In applying this DSIT to the subject of academics integrating emergent technologies into higher education curricula, it was noted that this Equation 2 calculation does not seem to consider explicitly the impact of ICT connectedness on interpersonal distance. Yet in the post-2010 world ICT connectivity is argued to be a significant factor in influencing individuals, leaning towards mass media ubiquity (expressed as 𝑆 𝑀 𝑖 𝑂 𝑖 𝑂 𝑀 in Equations 1 and 2 above). “Connectivity” implies that there is “negligible interpersonal distance” between i and j, especially on issues of importance that may imply influence. By this we mean, not that the richness and heterogeneity of human diversity are elided, but rather that
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This article has explored what Whitehead’s process philosophy offers to a consideration of co-creation of curricula as an always emergent, never finished, relational and ethically experimental process of curriculum-making. We have used aspects of Whitehead’s process philosophy to explore some positive insights and affordances of curriculum co-creation. This is important because, as Barnett & Coate (2005) note, higher education curricula have too often focused on knowing at the expense of acting and being. A process philosophy understanding of curriculum co- creation speaks directly to being and acting, to reason and emotion, to thinking and doing, not as separate acts but as intrinsic to human becomings in-relation. In this, process philosophy offers some powerful challenges to the way we think about humans, nature, mind, and reality. We have drawn on empirical examples to illuminate ways in which process philosophy helps in taking us beyond mind/body, fact/value, self/other dualisms. We have suggested that process philosophy gives us the means to apprehend experience as integrated, and curricula as an emergent and contingent set of processes and practices not as disembodied ‘content’ which is ‘sequenced’ into a containable scheme of knowledge, or as a technicist apparatus for learning.
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’ limited view of what “externalities” shaped their course experiences reflects their stance as customers to a new educational product—creative education. Students’ stance as “passive recipients of whatever the institute decides to dish out” (Schwartzman, 1995: p. 7), points out a problem of “marketiza- tion” of education and its influence on students’ involvement into shaping the curricular changes at the university. The facul- ty’s larger notion of “externalities” features another effect of “marketization”: faculty invest more into exploration of the new methodologies. Although the research literature (Dill & Sporn, 1995) reports globalization and academic competitive- ness as triggers for restructuring, the findings of this study suggest that the faculty has changed its curricular practices out of professional curiosity and intrinsic academic beliefs. This finding contradicts much of the literature that criticizes the marketization forces and the resulting HE competitiveness (Dill, 1997) by providing empirical evidence that the “marketization” and an emphasis on globalization and competition might be positive and encourage implementation of new curricula in universities.
For some authors, the notion of sustainable curricula represents an opportunity, Orr (2002, p. 96) arguing: ‘…no institutions in modern society are better situated and more obliged to facilitate the transition to a sustainable future than colleges and universities’ (p. 221). Indeed, several authors provide examples of sustainability informed curricula in HEIs in Europe and North America (Barlett & Chase, 2013; Jones, Selby & Sterling, 2010), and models have been proposed for achieving this - Hopkinson, Hughes and Layer (2008) outline a curriculum framework combining formal, informal and campus elements. However, though many universities have achieved more sustainable estates, curriculum change remains a more challenging endeavour (De La Harpe & Thomas, 2009). In spite of this, Drayson et al. (2013) found that some 80% of UK students would like to see sustainability promoted at their institutions, with two thirds wanting it to be included in their programmes of study.
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This paper proposes that digital curation tools (specifically Storify, Pearltrees, Pinterest and Scoop.it) can be utilised in higher education curricula to increase student motivation and engagement and, potentially, improve student learning outcomes. Evidence (see Reeve, 2012: p. 149) suggests that students’ engaged in self-directed learning display higher levels of motivation, and it is the convergence of autonomy, engagement and educational technology driving our exploration of these tools. Each tool fosters a sense of ownership and potential for personalised learning. Moreover, the aesthetically pleasing layout of these tools is a foundation for emotional attachment which makes sustained engagement in the activity desirable. The learner also gains a sense of autonomy and ownership of the digital collection. We contend that this has the potential to encourage the learner to interact with these tools on a regular basis. The learner has a certain degree of control over their learning journey, in terms of the ability to synthesise and filter the information coming to them, and control over the final presentation of that content. If the social component of learning can be successfully integrated into the curricula, then it can be reasonably argued that curation likewise has educational potential.
