Chris Gerada (M’05) received the Ph.D. degree in numerical modeling of electrical machines from The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., in 2005. He subsequently worked as a Researcher with The University of Nottingham on high performance electrical drives and on the design and modeling of electromagnetic actuators for aerospace applications. Since 2006, he has been the Project Manager of the GE Aviation Strategic Partnership. He became a Lecturer in electrical machines in 2008, an Associate Professor in 2011, and a Professor in 2013 at The University of Nottingham. His main research interests include the design and modeling of high-performance electric drives and machines. Prof. Gerada serves as an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS and is the Chair of the Electrical Machines Committee of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Gaurang Vakil (M’16) received Ph.D. from Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD) group at Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi (IITD) in variable speed generator design for renewable energy applications in 2016. He subsequently worked as a Research Associate with Power Electronics, Machines and Controls (PEMC) group at the University of Nottingham. In 2016 he was appointed as an assistant professor with electrical and electronics engineering department in University of Nottingham. His main research interests include analytical modelling and design optimization of electrical machines, optimizing electric drive-train for pure electric and hybrid vehicles, high power density machines, magnetic material characterization and high- performance electrical machines for transport and renewable generation. Chintan Patel (S’08–M’12) received the Ph.D. degree from the Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, in 2011. He has been a Research Fellow with the Power Electronics, Machines and Control Group, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K., since March 2011. His current research interests include applications of power electronic converters for electromechanical actuation and aircraft electrical power systems.
Interactions of primary cosmic rays with the earth’s atmo- sphere produce a flux of high energy muons. These muons come mostly from the vertical, following a known zenith an- gular distribution. It is also known that muons are arriving in the horizontal direction with a smaller average intensity, but with a higher intensity at energies above a few 100 GeV. These horizontal muons can be used to perform radiography of a volcano. If the topography of a volcano is known, the in- formation from counting muon events in the detector at dif- ferent arriving angles can be used to infer the average density of the matter through which the muons traveled because only the integrated effect along the travel path leads to the attenua- tion of the flux. Since most muon cannot penetrate more than a few km through solid material, the target is limited to the top region or a small volcano. However, the spatial resolu- tion (up to 10 m) of the image is better than the one obtained by the seismic tomography (normally up to 500 m if we use natural earthquakes).
 Popovic J, Ferreira J.A, Gerber M.B, Konig A, de Doncker, R. “Integration technologies for high power density power electronic converters for AC drives”. Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2006. SPEEDAM 2006. Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 634 – 639  M. Raza Khowja, C. Gerada, G. Vakil, P. Wheeler and C. Patel “Novel Itegraive Options for Passive Filter Inductor in HighSpeed AC Drives” Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016 – 42 nd Annual Conference of
are only compared against other reported SiNW FETs using high- κ gate dielectrics. Rudenko et al.  reported the state-of-the-art mobilities (260 and 175 cm 2 /(V·s) for electrons and holes, respectively) for top-down SiNW FETs with 2700 nm 2 cross-section, which is almost 10 times greater than the SiNWs explored here. van Dal et al.  reported electron and hole mobilities of 225 cm 2 /(V·s) and 175 cm 2 /(V·s) for 975 nm 2 cross-section SiNW FETs. For bottom-up grown, 314 nm 2 cross-section SiNW FETs, Zheng et al.  and Duan et al.  reported mobility values of 270 and 119 cm 2 /(V·s) for n- and p-FETs, respectively. Based upon the combined metrics of NW cross-section and carrier mobilities, our SiNW FETs exhibit state-of-the-art performance, indicating that our SiNW surface treatment effectively reduces surface scattering to maintain high mobilities .
In conventional IDMA, single spreader is used for spreading different users and different inter-leavers are used for user separation. In IDMA, Each user is encoded by the same spreading code due to this there is so much redundancy is introduced which degrades the speed of transmission. To improve this limitation we use separate spreading codes for each users and then apply the phenomenon of contemporary IDMA for transmission. This new techniques is known as User-Spread IDMA. It helps to mitigate ISI and MAI and also reduces the Probability of bit error (Pe).
