Abstract—This paper describes the design process of a 10 kW 19000 rpm highpower density surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine for a directly coupled pump application. In order to meet the required specifications, a compact machine, with cooling channels inside the slots and flooded airgap, has been designed through finite element optimization. For highpower density, high speed machines, an accurate evaluation of the power losses and the electromechanical performance is always extremely challenging. In this case, the completely flooded application adds to the general complexity. Therefore this paper deals with a detailed losses analysis (copper, core, eddy current and mechanical losses) considering several operating conditions. The experimental measurements of AC copper losses as well as the material properties (BH curve and specific core losses), including the manufacturing process effect on the stator core, are presented. Accurate 3D finite element models and computational fluid dynamics analysis have been used to determine the eddy current losses in the rotor and windage losses respectively. Based on these detailed analysis, the no load and full load performance are evaluated. The experimental results, on the manufactured prototype, are finally presented to validate the machine design.
Considering the above, the next step was to select the suitable configuration among the SMPM machines. Therefore, for the SMPM, different slot/pole combinations and winding configurations have been investigated for the specific application to satisfy the project requirements. Among the other slot/pole combinations, 8p/9s machine presents lower torque ripple, cogging torque, shorter end- windings which contribute to lower copper losses  and higher efficiency and higher torque density. Therefore, 8p/ 9s SMPM machine with double layer (concentrated) winding is considered for the rest of this work. It is well known [12, 13] that such slot/pole combination presents high rotor losses due to the harmonic-rich components for the armature reaction field. This indicates a topology whose performance is very sensitive to the air gap thickness dimension and attention must therefore be given to this aspect .
We have done the calculation of absorbed pump light distribution for the specific construction of edged-pumped Yb:YAG/YAG highpower disk laser in different value of Yb +3 ions concentration. First, we simulated irradiance pump light distribution through the disk by using Monte-Carlo ray tracing method. Second, Absorption pump light distribution have been calculated via FEA method for 12%, 14% and 20% of Yb +3 ions concentrations. The results show that by increasing of Yb +3 ions concentration over 14%, will influence of non-uniformity of absorbed pump light distribution in one hand and in addition absorption length through the disk also will decrease. However by choosing a suitable dimension of the active medium and appropriate cooling system, those loss effects will be eliminated and will improve the efficiency of the delivery laser system.
This paper presents an investigation of pulse-on-demand operation in fibre and hybrid lasers. Two methods for efficient gain control that enable the generation of laser pulses at arbitrary times with controlled pulse parameters are presented. The method of direct modulation of the pumppower in the high-power laser oscillator is shown to generate pulses with a duration in the nanosecond range, with repetition rates varying during operation from a single shot to over 1 MHz. An advanced method using a combination of marker and idler seeding a fibre amplifier chain is investigated. Such a system can easily achieve repetition rates of several tens of MHz. The lasers’ performances were successfully tested in a real environment on an industrial platform for laser transfer printing. Similar concepts were used for a laser source with ultrashort laser pulses (femtosecond range) on demand by using a mode-locked seed as a source and a solid-state amplifier to achieve high pulse energy and peak power.
This paper describes a trade-off analysis for highpower density SMPM machine for a flooded industrial pump application. The performances of different designs have been analysed and compared including different slot–pole combinations and winding configurations. In order to achieve the required performance level for the 8p/9s PMSM and to improve the thermal limitation, several methodologies such as the use of Cobalt iron material and Halbach array have been investigated. It was clear that with the implementation of the above methodology an excellent performance of high torque with lower torque ripple and more sinusoidal back-EMF was achieved. In addition, a machine with a highpower density of 3.7kW/kg was achieved for the considered motor application. A very important aspect of the design was the cooling channels created inside the slots. The rotor is cooled by oil flow through gap between stator and rotor. In the worst case of
The invention of the EDFA in the late eighties was one of the major events in the history of optical communications. It provided new life to the optical fibre transmission window centred at 1550 nm and the consequent research into technologies that allow high bit-rate transmission over long distances. EDFA has cores doped with atoms of an element that light from an external laser can excite to a state in which stimulated emission can occur. Pump light from the external laser steadily illuminates one or both ends of the fiber and is guided along the fiber length to excite the atoms in the core.
Abstract: A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22 % was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95 % overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm 2 (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm 2 from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm 2 , without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.
2. Technology has so far not reached the state to produce DC operated pumps in the MW range to be able to utilize the power generated by PV modules directly. The maximum rated power of a DC pump cited on the web is about 900 HP which is about 0.7 MW. The bulky and expensive nature of these pumps hinders their use in any electromechanical DC to AC conversion which has efficiency of about 80%
Solar powerpump have the potential to provide significant changes to rural communities. It is not only throughthe direct of provision of water but also through the possibilities of sociological and economic development. The impact of solar powerpump can go beyond the availability of fresh water but can hae both positive and negative consequences. Without knowledge of these consequences it is difficult to see the solar powerpump designers, manufacturers and project implementers can hope to provide a sustainable solution to the problem of water provision. In fact, solar pumps are becoming one of the favored means for pumping water.
