Globalization has affected many sectors of the society, including highereducation. In the current global economy, highereducation institutions face numerous challenges. Factors such as the increasing international competition, achieving higher ranking among global universities, and the pursuit of creating world-class institutions has had a significant impact on highereducation institutions. While universities respond to these challenges differently, some highereducation institutions are increasingly moving toward the internationalization of their campuses. Internationalization of highereducation programs includes branch campuses, cross border collaborative programs, exchange of international students, and establishment of English-medium programs and degrees. Over the past decade, the UnitedArabEmirates (UAE) has been on the receiving line of this phenomena. Internationalization of highereducation has greatly affected the UAE as it continues to strive toward becoming a leading education hub in the Middle East. Until recently, the goal of the UAE has been to make highereducation accessible to all students within the UAE by providing them with quality learning resources. However, over the past several years, in addition to providing its citizens with quality education, the country is working toward establishing itself as a world-class regional education hub through inviting prominent universities to set up campuses in the country. This paper examines the current trends in internationalization of highereducation and analyzes the recent successes and some unanticipated outcomes of this phenomenon in the UAE.
This article reports on a study into the motivation of young Emirati undergraduate students for studying in a highereducation institution in the UnitedArabEmirates. The participants were male and female undergraduate students in their first or second year of studying. The aim of the study was to examine their motivation using a framework that recognized the unique sociocultural context of the UAE. Data were analysed according to an adapted framework encompassing both Self-Determination Theory and Personal Investment theory. SDT was chosen due to its focus on different types of extrinsic motivation, and PI theory was chosen for its non-culture specific applicability. A major finding of the research is that an examination of motivation according to dichotomous relationships of intrinsic vs. extrinsic, collectivist vs. individualistic, self as individual vs. self as part of society are over simplistic in this specific context. A more useful paradigm is one in which the individual is influenced by personal and professional goals, as well as social and familial expectations. Unexpectedly, use of language (Arabic or English) did not influence the results. These findings will provide teachers and university administration with a better understanding of their students, and will replace certain stereotypes that teachers may have about their students and their motivation for studying.
Among formal and informal education for entrepreneurship, there are some contradictory findings to become an actual entrepreneur. Syahrina et al.  support the finding of Collins et al. ; that is, among all graduates produced by highereducation institutions provided with formal entrepreneurial education, increase in production quantity of entrepreneurs is satisfactory. Formal entrepreneurial education supports to enhance the production of entrepreneur graduates, reduces unemployment and boosts the economy of region . It encourages graduates to transform into job creators instead of job seekers. On the other hand, Abidin et al.  suggest that informal education is more effective to arouse entrepreneurial activities and influence graduates towards entrepreneurial intentions. It is based on self-determining and personal experiences, which shapes an ordinary individual into an extraordinary entrepreneur . Family business is the most suitable example of informal entrepreneur education, where every individual gets the experience from an environment based on self-determining and personal experiences. Thus, both formal and informal entrepreneurship education can transform graduates into entrepreneurs.
As a matter of fact, the worldwide supremacy and dominance of the English language over other languages on account of the economic, political, and technological reasons extends to the Arab world (Crystal, 2003), including the UAE (Godwin, 2006). That superiority made English the medium of instruction in highereducation institutions in the UAE, and it turns out that secondary schools will be accountable for equipping students with a considerable level of proficiency in English. That was illustrated in a report in a local newspaper which documented a decision taken by the UAE's Minister of HigherEducation at the Federal National Council (FNC) to disassemble English foundations programs at higher educational institutions by the year 2018 (Salem & Swan, 2014). The authors further argued that the decision of the abolition of the foundation programs will require critical changes to the curriculum and thus considered secondary schools responsible for qualifying students for university education.