Higher education plays an important role in furthering the sustainability agenda, as reflected in a growing body of literature. While there have been several recent reviews of this work, these have been limited in scope and do not explicitly discuss implementations of sustainability in higher education curricula. In response, this paper presents a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature on integrating sustainability into curricula at both an undergraduate and postgraduate level of study in one particular subject area – engineering. A total of 247 articles, of which 70 were case reports, have been analyzed. Twelve future research questions emerged from the analysis, including: the exploration of the knowledge and value frameworks of students and teachers; the exploration of stakeholder influence, including by accreditation institutions, industry partners, parents, and society; and, the use of competencies to evaluate implementations. It is hoped that answering these questions will help to enhance education such that engineers are prepared, engaged, and empowered to confront the environmental, social, and economic challenges of the 21 st century.
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“Both geographical decentralization and interdisciplinary innovation have become watchwords in academic science. Electronic information processing to some extent obviates the necessity for a scientist or scholar to reside at an an- cient college of learning. Universities everywhere have adapted to new socioe- conomic conditions by expanding curricula. They have always responded in this way, although never as quickly as their critics would like. Measured and delibe- rate innovation is one of academia’s heavy burdens. It is also a great strength. Emerging fields of knowledge become new scientific disciplines only after they have found a secure place in universities. We look to universities for an authori- tative word about the latest innovations. New scientific ideas emerge in a variety of settings, but they become the common heritage of humanity only when processed by an institution for advanced instruction like the modern university”.
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the development of a framework that describes inclusive teaching in a way that differentiates the competencies that could be expected by teachers at different stages of their careers. This has been done in Scotland (Scottish Teacher Education Committee, 2014) and might offer South African initial teacher educators a clearer sense of what needs to be developed in the pre- service qualification, and what could be left for site-based learning through mentoring and professional learning communities, and other professional development activities. Released from the demand to provide all the practical knowledge that an inclusive teacher would need, initial teacher educators could then focus on developing a theoretically informed conceptual
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According to participants, opportunities include the existence of robust knowledge and a body, although limited in number, of well-trained researchers who can provide formal and informal mentoring and role model- ling, the availability of national standards and programs, specialist referral centres and specialists with good clin- ical experience. Even so, a number of challenges are pre- venting the discipline from achieving its full scientific potential. For example, a general comment was the sub- stantial increase in the number of dental schools and therefore the number of dentists practicing in Chile and a concomitant increase in the number of paediatric den- tists, witnessed over the last few years . These work- force issues were of concern, mainly because, according to participants, no modelling or planning had been used with respect to this increase. That was seen as requiring a fundamental and extensive review of general and paediatric dental education, as these programs were characterised by a lack of consistency, integration, inter- action and limited resources. As a consequence, clinical experience varies substantially across programs. In most schools, topics in PD emphasised oral pathologies and their treatment, with some focus on ECC. A way forward would be the design of core competencies in both UG and PG education, using coordinated approaches to
A key factor of the sustainability of the society is sustainable education as a multi-level phenomenon, which starts at pre-school age and continues through life-long learning on different levels of education and in different forms of study. The principle of sustainability contains hu- manistic values, which emphasise the personality of a child and his/her developmental potential, concurrently providing for its consistency. Hence the need to go deep into the processes, during which education is acquired, or the implications formed by common everyday experience in the educational institutions, which provide children with experience which is the basis of their cop- ing (Kuurme, 2008). Thus, the sustainable education links being a human with the welfare of the natural and cultural environment, expanding the dimensions of education from individual-centred self-realisation to the perception of the existential relation with everything existing in a more global way (Kuurme, 2008; Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorienting Teacher Education to Address Sustainability, 2005; the research and development and innovation strategy of Estonia “Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013 “, 2007). This principle has briefl y been formulated also in the Republic of Estonia Education Act (2006), which sets goals to raise people who respect and observe laws, and to create possibilities for lifelong learning for each individual. Achieving these goals presupposes providing favourable conditions for the development of individuals, family, Estonian nation, and national minorities, in order to guarantee the development of economics, politics, cultural life, and nature conservation of the society of Estonia in the global context. The former includes the tendency of the education in Estonia to obtain knowledge about more open and broader world and to participate in it.