At very high frequencies (in the microwave region), the cross sectional dimensions of the line become comparable to the wavelength of the propagating signal, allowing higher order (non TEM) modes to propagate (Djordjevic et al 1987). Secondly the analysis becomes complicated further if the influence of discontinuities (Tripathi and Bucolo 1987, Chen and Gao 1989, Orhanovic et al 1990, Zheng and Chang 1990, Sabban and Gupta 1992) (present at line ends, bends, crossovers, etc.), or nonuniformity of microstrips (Palusinski and Lee 1989, Mao and Li 1991, Dhaene and De Zutter 1992, Schutt-Aine 1992) (e.g. tapered) are to be included. Finally to evaluate the response of a transmission line terminated by arbitrary networks, which are generally non-linear (e.g. active components) with memory (i.e. contain capacitors and inductors), it is necessary to consider every part of the system simultaneously.
Another approach to achieve both high performance and multifunctionality is to utilize hybrids of nanoma- terials [30–36]. Functional hybrid nanomaterials often exhibit substantially different physical, mechanical, mag- netic, chemical, and optical properties compared to their individual and/or bulk counterparts [37–40]. By integrat- ing different functional nanomaterials, the performance of wearable devices can be dramatically improved and/or diversified [1, 7, 41–46]. For the realization of this goal, the type, size, thickness, and concentration of the nano- materials should be carefully designed . In the follow- ing, we summarize recently reported wearable sensors/ actuators [7, 13, 47], memories [41, 48], energy storage devices , and displays [50, 51] that exploit various nanomaterials [7, 44, 46, 52, 53] and their hybrids (Fig. 1). We also describe the roles of each nanomaterial in spe- cific devices, improved device functions, their system integrations, and provide brief perspectives on future research directions.
One potential problem with the NRZ format is the occurrence of long sequences of “0” or “1,” also referred to as consecutive identical digits (CID) . When a long sequence of CID is transmitted, there is not any transition in the data for a long time. Consequently, the receiver that extracts the timing information from the spacing between received data transitions loses synchronization. To avoid the loss of synchronization, the data is encoded before the transmission using run-length-limited code words. Such code words guarantee a maximum number of CID bits. For instance the 8-bit/10-bit (8b/10b) encoding scheme that was proposed by IBM  is widely used in several high-speed wireline applications, such as Fibre Channel for storage networks and 10Gigabit Ethernet for local area networks. The 8b/10b coding replaces a byte of information with 10 transmission bits. It guarantees a maximum of five CID bits. In addition, it keeps dc balance of the signal by allowing an equal number of “1s” and “0s” for transmission. A disadvantage of the 8b/10b coding is the 25% increase in the data rate. Basically, to keep 10Gb/s data throughput, the signaling speed must be increased to 12.5Gb/s because of the 25% data overhead added by the encoding. This is undesirable in some applications such as SONET. Instead SONET standard recommends using data scrambling (no overhead) or very low overhead encoding. However, the link for SONET is required to tolerate up to 72 CID .
VF control in one direction makes the drive topology and control algorithm relatively easy. The task is to generate a variable voltage and frequency power supply from a fixed voltage and frequency power supply (such as a wall-outlet power supply). Most PSC motors are designed to run in one direction. However, many applications call for bidirectional motor rotation. In this section, we will discuss bidirectional speed control of PSC motors using a microcontroller-based drive and H-Bridge Inverter. The drive topologies discussed here produce effective voltages, which drive the main winding and start winding at 90-degree phase shifts to each other. This enables the system designer to remove the capacitor, which is in series with start winding, from the circuit permanently—thereby reducing the total system cost.
In this paper, it can be seen that the performance of digital circuits can be enhanced using reversible gates and have compared 8-bit ripple carry reversible adder with an irreversible adder in terms of speed and power; thereby concluding that reversible designs are faster and power efficient. Furthermore, this concept is extended to combinational circuits such as a Wallace tree multiplier using reversible gates, which were simulated and respective results validate prior inferences. Then a reversible sequential control unit of a GCD processor was designed. Thus, all the designs implemented were compared with their irreversible counterparts, and the speed and power parameters for the reversible designs were observed to have improved significantly.