In terms of the conditional frequency distributions as shown in the first part of table (2), focusing on the first dependent variable SAVED, we note that among the respondents that reported having saved over the past 12 months, 93.7% have a bank account, 79.8% a credit card, 62.8% a debit card. Also, among this group of respondents, 55.7% report having received a directly deposited wage payment into their bank account over the past 12 months, while only 14.3% report having received a directly deposited government transfer, during the same period. Moreover, the greater majority 70.5% of the respondents that saved also report having used their bank account to pay their utility bills. Furthermore, among those that saved, the greatest majority use their savings (59.5%) as emergency fund, followed by 21.8% who use family relatives or friends, 8.9% who use money from work or a loan from employer, and finally 9.7% who use credit card or bank borrowing. Table (2) also shows that among those that saved, 38.6% are females, against 61.4% males; 53.8% come from the UnitedStates, against 46.2% from the UnitedArabEmirates; 41.9% have a primary education or less, against 58.1% with a secondary education or more. Finally in terms of income distribution among those that saved, 13.1% are in the bottom quintile, 16.2% in the second quintile, 20.2% in the middle quintile, 23.3% in the fourth quintile, and the greatest majority (27.2%) in the top income quintile.
mothers may have a high energy diet and low levels of physical activity during their pregnancy which may lead them to gain excessive weight [37, 38]. In light of the study findings regarding the correlates of inadequate GWG, specific nutrition and lifestyle counselling interventions are encouraged to target primiparous as well as overweight and obese women during antenatal care visits to prevent further in- crease in weight during pregnancy. It is important to note, however, that the absolute GWG values did not vary significantly among the various categories of pre pregnancy BMI. The association between GWG classification and pre pregnancy BMI could have been confounded by the different targets/rec- ommendations of weight gain for each BMI category. In addition to GWG, this study aimed to examine GDM and its correlates among the MISC participants. The findings of this study showed an alarmingly high prevalence of GDM (19%). Previous studies in the UAE reported that GDM prevalence varied between 7.9 and 24.9% . A few studies reported similar and even higher prevalence rates. For instance, in Vietnam and in Singapore, the prevalence of GDM was 20.06 and 18.93%, respectively . Furthermore, in a cohort study in Saudi Arabia, a higher GDM percentage was reported among 2354 participants (24.2%) . However these prevalence rates are higher than those reported by other Gulf countries, (4.2% in Oman, 16.3% in Qatar, and 10.1% in Bahrain) , and also higher than the median prevalence of GDM estimate obtained by a recent review in the MENA (12.9%) . Moreover, lower GDM rates were reported in other parts of the world; by some Asian countries where the prevalence of GDM among Korean mothers was 4.5, and 6.2% among Chinese . Simi- larly, in Europe, lower GDM occurrence was reported from Epifane, a French birth cohort, where 7.7% of the women had GDM . In Italy, a prospective study that included 14,109 women, GDM was diagnosed in 360 women (2.6%) . As such, the high prevalence of GDM in the UAE raises major public health concern, es- pecially given the mounting evidence for its association with maternal and neonatal complications during preg- nancy as well as adverse health outcomes for both mothers and their newborns . GDM is considered to reflect the underlying T2DM epidemic since many of the women with a history of GDM may be imposed to a sevenfold increased risk of T2DM in later life . This adds to the growing burden of diabetes risk among the population in the UAE. The latter has one of the world ’ s highest prevalence rates of T2DM of 18.7% and is ex- pected to reach 21.4% by 2030 .
UK HEIs maintain close relationships with GCC funding agencies in a range of areas, with the main strategic driver of this engagement being student recruitment. As observed in the report, across the GCC there is substantial government funding available to support students seeking to pursue their studies overseas. More than half of students enrolled in UK programmes from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Oman are government-funded. International students from GCC countries, with the important exception of students from Saudi Arabia, primarily study on undergraduate programmes in the UK. Survey responses highlight that working with local schools has provided the most effective channel for enrolment growth. The exception is Saudi Arabia, where engagement with local funding agencies is identified as the most effective route. Overall, education agents, fairs, exhibitions and engagement with local government agencies are the most common GCC recruitment
This study of private education in the absence of a public option in the UAE and Qatar attempts to examine what happens with regard to access and equity when private education is the only option available to the majority of a nation’s residents. Consistent with other literature on privatization (Ball, 2007; Atasay & Delavan, 2012; Robertson & Verger, 2012; Srivastava, 2010), we find that inequalities, in particular between socioeconomic groups, persist and that families and educators alike feel this negative impact. The dominance of for-profit providers has meant that financial returns, rather than a belief in the importance of education for both the individual and society, begin to influence discourse in the education sector overall. Non-profit schools, however, offer a viable alternative for more equitable and culturally connected schools that would benefit stakeholders at the individual and societal levels. Both governments in the UAE and Qatar have the opportunity to provide incentives to non-profit operators in order to promote the establishment of more non-profit schools. More research is required in this area, particularly on the promise of non-profit schools and on the ways in which the lack of lower-fee private schools may threaten the ability of employers, both public and private, to attract foreign talent needed for the continued development of the Gulf.