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The school subject area of art history is de Þ ned by the humanistic nature of the discipline itself. All school subjects in programmes of formal education that derive from this area are thus to be found within the group of general education subjects. The main characteristic of general education, which distinguishes it from the voca- tional/professional education, refers to the proposition that it represents a value in itself (Kodelja, 2004, p. 38). Moreover, its purpose is focused on “understanding oneself and the world around” rather than on achieving certain external, utilita- rian goals (id., p. 36ï38). The sociological value of general education was poin- ted out as far back as three decades ago by MacIntyre (1987, as cited in Šimenc, 2004, p. 56) who set out its role in the establishment of so-called “standards of rational objectivity”. These standards represent the bases for a cogent discussion that, severed from the individual’s emotion and interests, leads to con Þ rmation or rejection of a proposed thesis (ibid.).
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Knowledge is the driving force in the rapidly changing globalised economy and society. Quantity and quality of highly specialized human resources determine their competence in the global market. Emergence of knowledge as driving factor results in both challenges and opportunities. It is now well recognised that the growth of the global economy has increased opportunities for those countries with good levels of education and vice versa . The benefits of globalization accrue to the countries with highly skilled human capital and it is a curse for the countries without such specialized human capital. Developing and transition countries are further challenged in a highly competitive world economy because their higher education systems are not adequately developed for the creation and use of knowledge. Converting the challenges into opportunities depend on the rapidity at which they adapt to the changing environment. Though the higher education system and the pattern of financing higher education vary a great deal across countries in terms of their size and strength and degree of diversification of higher education institutions, yet they all face a severe financial crisis in the public finances available for higher education.
Universities in the twenty-first century need to be responsive to the changing needs of societies by providing accessible and equitable learning and teaching options. Distance education universities, in particular, have traditionally been sensitive to the need to provide equitable options for their diverse range of students spanning the global multi-cultural educational community. To fulfil their mission effectively within this environment, a university needs to be continually evaluating, transforming and redesigning teaching and learning and undertaking curriculum renewal on a regular basis to ensure ongoing improvement of learning. In order to achieve these goals, traditional distance education universities are diversifying the range of teaching and learning options by utilising online teaching and learning and blended learning options in an attempt to be responsive to the changing needs of students, faculty and the organ- isational mission. Because “the centrepiece of any organization is the curriculum it offers its students” (Tierney 1999, 41), the design of curricula needs to be carefully considered to embrace the needs of students, and provide equitable teaching and learning options for the university community.
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The data collection and analysis were carried out in four different stages. The first stage is related to development of tools that were applied during the data collection process of the research. Both of the tools were developed by the three researchers and two experts gave feedback about them. During the tool development process, tools were pilot-tested two times before collection of the data to improve evaluation criteria. Tool 1 aims for general information about CECs’ curricula while Tool 2 searches for very detailed information about 48 vocational and 35 personal development curricula. The second stage included initial analysis of CECs in order to choose and decide research sample. Thus, in this stage, the researchers collected information about all the Turkish universities and the CECs under the roof of TUCEC. The third stage covered macro level analysis of CECs’ adult learning curricula. Each of CECs webpages were analyzed by the researchers via Tool 1 to gather general information about the curricula offered by CECs. In the fourth stage, two sample curricula were selected for each of CECs and these curricula were analyzed in depth via Tool 2 to find detailed information about them. Afterwards, thematic and content analysis were carried out by the researchers separately. At the end of the analyses, the reliability of the study was calculated according to the formula suggested by Miles and Huberman  and found as 93%.
