with loaded wagons are planned until the end of June 2011. In July 2011 a trial run of wagons carrying curtain walled swap bodies built to a larger European loading gauge was run from Dollands Moor, Folkestone to east London. From 11 November 2011 a weekly service using European sized swap bodies has run between Barking, London and Poland using HighSpeed 1.
High starting torque is the unique feature for traction motors. Earlier dc series motors are normally used for locomotives but due to easy operational and maintenances, cage induction motors with better performance characteristics are prefered recently. In thecase of ac motors,when the motor rises speed , the frequency of supply also rises in manner such it maintains net slip frequency, above the motors rotational frequency.Thus we can control the speed by using some Variable frequency Drives (VFD )drives. In the case of dc series motor drives, the commutator acts as a mechanical inverter also its need for regular maintenance, its susceptibility to water ingress and flashover. In addition to the commutator maintenance, the other accessories like contactors/camshaft also require maintenance regularly and the overall cost of the dc drive system is also high . Because of all these reasons squirrel cage induction motors are most preferable motor drives for locomotive application .The advantages of using induction motor for traction application as listed below:-
Electric traction is generally considered the most economical and efficient means of operating a railroad, provided that cheap electricity is available and that the traffic density justifies the heavy capital cost. Being simply power-converting, rather than power-generating devices, electric locomotives have several advantages. They can draw on the resources of the central power plant to develop power greatly in excess of their nominal ratings to start a heavy train or to surmount a steep grade at highspeed. A typical modern electriclocomotive rated at 6,000 horsepower has been observed to develop as much as 10,000 horsepower for a short period under these conditions Most of the traction loads are single phase loads.
the road load energy required to move the vehicle mass along a driving trace, then distributing that energy demand to the various vehicle components (engine, electric motor, fuel cell, etc). The energy components are modeled using overall systems efficiencies. The validations in this report are conducted mainly with certification fuel economy data (though there are two modal test results presented). Where appropriate, simplifications and approximations are made using physical constraints, or based on publications in the literature. The model currently only models hot running operation. Cold start factors are handled in MOVES separately, and will only briefly be described in this report. For the purposes of modeling the future fleet, our goal is to allow as many of the significant assumptions as possible to be under the control of the user. However, default values will be presented in this paper. An attempt will be made to justify the assumptions in each case. The report begins by describing conventional vehicles, both gasoline and diesel (light and heavy duty). It then goes on to briefly examine advanced engines. Hybrid vehicles are modeled and validated, followed by fuel cell vehicles. The report caps off with a sensitivity analysis and describes how PERE rates might feed into MOVES. Each section is broken up into subsections representing the primary parts of the model: Vehicle, engine (or fuel cell), transmission, and motor.
With the aim of comparing the performances of the various drive topologies presented in the previous section, several electro-thermal simulations in Matlab-Simulink environment have been carried out, at the rated current and the maxi- mum speed. The hardware design of the various converters follows closely the previously discussed considerations. The only difference is given by the absence of the output filter in the voltage source based topologies; the introduction of such component would negatively affect the drive’s dynamic performances, in particular the output current maximum rate of change and so the load’s variation response time. In order to increase the efficiency, devices using wide band-gap materials have been chosen; in particular Silicon Carbide MOSFET’s (ST microelectronics SCT20N120) have been selected for all the converter except for the multilevel NPC inverter, where the lower breakdown voltage requirement has made the usage of gallium nitride devices (GaN systems TPH3208P). As reported in Table II, which summarizes the device technologies used for each converter, both current source and voltage source topologies controlled in six step operation make use of Si devices for the main bridge and SiC devices for the pre- regulator circuit. To be able to capture both thermal and electric effects with a single simulation of reasonable running length, a piecewise-linear approach has been used. After the initial transient, all the current and voltage waveforms along the power losses have been recorded. Once the simulation reached the steady state, the load current’s harmonic profile has been calculated by mean of a fast Fourier transform (using a hanning window to lessen the border discontinuity effects). These current waveforms are then used to evaluate the losses of the machine in realistic operating conditions as discussed in the next sub-section.
Purpose. The railways of Ukraine have been operated the locomotives, which are both morally and physically obsolete. Therefore, to ensure the competitiveness of rail transport it is necessary to update the locomotive fleet, and first of all the fleet of electric locomotives, because electrified railways provide the greater part of passenger and freight traffic. In this connection it is of special importance to determine the optimum parameters of the nominal mode of electric rolling stock. The purpose of the work is to examine the features of solution of these problems with respect to electric locomotives. Methodology. Assuming that the limit values of traction force are determined by the conditions of wheel-rail grip, then the power of the nominal mode can be represented as the product of rated speed, estimated friction coefficient, train weight and the coefficients that represent the ratio of the estimated (starting) val- ue of traction force to value of traction force the nominal mode and the ratio of the mass of the locomotive to the train weight. Since the mass of the train is not a constant value, there is always a surplus power of the locomotive fleet required for the mastering of a predetermined volume of transportations. Reduced overcapacity of the locomo- tive fleet can be achieved by introduction of the locomotives of different power, designed for driving trains of dif- ferent weight that will result in increased completeness of the power use but also in difficulty in selecting of loco- motives for trains in operation. The paper shows the method of calculating the optimum values of power, speed and traction force of the nominal mode. It presents the mathematical model of the relationship of traction rate, excessive capacity and power of the traction unit. Findings. It is proved that the power of the traction unit, the total fleet pow- er requirement and the excess of power in absolute units are proportional to the speed of the nominal mode. To re- duce the total power of the fleet when selecting the optimum power of the traction unit it is necessary to take into consideration the speed of the nominal mode, defined by the condition of minimization of power consumption for traction, i.e. the smallest value that enables the implementation of the given running speed and the power redun- dancy level required for operation. Originality. It consists in the development of a unified algorithm for determining the optimal parameter values of the nominal mode of passenger, freight and freight-passenger electric locomotives. Practical value. The authors determined the minimization costs during production, acquisition and maintenance of electric locomotives, whose nominal mode parameters are designed according to the above procedure.