A pump for exerting a pumping force on a fluid in an attached conduit, the pump being actuated by a voltage from a power supply, the pump comprising a liquid metal pool, a containment vessel for confining the pool, an inner tubular member in hydraulic contact with the attached conduit and with an open end disposed in the pool to divide a free upper surface of the pool into an actuation surface and a working surface, an electrolyte in contact with the actuation surface, an electrode in contact with the electrolyte, and an electrode in contact with the pool, such that application of a voltage to the electrodes causes a surface tension change in the actuation surface and a resulting height change in the working surface, whereby a pumping action is transferred to the fluid in the attached conduit.
Increase of the HT condensation temperature to (75)°C raised the power consumption by compressor for all of the refrigerant pair systems with various magnitudes. The lower intermediate temperatures exhibited higher power consumption than those at higher values zone as shown in Figure 8. The lower power consumption was obtained for the R717/R600a system at HT condenser of (70)°C and (35)°C intermediate temperature. It is ranged between (175) kW and (202) kW for LT evaporator temperature of (-2)°C and (- 10)°C respectively. This is mainly due to the low temperature lift and pressure ratio required in order to attain the specified conditions at the HT cycle. The R717/R600a and R717/R134a systems showed the highest compressor discharge temperature of R717 at the LT cycle among the rest
4.2(a) Eye Diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (optimizing wavelength) 41 4.2(b) Eye Diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (optimizing length) 44 4.2(c) Eye Diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (optimizing power) 47 4.2(d) Eye Diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (1W pumppower) 50 4.2(e) Eye Diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (650mW– 4 pumps power) 53 4.2(f) Eye diagram for Receiver 1 until Receiver 8 (1W – 4 pumps power) 56 4.3(a) BER Representation Based On Three Parameters Sweep 60 4.3(b) BER Representation Based on 1W Power 1 Pump and 4 Pumps Power 60
distinct disadvantages. For example, a system based on a diaphragm pump actuated by a high-bandwidth low-hysteresis actuator, such as a voice coil, is able to control pressure in the high frequency range but has too low of a stroke volume to pressurize larger animal hearts. Also, performing static valve sufficiency tests (maintaining pressure at a specific level to measure leakage) is not possible.
Abstract: The cooling system of internal combustion engine plays a major role in a vehicle performance. In the present work, a proposed electronic controller for the cooling system is introduced and modelled mathematically to control the engine coolant temperature using a controllable electric water pump and radiator fan. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR) control techniques are considered to design the cooling system controller both the coolant flow rate and radiator fan speed are used to control the engine coolant temperature. The Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) is used to test the proposed controller based on mathematical simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The generated numerical results are presented in thetime domain and compared with theconventional cooling system. The results showed that the proposed controller enhanced the engine coolant temperature either during warm-up or steady-state operation over that of theconventional cooling system.
harmonic power density P 3 max should be 3 per cent. This discrepancy may be ex- plained in the following way. It is known from the common theory of nonlinear processes that the pump radiation should meet certain conditions for the most efficient transforma- tion of that radiation into the radiation of higher harmonics: the angular divergence of the output radiation should be smaller than the angular phase-matching width and its spectral width should not exceed the frequency phase-matching width . Otherwise not all of the pumppower would take part in the process of nonlinear transformation. Since the duration of the pump radiation has been 70 fs in our experiments, its spectral width 10 nm and the angular divergence has remained significant due to beam focusing, the conditions mentioned above are not fulfilled. This has resulted in substantial decrease of the THG efficiency.
Optical receiver is used to convert optical signal to electrical signal. The output power of the amplifier is measured by optical power meter. The performance of the system is analysed at different pumping power and performance parameters like bit error rate, quality factor and extinction ratio are observed.
The influencing factors to the passing capacity issue of screw pump in directional wells are pump length, casing size and dogleg angle, wherein casing size and dogleg angle is immutable. On the premise of no change in pump length, an axial force is applied to an end of pump, forcing the pump flexural deformation to increase pump passing capacity. The theoretical analysis to this squeeze pump method has been done, and then the calculation model of the pump through the dogleg is built, under specific conditions the maximum allowed value of pump setting depth is derived, in the calculation model, considering the impact of bending of pump on stator rubber structure. Case studies show that, some dogleg cannot be through merely under the weight of the pump can be through by adopt the method of squeeze pump, according to the calculation results can determined the maximum allowed value of pump depth, while avoiding stator rubber being snapped and degumming in the squeeze process.
The design of the drive and eccentric shaft, the high efficiency worm gear, a minimal number of parts, and the multi-range motor, provide the 205 pump with several advantages. The 205 pumps are avail- able with a three-phased flange mount and multi- range motor for 380-420 volts at 50 Hz or 440-480 volts at 60 Hz, or with a free shaft end for use with other motors. Various gear ratios and reservoir sizes, with or without level control are available. The reservoir, available in 4, 5 or 8 liter sizes, is suitable for both grease and oil.