in fig5.In this proposed work the result is calculated in 0- 3GHz frequency range only for calculating the response of highpassfilter without DGS structure of L band telecommunication user for 1800-1900 MHz
Chapter II mainly describes findings on a literature review of the project. It covers related research from bandpassfilter, dual-bandbandpassfilter, tri-bandbandpassfilter, multi-bandbandpassfilter and DMS. The chapter starts with the basic theory and fundamental of the filter. The basic understanding of the parameters and the basics of microwave filter must be clearly made before continuing on understanding the project. The most important part of this chapter is emphasizing literature on different technique designing band-passfilter.
the design task. In [13, 14], eigenvalue-eigenvector approach was proposed to find the optimum prototype filter coefficients in time domain. Chen and Lee  presented a WLS method based on linearization of the objective function to obtain the optimal filter tap- weights. This approach requires intensive matrix inversions, therefore, not suitable for real-time applications. Various iterative methods [18-23] and genetic algorithm based techniques [24-27] have been proposed for the design of two-channel QMF banks. Authors in  have developed an efficient technique by considering filter responses in pass-band, stop-band and also in transition band regions for the design of QMF bank. Recently,  presented an improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method for designing linear phase QMF banks and Ghosh et al.  proposed an approach based on adaptive-differential- evolution algorithm for the design of NPR two-channel QMF banks. Fig. 1 shows the analysis and synthesis sections of a two-channel QMF bank. The discrete input signal x(n) is divided into two sub-band signals having equal band width, using the low-pass and high-pass analysis filters H 1 (z) and H 2 (z), respectively. The sub-
Microwave filter is a two-port network used to control the frequency response at a certain point in a microwave system by offering transmission at frequency range for passband of the filter and attenuation in the stop band of the filter. Normal frequency responses include low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band reject characteristics and all pass characteristics .
Analog to Digital conversion plays a crucial role in all current day communication systems. In order to catch up with the current day technology advancements, sigma-delta converters are used with AN aim of high level of robustness and practicality with reduced chip price. it's applied in facility, medical devices, machine-driven production facilities, computers, weapons, navigation instrumentality, tools etc. Hence, if substantial analog signal process (ASP) is performed, random artifacts (noise) can accumulate, and also the ensuing signal might not represent the specified signal with the specified significance.[l] This paper focuses solely on delta-sigma modulation as chosen technique for A/D and D/A conversion. supported the mix of oversampling and quantization error shaping techniques Delta -sigma modulator deliver the goods a high degree of unfitness to analog circuit imperfections, so creating them a acceptable option to understand embedded analog-to-digital interfaces in trendy systems-on-chip (SoCs) integrated in millimicron CMOS.
That problem of image with direct conversion can be overcome using superheterodyne receiver. This is the traditional radio receiver architecture for wireless communication. The solution is to place a filter before the mixer to remove the image. A very high quality bandpassfilter is needed, to provide the desired performance. To achieve good selectivity by down-converting the received RF signal in multiple steps. In multi-band heterodyne radio architecture, there will be higher power consumption, and a higher overall cost for the system, translation. Also at the end, the received signal information, though of high quality, is usually weak.
Before starting the project implementation, the literature review is carried out to gain some information from journals, articles and reference books to study on the nature of microwave filters. In order to implement this project, all the techniques of loss compensation that involved of synthesis the microwave filter with finite dissipative loss have been study. For the simulation part, software Maple and Advance Design System (ADS) are chosen to simulate the results that obtained and the comparison will be done to ensure the element values that obtained from the mathematical modeling is correct so that to get the desired performance as the expected result for the filter.
From the literature survey it is found that, several authors proposed various designs for building pre-amplifiers and narrow band-pass filters, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Kurihara, Y., et al., designed a DC coupled single input pre-amplifier with wider low-frequency and rail-to-rail transconductance amplifier for capacitive sensors such as capacitive electret film type sensor . Jawed S.A. et al., designed a multi-function two stage chopper-stabilized pre-amplifier for MEMS capacitive microphone. The gain and high-pass filtering corner can be adjusted by digitally controlling the capacitor banks in the pre-amplifier . Rieger.R. et al., designed a low-noise pre-amplifier for nerve cuff electrode recording where certain important issues involved in the designing of nerve signal pre-amplifier for implantable neuroprotheses were discussed and design and evaluation of a complete pre- amplifier fabricated in a 0.8-µm double-metal double-poly process were described . Hunter I.C. et al., presented explicit design formulas for electronically tunable microwave band-pass filters and the computer analysis of varactor tuned combine band-passfilter including the small signal varactor equivalent circuit which enables filter performance to be easily evaluated . Matthei G.I showed the important advantages for designing compact narrow-band filters by introducing hairpin-comb filter which have special properties that are advantageous for the design of compact, narrow- band, and bandpass microstrip filters .
consumes high amount of power and produces delay during the partial products addition. Most of the multipliers are designed with different kind of multi operands adders that are capable to add more than two input operands and results in two outputs, sum and carry. The number of adders is minimized by Wallace Tree. Compressors are used in multiplier architecture. Multipliers are usually structured into three functions: partial-product generation, partial-product accumulation and final addition. The main source of power, delay and area is the partial-product accumulation stage. Compressors reduces the number of adders required at the
In area of DSP, the function of filters is to eliminate the selected range of signal such as noise or to extract meaningful data from the signal. A filter is a device which is designed to pass frequencies within a specific range while rejecting all other unwanted frequencies that fall outside this range. Filters are widely in use in the field of image processing, communication and signal processing applications such as radar, video operations, audio processing, ECG, EMG, EEG, channel equalization, signal filtering, noise reduction, analyzing of financial and economic data. Depending upon the components used in a filter, they are classified as low passfilter, highpassfilter, bandpassfilter and band stop filter. In this paper, we demonstrate three types of IIR (infinite impulse response) filter namely Butterworth, Chebyshev type 1 and elliptic, applying MATLAB software as it provides figure demonstration. In this paper we analyze all the three variety of filters.
To build an RF MEMS structure with micromachining, the wafer could be processed using conventional processes to create transmission line capacitors and inductors that are required before the RF MEMS processing starts. A resist layer is then deposited and patterned to protect this part of the circuit from the RF MEMS processing steps. This layer can be removed at the completion of RF MEMS fabrication. The surface micromachining involves the selective adding and removing of metal, dielectric and sacrificial layers on the substrate surface. Depending on the step, either a metal or a dielectric or a sacrificial layer is then deposited, patterned and etched. This sequence of steps is repeated until the required RFMEMS three-dimensional structure is completed. The process employs four masks for device fabrication and one additional mask for the fabrication of package structure. Four inches quartz wafers are used for the device fabrication. The package structures are patterned in the form of rings of SU8-10 on standard silicon substrate. The released structures of tunable low pass filters are subjected to wafer level packaging using chip on wafer bonding with the help of Fine Tech Fine Placer Flip Chip Bonding. Further, the effects of introducing thick metal for DC actuation in the ground plane (Type A in Figure 1) and thin metal for DC actuation (Type B in Figure 1) are studied.