1. O.P. Kesari : For implementation of HOG scheme by manufacturing of 3 Phase electric loco with IGBT technology having minimum 2x500 KVA hotel load converters on loco and one under-slung DA set in SLR for Rajdhani/Shatabdi trains. 2. www.railElectrica.com : Head-on-Generation (HOG). Power is supplied from the train locomotive at the head of the train. The single phase 25 kV transformer of the electriclocomotive is provided with hotel load winding which is converted to three phase AC at 750 V using 2×500 kVA inverter and supplied to the same system .
The arrangement of 12 armature coil is tested using coil test analysis to the design HEFSSM as shown in Fig.3. Initially, all armature coils are set in counter clockwise direction, while the PM and DC FEC polarities are set in alternate direction to create 12 north and 12 south poles respectively. Then, the flux linkage in each armature coil slot is analyzed for the motor running at speed of 1200r/min. At this condition, the flux source is mainly comes from the PM where the DC FEC current is set to 0A
Abstract-. This paper deals with the solutions for developing the direct coupled electric drive to be used in combination with a radial turbo-expander for exhaust energy recovery in automotive applications. The descriptions of project realization of both the axial-flux permanent-magnet (PM) generator and the three-level boost-rectifier converter, which results as the preferred topology for the controlled rectifier, are given. The high rotational speed of the direct-driven PM generator results in highelectric fundamental frequency also, which is challenging for the electric drive control issues.the proposed concept can be implemented for multilevel inverter fed highspeedelectric drive applications by using Matlab/Simulation software and the results are verified.
Purpose. To conduct research of electric motors in order to obtain the results that will assess the degree of ener- gy saving due to electric loss reduction in the equipment with non-controlled electric drive. Methodology. The paper proposes an engineering method for determination of active power losses in the motors of the equipment with non-controlled electric drive in locomotive depot during load changes on the motor shaft. It is necessary to analyse the reduction of active power losses in the motor and the power supply network when an under-loaded motor is replaced with a motor having less power. Findings. After the calculations performed by the authors, it was found that for electric motors, in case of reducing the load factor from 0,7...0,75 to 0, 4...0,5 active loss reduction after the motor replacement for the less powerful one ranges from 0.58 kW to 2.865 kW. Also, the calculations were carried out on the example of electric motors with a lower synchronous speed, the effect of under-loaded motor replacement increases in terms of active power loss reduction. The greatest effect is achieved when the load factor is
The vehicle driven electrically with the help of a lithium ion battery and a BLDC motor. The motor is made to run with the help of lithium ion battery. The specification of lithium ion battery is about 48V 10Ah battery. A pinion is made to fit on the motor. The 600W motor is used for our project. The electric current from the battery is passed to the controller then the required amount of current will be flown into the motor. The voltage of the controller must match with the battery pack. The sinewave controller to be used for the project. The motor drives the rear wheel of the vehicle with the help of a chain drive. Then the vehicle is set to move. The speed and range of the vehicle can be increased by increasing the battery capacity and then the motor specifications. The battery is charged with the help of charger. The battery charger must be used as it should match
The available equipment of the locomotive hy- draulic transmission test-bench allowed for design of the optical type speed sensor based on the exist- ing sensor D-2MMU-2. The factory testing with the use of a sensor prototype resulted in determina- tion of the required and sufficient sampling time for sensor operating microcontroller, which al- lowed making changes to the measurement algo- rithm.
There are some commercial solutions of flywheels used for trains [Urenco, Piller, Pentadyne, Beacon, etc] and many technologies have been used in terms of type of machine, flywheel materials and power, energy and speed levels. The system developed and presented in this paper is designed to be commercially competitive and presents several benefits: The technology is completely proper (machine, flywheel, power electronics and control); the materials used are conventional and the team has previous experience in fabrication of this type of electromagnetic devices, vacuum, power electronics and control platforms construction and testing, achieving an optimal cost and ensuring the success.
Exceptional reliability and smooth operation is ensured by a motor driven by a frequency inverter. This technology ensures a soft start and stop, which increases the longevity of the motor considerably. It also allows faster opening/closing speed. This motor delivers reliable operations around-the clock. The operator is always combined with a control unit. The operator drives the fabric roll to open or close the door. In case of a main supply failure, the operator can be
Abstract: More electric aircraft has been a subject of increasing discussions and research for more than ten years now, both in Europe and in North America. These efforts follow the growing realisation of the benefits that are likely to emerge from the future growth of the more electric aircraft technology. This is evident from the sizes and numbers of research and development programmes currently undertaken on the subject by both aerospace industry and academic institutions. Highspeed permanent magnet motors, excited by rare-earth magnetic materials, are used extensively in majority of these research programmes. The applications, on more electric aircrafts, often demand motor drives that have very high reliability, energy efficiency and high power density. On of the factors that require significant design consideration is the effect of highspeed on the operational performance of the motor. High rotational speed impacts heavily on the rotational losses whilst the high peripheral speed influences the mechanical construction of the rotor. Iron and windage losses can become dominating factors in determining the overall rating and efficiency of the motor. The other important consideration relate to the ability of the motor to generate high torque at low speed, a feature that is very essential in actuation drive systems on the aircraft.