Technological improvement and economic development promote the rapid growth of transportationsystems globally and nationwide. In particular, over the past decades, the transportationsystems in mainland China have gained remarkable achievements and the main transportation methods (aviation, railway, highway and shipping) form a rapidly ex- panding multiplex network. Since the Reform and Opening-up of China, it became a com- mon sense for Chinese people that, “To be rich, build roads.” The total length of highways was about 0.0808 million kilometers in early 1950s and 0.890 million kilometers by the end of 1978. The construction of the ﬁrst expressway started on 21 December 1984. The total highway length reached 4.85 million kilometers by the end of 2018 and the highway sys- tem contains national highways, provincial highways, county highways and countryside highways. The network includes 0.143 million kilometers expressways, making China the longest expressway network in the world.
applications of different intelligent transportationsystems to ensure safe driving. These applications include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) (Potts & Okurowski, 1995), Antilock Brake System (ABS) (Lin & Hsu, 2003), Collision Warning System (CWS) (Bella & Russo, 2011), the modeling of Time-To-Collision (TTC) (Farah et al., 2009; Kiefer et al., 2006), an intelligent data fusion system using vision/GPS sensing (Chang et al., 2009) and on-board safety monitoring system (Horrey & Lesch, 2011). Moreover, especially for the highway predictive accident model, statistical methods have been frequently developed using approaches such as multivariate analysis, empirical Bayes, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks (ANNs). These approaches are utilized for various purposes such as establishing relationships between variables, screening covariates and predicting values. Chueh (1996) developed the multi-linear regression model which can give a negative number or a zero accident number, which leads to a fault indication of absolute safety. Shankar et al. (1995) developed the accident frequency prediction model by incorporating geometric variables which are horizontal alignment, vertical alignment and environmental factors such as rainfall, number of rainy days, snowfall. Greibe (2003) and Caliendo et al. (2007) proposed the crash prediction model for urban areas and multilane roads in Italy, which used the Poisson regression model, Negative Binomial (NB) regression model and Negative Multinomial regression model.
Up to now, we have only considered the effects of pseudonyms in our limited university campus scenario. This scenario had a number of limitations in that it covered a small area and the trips taken by the vehicle in our experiment were relatively short. Further- more, our results so far are only relevant for the specific road network of our experiment. In order to determine if our results are also applicable for different scenarios, it would be useful to analyse the same privacy metrics on a larger geographic scale. However, the vehicle in our scenario was mostly limited to the campus, and so our collected data were not useful for this. Fortunately, the United Stated the Federal Highway Administration shares data of past ITS research projects through its Research Data Exchange. One of the available datasets is one month of Basic Safety Messages (BSMs), the United States equivalent of CAMs, for transit buses in the city of Orlando, Florida . Whilst buses may not be a likely target for attackers, we assume that they take similar routes to com- muters driving between home and work, and thus are still useful to evaluate tracking and privacy. As the messages in the dataset contain for a large part the same information as CAMs, and the buses cover a significantly larger geographic area than our security vehicle, the dataset is well suited to analyse the same privacy metrics and pseudonym change strategies as above on a larger scale.
gested facilities during peak periods (the where and when of travel that is central to congestion). Simple versions of such systems now operate in California and Virginia. A few interstates have an extra lane that is a toll lane, and the toll varies by time of day or, better, by amount of congestion. Drivers choose: stay in free congested lanes and go slow, or pay for a toll lane and move fast. Road pricing rations scarce highway capacity more efficiently by charging higher prices where and when congestion occurs. The pricing problem helps explain why the statement “we can’t build our way out of congestion” is true. As long as drivers do not pay more when they use congested facilities they will collectively over-use those facilities and they will be congested.
This study informs policymakers and transportation planners that ITS could be a more cost-effective means to address traffic problems than infrastructure constructions. Road construction and expansion is not only expensive and time-consuming but also confronted with fierce political resistance from citizens whose properties or livelihoods are affected by construction or those who oppose massive government spending that comes from raising tax revenues. More importantly, evidence from the transportation economics literature suggests that investments in road infrastructure constructions may not be worthwhile. Our study suggests that policymakers pay attention the potential of IT (Gaspar and Glaeser 1998) to tame traffic. Within government agencies, IT has been more treated as a tool to improve administrative efficiency. However, its potential to create social welfare and tackle chronic social problems (Pang et al. 2014) needs to be more recognized by policymakers to achieve its expected outcomes.