The high-speed camera used in the research was a Photron Mini AX-200, and the maximum resolution was 1,024 × 1,024 pixels at 6,400 frame per second, which yields the limited data requisition rate at roughly 10 gigabytes per second, so the resolution will be reduced as the frame rate increases. For the balance between image resolution and sampling frequency, the camera was set at 384 × 384 pixels at 36,000 frame per second. The camera and two Zaila Daylight LEDs were mounted on the two-dimensional translational stage for precise position control with minimum step in 0.01 mm. Each LED was equipped with a 10° holographic lens and a low-light-loss diffusion filter for the flat illumination. The images were captured using Photron FASTCAM Viewer, and the function generator (Tektronix AFG3022C) was synchronized with the camera. The specific time-delay was set for each test, and the time-delayed signal was then amplified with a voltage amplifier (Krohn-Hite 7602M) for the excitation using a PZT actuator. The PZT actuator was an APC product #81 that was made with material #850, and it was 25.4 mm in diameter and 2.1 mm in thickness. The excitation signal was initially chosen as a continuous sine wave with the frequency at 14 kHz, which is slightly lower than the theoretical Nyquist frequency 18 kHz.
power supply. Falling prices of the power electronics have made the variable speed technology more economical and common. The distributed generation cannot connect easily to the electric power network without conducting evaluations on control performance and grid impact. Stable grid interface requires a reliable tool for simulating and assessing the dynamics of a grid connected variable speed wind turbine. MATLAB/SIMULINK is a standard simulation tool for studying the behavior of electrical networks. Its graphic-based user interface allows the user to graphically assemble the circuit, run the simulation, analyze the results, and manage the data in a completely integrated graphical environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide simulation and dynamic performance and grid impact analysis capability of a gearless VSWT based on MATLAB/SIMULINK. The schematic diagram of the wind generation model is shown in Fig.1. The model system is composed of a fixed-pitch stall regulated wind turbine, a gearless direct drive generator and a controllable power electronics system, which consists of a simple diode rectifier and a six-IGBT voltage source inverter (VSI). A graphic-based model suitable for electromagnetic transient studies has been proposed based on mathematical equations. Model representation is shown in Fig.2. The aim of this paper is to design and simulate a open loop renewable energy source (wind) integrated with the grid.
Inkjet printing, which is widely used in home and office, has also been employed extensively as a low cost tool to explore various aspects of printed electronics in a laboratory setting, [10, 11] such as ITO free polymer solar cell, functional polymer films,  complex heterogeneous tissue constructs  and thin film transistors.  Applied to printed electronics based on inkjet printing, most of the research efforts are focused on direct printing of metal nanoparticles or conductive polymer, followed by sintering to make them conductive. Cu- or Ag-nanoparticle based inks were commonly printed on a treated PET/PI substrate, with a nozzle size of larger than 10 µm, and dimension of the final resulted metal pattern is normally around 10-20 µm, five times better than the current resolution of screen printing. However, clogging is always a common critical issue for micron size nozzles due to the accumulation of nanoparticles at the nozzle opening. Other critical issues reside in the oxidization and sedimentation stability of the corresponding inks, generally requiring large amounts of stabling and decoration agent and is in a very low concentration of metal particles [15, 16] which consequently leads to a high resistance of the printed patterns. So in our method, we choose to print pure catalyst noble-metal-containing salt solution to overcome the issue of nozzle blocking and enables greater printing resolution.
Open networks mandate improved security of connected devices and their users, as well as improved security in both hardware and software of networking nodes. Situation awareness is thus an essential capability, although scale and speed of networks keep continuing growth. It is thus imperative to develop technologies to complement labor-intensive monitoring of networks. This article describes the research and development of traceable networking technology that enables accurate and accountable situation awareness across large-scale, high-speed net- works.