Bollino (2007) stated that the sharp increase in price of oil since 2003 has worsened the U.S. trade deficit because the volume of the U.S petroleum imports has remained constant; from August 2004 to July 2006 in spite of this increase. As a result, the value of the US petroleum deficit account increases by around 12 billion dollars. Moreover, Rebucci and Spatafora (2006) justified how an advanced oil-importing economy such as the U.S. economy adjusts to a permanent increase in oil price. As a preliminary result, they found that the rise in the price of oil increases the overall trade deficit. However, in the long run the change in the relative prices will ultimately eliminate the U.S. trade deficit. They explained this result as follows: As price of oil rises, oil imports become more expensive. Thus, households and investors have fewer resources to spend on goods and services, which lead to a deterioration in domestic demand for tradable goods. Consequently, it means a decline in the term of trade; the relative price of domestic tradable goods in terms of foreign tradable goods. The decline in the domestic demand for tradable goods can be pushed-up again by a higher foreign demand coming from an oil-exporting country through its higher oil revenues. This mechanism might help to eliminate the overall trade deficit. Cooper (2008) demonstrated that the U.S trade deficit is related directly to the large trade surpluses of oil exporting countries because of the sharp rise in oil prices since 2003. As a result, he stated that the U.S current account deficit would have been reduced significantly if the prices of oil were to return to the $24 a barrel that prevailed in 2002. Zaouali (2007) examined the impact of oil prices on the Chinese economy. She found that increasing oil prices have modest effects on the current account and gross domestic product. She explained this result by the ability of the Chinese economy to attract investment and foreign capital. Ozlale and Pekkurnaz (2010) explored the influence of oil price shocks on the current account balance for the Turkish economy. They proved that oil price shocks have a statistically significant negative effect on current account balance.
The election of former cricketer Imran Khan as prime minister on August 18, 2018, nevertheless galvanized the CPEC project, which Khan strongly backed as part of his hopes for a massive improvement of Pakistani infrastructure and the economy. He had been elected in a wave of populist dissatisfaction with the country’s corrupt elite, and was under pressure to produce results as quickly as possible. It had become clear, however, that Pakistan and China were having trouble capitalizing the plan, and that a massive cash infusion would be necessary to keep it on schedule. Qatar’s outreach to Pakistan in resolving the food blockade may have suggested to both Islamabad and Beijing that the Gulfstates would be amenable to being brought in. Soon after his election, Imran Khan flew to Riyadh and began exploring the possibility that Saudi Arabia would join as a third partner in CPEC, helping shoulder some of the economic burden in return for future investment returns. 41 At a September, 2018, meeting in Islamabad between Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi and his new Pakistani counterpart, Shah Mehmood Qureshi, the two agreed to involve a third-party bloc of investors in CPEC, naming Saudi Arabia, the UnitedArabEmirates, Oman and Bahrain. 42
The Persian Gulf coastal states (Iran, the UnitedArabEmirates, Bahrain, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar and Yemen) also score high in terms of crude oil production. In 2002, they produced 27percent of the world’s total production. The region’s natural gas reserves stand at around 45percent of world’s total gas reserves. According to energy international agency (2006), approximately 80percent of all proven natural gas reserves of the Middle East lie in the Persian Gulf. The area produces around 32percent of world’s total crude production . The dependence of The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) states on Persian Gulf oil is much more than the UnitedStates. Whereas the UnitedStates imports 45percent of its oil, 25percentof which comes from the Persian Gulf, OECD imports 57percent of its oil from the Persian Gulf and Japan 70percent. In this context, while the OECD annually spends USD$200 billion on Persian Gulf oil, the UnitedStates alone accounts for half that sum.