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Similar frameworks have also been developed by the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, which have served as guiding principles for various educational institutions. However, criticisms of the concept are rooted in arguments which suggest that such conceptualizations of the term tend to place more emphasis on the individual rather than groups, are pre-occupied with the measurement and assessment of skills and seem to ignore the environment or context in which learning occurs. Further, some commentators argue that much of the literature of information literacy practices tends to exclude its ideological, historical and cultural context of information knowledge and production (Tuominen, Savolainen & Talja 2005: 330). The importance of IL can be measured by the attention it has received at the global level as a fundamental factor in improving teaching and learning in higher education, improving professional skills in the workplace and encouraging an informed citizenry and governance in a democratic society.
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Conventionally, government in the UK contributes to the funding of HE. This is, in part, to ensure supplies of graduates in particular disciplines such as medicine and teaching. In part, public funding reflects a view that society benefits from having a well-educated group in terms of behaviours, attitudes and concerns for others. A further element of the rationale is a recognition that access to education and the assumed resulting access to employment helps address problems of social disadvantage. Increasingly also, higher education through its research, knowledge exchange and education activities is seen as having important impacts in terms of employment and income generation, and, indeed, may be important to delivering governments’ growth objectives.
Of course it is but autonomy reduction. It is not as if compulsory science education constitutes total enslavement of mind and action. However, nor is such force to be treated as a trifling concern. The point of the onus argument is that any interference with an individual's autonomy requires warranting. An appreciation of this point is reasonably easily gained. I surmise that few adults would countenance being told that they had to lose control over however many hours school science curricula involve to learn things that they do not wish to learn. Saying that it was only a partial loss of autonomy so what was the fuss all about would be, I surmise, inadequate mollification of their outrage. At the very least, such an adult would rightfully demand to know why, to know what was supposed to justify her loss of control over a part of her life - ditto for students. Indeed, it is instructive to keep in the back of one's mind, when considering the putative warrants considered below, if they would be satisfactory warrants for forcing adults in relevantly similar circumstances to think and act as they would not choose to.
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The impact of European Commission through Jean Monnet Action is low in supporting courses in the field. Only 49 courses out of the total number of 1215 (4%) are supported by the “Jean Monnet” Action in countries on which our analysis has focused. Initiatives like the Year of Intercultural Dialogue (2008) who have stimulated the introduction of the courses and other projects (Horga, I. & all, 2009) related to Ethnicity, Religion and Intercultural Dialogue in the university curricula must be encouraged. For example, only in the period 2008!2010, 19 courses were introduced through Jean Monnet Action Projects (over 1/3 out of the total number of courses financed by this program in the countries assessed).
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In the present study, an attempt has been made to focus on the need to introduce value education in curricula. Growth of industrialization, Lust for power ,indiscipline , selfishness, materialistic attitude, social disorganization, bad Character, Violence, Corruption, advancement of Science and technology, injustice, Casteism, modernization , Lack of feeling of loyalty, lack of code and Conduct, Psychology movements and social sensitiveness are considered the major causative factors of degradation of human values. Everywhere is cry of value degradation. At present, India is passing through a period of value crisis in several fields of national life. It is generally being said that the life of individuals as well as our social life is plagued with the evil values. It is need of the hour to introduce value education in curricula at all levels of education. Value crisis may be over, If parents, develop sanskara in their children and teachers give practical shape to sanskara to their students and government provides concerned facilities to institutions. It is not hope only, but, full faith that this article would be very helpful for the educators, Philosophers, leaders, governments and parents to infuse the values among the students and members of the society and stop the degradation of human values and develop congenial environment for better living, even teaching, learning and evaluation.
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This study is a qualitative case study. Qualitative studies are concerned with fieldwork in which the researcher meets people in the site to make observation and records behaviors in the actual setting (Ragin 1997;Yin2014). Because human behavior is influenced by the actual sitting, the researcher must conduct the study in real situations to make observations especially in education (Lincoln and Guba1985; Gulsecen and Kubal 2006). The procedures of a qualitative research is inductive that enables the researcher to make concepts, abstractions and hypotheses from the gained details. Thus, the primary instrument is the researcher to make the data collection and finalizing the analysis; all these steps are done by the researcher without using questionnaires or machines. In this study, the data was collected from multiple sources: interviews, direct observations and documentation. To understand the teachers' understanding of democracy and its role in education, several interviews was conducted. For comprehending the impact of the teachers' conceptions on their teaching practices, field observations and field notes were used in this study.