G.shdsl, a symmetrical technology, provides a way to meet the needs of small and medium-sized businesses. Symmetric highspeed DSL (SHDSL) can be an alternative to the traditional (and expensive) E1 service, especially with applications that require high upstream bandwidths like video conferencing and WAN networking. With supported symmetrical data rates of up to 1.5 Mb/s and 2.3 Mb/s respectively, G.shdsl offers all the bandwidth of the legacy services and more. G.shdsl is the emerging ETSI and ITU-T standard for single pair high bit rate DSL (HDSL). This standard will complement the ANSI HDSL-2 standard, providing for other services beyond fixed rate T1 or E1 provisioning.
In the late 1960s, Carroll and Reed was a very small Canadian firm manufacturing a device used to convert a hand held powered circular saw into a table saw. They were soon joined by Bey Reed’s brother Mike, who had a Ph. D. in Optical Engineering and a strong electronics background. Under his direction, Carroll and Reed raised one million dollars in venture capital on the Toronto market and embarked on a mission to produce an electronic distance meter. By 1969 they had developed a breadboard prototype and induced Roger Palmer, a newly graduated electronics engineer, to join their firm. The developers were well aware of the efforts of Wild Heerbrugg and others to develop a system using the infrared portion of the spectrum. While Wild was using multiple modulation frequencies for their phase comparison, the small Canadian company was committed to using a single frequency. They chose 491.6 megahertz, a frequency producing a wavelength of exactly two thousand feet. Palmer called this an unfortunate decision, as they experienced repeated problem with stable signal to noise ratios and incessant phase drift through the processing components.
Access Control is no longer reserved only for larger more expensive systems. The Solution 6000 incorporates proximity technology from Bosch, providing an affordable and effective solution for integrated access control for up to 16 access doors or proximity readers - ideal for mid-sized commercial installations. Compatible proximity readers incorporate entry/exit and lock control built-in, which reduces cost and simplifies installation.
In line with the above strategy, Fig. 6 shows a proposed mixed-signal phase detector that achieves a digital output by performing highspeed analog-to-digital conversion of the output of an analog Hogge phase detector . As shown in the left side of the figure, the Hogge detector creates a pulsed output whose positive pulses have an area corresponding to the phase difference between the data and clock. The negative pulses shown in the figure always have constant area, and are created in order to achieve a net area of zero when the data edges coincide with the falling edge of the clock signal. Since the area of the Hogge pulses provides a continuous, analog representation of the phase error, analog-to-digital conversion is required to achieve an overall digital output. As shown on the right side of the figure, a first- order, continuous-time ⌺ – ⌬ structure provides a very simple implementation for the ADC. While the resulting output consists of only one bit, the effective resolution is actually quite high after (digital) lowpass filtering due to the highly oversampled nature of the signal. For instance, if we assume a multi-GHz clock frequency, and a one MHz digital lowpass filter bandwidth, the effective oversampling ratio will be close 1000 such that > 10-bit ADC performance can be achieved. Such lowpass filtering is inherently provided by the loop filter used within the CDR.
Phosphor based LEDs, however, have low communication bandwidths (a few MHz) due to the long photoluminescence lifetimes of the phosphor . Typically a narrowband short pass optical filter is used at the receiver to the reject the slow yellow component of the received light. The bandwidth of the blue LED, on the other hand, is limited to 20-30 MHz  which is a possible bottleneck for highspeed data communications. Recently, it has been shown that GaN-based blue-emitting micro-LEDs (µLEDs) can offer optical modulation bandwidths in excess of 400 MHz . Error-free data transmission up to 1 Gbps and 3 Gbps using these µLEDs was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) , respectively. Although these experiments were carried out over a short distance due to the limited optical power available, these results nonetheless demonstrate the potential of the GaN based µLEDs to offer high-speed communication. The ultimate solution for VLC may be to use an array of these smaller, less powerful µLEDs as building blocks .