OECD (1993) defined the indicators as a parameter (or a value derived from a parameter) that gives information with regard to a particular phenomenon. In contrast, Gudmundsson (2000) described the indicators not as a parameter but rather as a selected and targeted variable used by the decision makers to reflect public concerns. Litman (2007) illustrated the indicators as variables used to evaluate progress toward goals and objectives. According to Steg and Gifford (2005), the indicators can be used to evaluate sustainability not only for the current transportation system but also for future developments. For example, indicators like commuting speed, congestion caused delay, variety and quality of the available transport options etc. can be used to assess the current transport system and other indicators specially related to macro- economic changes e.g., changes in GDP and employment levels could be used to assess the future transport system. Litman and Burwell (2006) suggest that indicators can be used to assess particular policies and to set system performance targets. For clarity, let us assume that a specific policy - congestion-reduction strategy is taken to support an increase in mobility for achieving economic sustainability. Roadway expansion; road and parking pricing; commute trip reduction programs etc. are the corresponding transportation related activities and motor vehicle travel is chosen as the indicator to measure the performance of the policy. Research indicates that beyond an optimal level of motor vehicle travel, the marginal productivity of increased travel declines, causing overall negative economic impacts. Research also shows that excessive vehicle use imposes external costs that can offset direct economic gains (Boarnet, 1997; Helling, 1997). 2.1.2 Criteria for Selecting Sustainability Indicators
Abstract: Modern society faces serious problems with transportationsystems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportationsystems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportationsystems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment.
A real-world example proves the value of this approach. A transit agency on the West Coast recently completed an extensive security review. It was recommended that they implement a very costly (millions of dollars) group of measures to protect their buses while they were in the yard. These included additional fencing and light- ing, intrusion detection systems, extra guards and patrols, guard dogs, and more. A second review determined that all they wanted to do (their primary objective) was to prevent a terrorist from planting a bomb on a bus left overnight in their yard, so that it could be detonated later when the bus was in service and carrying passengers. They determined that adding a couple of new items to their existing pre-trip inspec- tion checklist (looking in the few spaces where a bomb could be hidden that they were not already checking) would meet that objective. The cost for this procedure was minimal, saving millions of dollars.
repute can reduce the terrible impact of congestion, though cannot solve it altogether. This is the concept in the back of shrewd shipping systems (ITS). ITS in India, but, cannot be a mere replication of deployed and examined ITS inside the advanced nations. The non-lane based disorderly visitors with excessive heterogeneity of vehicles, need the present strategies to be tailored to the Indian scenario, before they may be used. As a result ITS inside the Indian context desires large R&D efforts. ITS is an interdisciplinary research area Constructing road sensors need embedded systems historical past. The use of cellular phones for sensing wants cell computing history. Studying sensed information desires sign processing or laptop vision background. Verbal exchange amongst sensors and traffic manipulate authorities need stressed or Wi-Fi networking heritage. The site visitors’ classification and prediction algorithms need machine gaining knowledge of or data historical past. Applications like visitors signal control want transportation engineering history. So the ITS literature could be very tremendous with papers appearing in apparently unrelated venues. In this paper, we make a complete listing of ITS literature, to offer an outline of all existing strategies. We follow it up with a set of open research questions within the context of Indian roads and traffic. sooner or later, we list a fixed of public and personal sector corporations and educational establishments, who are lively in studies or application on this area, as meaningful collaborations and generation switch should show up if research has to make any practical effect.
Other than that, by using the conventional method, the quality in the end of the construction is not so good. For instance, after removing of formworks, there are existence of honey comb in the beams and columns. Therefore, industrialized building systems have been introduced in order to solve those problems.
ABSTRACT - Integrating individual intelligent transportationsystems into comprehensive platforms is a key challenge faced by transport authorities in the provision of optimal service s to users. The use of an ITS architecture encourages structured development and integration of ITS systems that leads to maximization of benefits by minimizing redundancies and maximizing capabilities. This paper presents a distributed framework for a multi-layered ITS architecture that has been designed for integrating information generated and used by future as well as existing intelligent transportationsystems and applications. The iTransIT framework provides a data model that allow complex ITS domains to be successfully decomposed into a number of data layers . This multi-layered data model may be distributed across multiple systems and exploits the overlapping temporal and spatial aspects of traffic information to allow the federation of data from diverse ITS systems. Moreover, the abstractions used to compose the data model combined with the range of interaction paradigms supported by the iTransIT architecture allow interoperation between systems based on different communication technologies. This provides the framework with the flexibility to enable a gradual integration of systems over time thereby reducing integration restrictions on previously deployed systems while catering for the as yet unknown requirements of future and novel systems .