A review of randomized controlled trials of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy indicates that doses of 400 - 1600 IU/day were insufficient in achieving even a mean serum 25(OH) D con centration ≥ 20 ng/mL . However, getting 25(OH) D levels consistently above 30 ng/mL may require at least 1500 - 2000 IU/day of Vi- tamin D . Studies have shown that Vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day for 5 months is associated with achievement of a serum 25(OH) D concentration ≥ 32 ng/mL without Vitamin D toxicity  . A number of trials have suggested that doses of 2000 IU-4000 IU would be require d to maintain serum 25(OH) D ≥ 32 ng/mL. In a recent trial studying the effect of two dose regimens, pregnant women with low 25(OH) D levels were ran- domized to 2000 IU vitamin D3/d or 400 IU/d from <20 week gestation until delivery. 25(OH)D was signifi- cantly greater in the treatment group at both 26 (41 vs. 34 ng/mL) and 36 week (46 vs. 34 ng/mL) suggesting that a daily dose of 2000 IU is effective at improving Vitamin D status in pregnant women . Bruce W Hollis et al.  described a randomized, controlled trial, including 350 women with a singleton pregnancy at 12 to 16 weeks’ gestation supplemented with 400 IU, 2000 IU, or 4000 IU of Vitamin D per day until delivery. Not a single adverse event was attributed to Vitamin D supplementation or circulating 25(OH) D levels. 82%, 71%, and 50%, respectively, of the mothers on 4000 IU, 2000 IU, and 400 IU of Vitamin D daily achieved a serum 25(OH) D concentration > 32 ng/mL. The authors concluded that Vitamin D supplementation of 4000 IU/day for pregnant women is safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regard- less of race. Carol L. Wagner et al.  studied safety of 2000 IU and 4000 IU Vitamin D in pregnancy & de- termine if maternal/fetal 25(OH) D improves in dose-dependent manner. In the study of 257 pregnant women supplemented from 12 - 16 weeks’ gestation, the authors concluded that maternal supplementation with Vitamin D 2000 IU/d and 4000 IU/d during pregnancy improved maternal/neonatal Vitamin D status. Evidence of risk reduction in infection, preterm labor, and preterm birth was suggestive, requiring additional studies powered for these endpoints. The new RCT data indicate that 4000 IU/day Vitamin D during pregnancy will “normalize” Vitamin D metabolism and improve birth outcomes including primary cesarean section and comorbidities of pregnancy with no risk of side effects . In a UnitedArabEmirates (UAE) study, oral Vitamin D 2 supple-
In Ghana, Asante (2000) states that private investment is a function of lagged value of private investment (as a proxy for investment climate), public investment, real exchange rate, real credit, interest rate, macroeconomic stability, growth rate of GDP, investment deflator (as a proxy for costs of capital), political instability (Dummy variable = 1 for successful coup years and zero otherwise), corporate taxes, and terms of trade. Another study about Ghana recommends that inflation rate, exchange rate, public investment, GDP, trade openness, aid, credit and external debt strongly influence private investment (Naa-Idar, Ayentimi, & Frimpong, 2012).
Abstract The UnitedArabEmirates (UAE) pharmacy education has undergone significant reform in recent years to introduce more clinical and social pharmacy courses to replace many traditional pharmaceutical sciences courses that were typically dominate pharmacy curricula. The aim of this work was to carry out a comprehensive comparative analysis on all Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programs in the UAE and to describe the developments of BPharm curricula offered by UAE colleges of pharmacy after increasing the number of credit hours allocated for clinical and social pharmacy courses. BPharm curricula offered by all pharmacy colleges in the UAE were retrieved from their official websites. A comparative study on different curricula was carried out to investigate the structure of BPharm curricula after incorporating more patient-centered courses. Clinical and social pharmacy courses represent between 22% and 51% of the total BPharm credit hours. Non-clinical/social courses are no longer representing the majority of BPharm courses. PharmD degree program is offered by only one university. The course credit hour distribution of different BPharm programs is varied from one program to another. More clinical and social pharmacy courses are increasingly replacing the traditional pharmaceutical sciences subjects such as pharmaceutics, chemistry, biomedical, and basic sciences.