Despite the benefits described above are required numerous other studies before implementing AHS on existing highways in operation. Actual solutions for mitigating congestion on existing highway and motorway are based on appropriate traffic control strategies such as ramp metering, variable speed limits (VSLs), and hard- shoulder running (HSR) . The use of shoulders during the traffic peak periods has been tested in the USA and is fairly common in Europe, above all in Great Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands. Highway with HSR systems have reported capacity increases in the order of 7÷22 %, depending on the configuration [15, 16]. Generally, the European installations combine use of HSR with Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSL). This because
First, I think it’s first very important as researchers with the National Center for Food Protection and Defense to understand the security vulnerabilities and concerns of the freight transportation providers to the food industry. Additionally, and this is not mentioned specifically on this slide, is that we also would like to understand what companies currently are doing to provide supply chain security, hopefully in a productive and cost efficient manner. What are best practices in this area? I think the next presentation, by Dr. David Closs, will be providing more detail on our effort there, but I will also spend some time on this. The second important theme in our research agenda is that we believe it’s critically important to quantify the productivity impact of supply chain security initiatives. I’ll give you a number of reasons for this when I get to this component of the talk. Often this step does require re- search, and I’ll hopefully to be able to illuminate that a bit with some simple examples. Lastly, the final theme of our research is that terror- ist-related disruptions to supply chains are just one source of potential business disruption. We believe that there is a need to systematically investigate methodologies for designing and controlling secure, cost- effective, and resilient supply chain systems, where resiliency may be with respect to any sort of disruption. So these are the three themes that I want to go through today and I’ll illustrate some of the things that we’re doing, especially for the first 2, with some simple examples.
Marginal lands are not currently managed for agricultural purposes, may have poor or contaminated soils or terrain conditions, but may be capable of supporting plant growth (Tang et al., 2010; Bardos et al., 2008). While these types of soils may be inappropriate for food-grade crop production, characteristic lands may be suitable for production of feedstock with end-uses such as the production of biofuels (Bardos et al., 2008; Bhardwaj et al., 2011). In poor or developing countries, marginal lands have been exploited as cropland and have successfully supported numerous types of bioenergy feedstock including cassava, corn, jatropha, sorghum, sugarcane, and sweet potatoes (Braun and Pachauri, 2006; Qui et. al, 2011). Similarly, crops such as wheat and alfalfa have been cultivated along highway rights- of-way (ROWs) for hay-harvesting operations in several states in the throughout the United States. Even furthermore, certain types of bioenergy feedstock, such as oilseed crops, have production characteristics that make them more adaptable to the unfavorable soil conditions of agriculturally marginal land (Bhardwaj et al., 2011).
Even though traffic engineers have good intentions, the results suggest that crosswalk markings alone do not do enough to protect against pedestrians when crossing an intersection. Both intersections without pedestrian lights had a higher overall risk than that of the intersection with lights and other safety factors. Several study limitations should be kept in mind. First, this was an observational study, not a controlled experiment. The authors attempted to measure several relevant factors, but also other unmeasured site characteristics cannot be ruled out. Despite using vehicular flow data from the Illinois Department of Transportation, the pedestrian flow and vehicular traffic flow were important factors that could not be gathered. Pedestrian and vehicle count observed during the time interval on the same weekday and time of day may be the best indicator of long-term use levels but should be explored further. This is especially true during the summer when most students are not present.
Generally speaking, rail transportation has the advantage in price competition compared with other transportation modes on long haulage. Furthermore, as rail transportation is not affected by weather condition, it can guarantee reliable service to customer in terms of right time and right product.
Administrative is responsible for the administrative functions of Right of Way such as maintaining and establishing a permanent record system, processing payments including those chargeable to highway projects; as well as title examination and preparation of legal documents relating to the transfer of property. Administrative is also responsible for delivery of state warrants; closing real estate transactions; document recording; preparation, reporting and distribution of 1099s for all real estate transactions; collection and payment of real estate taxes for whole takings and preparation of annual reports on productivity and expenditures associated with tracts appraised and acquired.
For many years, Louisiana and the New Orleans metro area have stood well above national averages in terms of the number of bicycle and pedestrian crashes by population. Fatalities among bicyclists and pedestrians, too, remain well above national averages at the state level, despite relatively low relative rates of active transportation mode share. While long-range data suggests that Louisiana and the New Orleans metro area appear to be making some gains in bicyclist and pedestrian safety, both the state and the region continue to face a challenging crash problem, particularly in Orleans and Jefferson Parishes: as the New Orleans region has recovered from Hurricane Katrina and its population has rebounded, so too has its high rate of bicycle and pedestrian crashes.
Sites requiring in-stream work in the most sensitive reaches of Storm Creek (the headwaters of the Highwood River) were promptly identified and communicated to Alberta Transportation. Applications were swiftly prepared; these included drawings drafted on aerial imagery - as opposed to the typical survey plans - to facilitate efficient design detailing for the repair strategies (shown left). In order to streamline the regulatory approvals process for Water Act and Public Lands Act approvals, we used the post 2013 flood “Expedited Authorization Process for Flood Recovery” established by Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development (ESRD). Our team also obtained a blanket fish research licence permit from ESRD which authorized us to complete fish habitat assessments and fish salvages at any time, as required, throughout the entire project area. Taking into account construction schedule, we prioritized regulatory approvals based on the expected turnaround time by regulators (ESRD), Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), and Transport Canada (Navigable Waters Protection Act).