A survey of land gravity of 1947 to 1956 for 25,240 data points is also available in digital format. However, only 747 points of these old data set were covered Saudi Arabian border that were used for geoid computation. However, there is no documentation regarding quality of these dataset. Marine gravity data were used in this study which are involved the combination of GECO (1980 survey) and Mobil (1981-1982 survey) shipborne gravity data. Marine gravity data from other sources were provided by BGI covering larger part of UAE coastal waters. The BGI data also sparsely were covered coastal zone of southern Iran (Figure 1). Satellite altimetry derived marine gravity anomalies were estimated by inverse-FFT model known as the KMS02 using ERS, GEOSAT and TOPEX missions data. The data were selected and thinned to an 11 km grid resolution. After comparison with altimetry derived gravity anomalies, the existing marine gravity data were less accurate with standard deviation of ±5 mGal. In the case of the Arabian Gulf, where UAE marine region is a part of it, KMS02 data set solution represents smooth gravity field. In order to determine the UAE gravimetric geoid, it is necessary to choose the geopotential model that is best fitting with UAE geographical zone.
In 14 homes in the UAE, indoor and outdoor elemental composition was examined. The composition profiles for indoor and outdoor samples were similar, which suggests that ambient infiltration may play a role in indoor PM concentrations. Carbon and silicon were identified as the most abundant elements. The presence of carbon inside the home is indicative of a combustion source, possibly from indoor sources such as tobacco smoke or incense. Cooking with natural gas may also be a source for some homes, but it may not be as prominent a source as one would find in the US or Europe because the kitchens of most Emirati homes are located in a separate building (e.g. 69% of homes reported having detached kitchens in this study). Ambient sources of carbon, in- cluding automobile exhaust from traffic, may also infiltrate into homes. The higher indoor presence of carbon in urban compared with rural areas may be due to the higher density traffic and lends support to the suggestion of ambient infiltration. Conversely, silicon, which is the primary element in sand, was more abundant in rural PM samples, possibly due to less dense neighborhoods and smaller buildings that permit sand to blow more freely and infiltrate into homes. However, as noted previously, the total concentration of carbon may have been unde- restimated due to the polycarbonate-coated SEM stubs used in this study, which are less sensitive to carbona- ceous particles. This sample media bias may explain the lack of association found between activities such as smoking and burning incense indoors with indoor concentrations of PM.
The literature on SWF creation has thus far devoted little attention to theorizing the domestic political determinants of SWF creation; let alone empirically testing for their impact. Yet it seems sensible to suppose that such factors may be influential. In less democratic or poorly governed countries, SWFs may resemble other state-owned enterprises in often being used as a private good to provide a relatively unscrutinized, off-budget source of resources that may be used to cultivate political support. As the “resource-curse” literature suggests, opportunities for such rent-seeking behaviour are likely to be particularly strong in economies endowed with natural resources (Karl 1997; Ross 1999). Such rentier states are typically characterized by the relative absence of domestic taxation, as their resource wealth precludes the need extract income from their citizenry. This lack of a fiscal connection between the government and its citizenry in turn retards political development and may lead to efforts to limit the transparency of state-owned enterprises so as to prevent citizens from potentially posing a threat to the benefits that rent-seekers enjoy. This line of argument is consistent with the finding that SWFs in fuel-exporting economies tend to be the least transparent (Aizenman and Glick 2008). To the extent governments use SWFs as private goods, they should be associated with less democratic and weak institutions.
However, according to McCrohan (2003), concern over security is the most dominating issue. McCrohan (2003) also states that both customers and retail businesses, alike, often question the safety of transacting via the Internet. Customers, especially, face the threat of having their personal and/or financial details stolen and duplicated by “cyber-criminals” each time they make an online purchase (McCrohan, 2003). Furthermore, McCrohan (2003) mentions that according to research conducted within the US, approximately two-thirds of American citizens doubt the safety of providing such details over the Internet, and feel as though existing security measures are insufficient in thoroughly protecting against online theft. Nugroho et al., (2017) found that many online stores ask prospective shoppers to enter their credit card information on their web store page, which is very confidential and should not be shared with anyone.