This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of ginger on the testes of adult male wistar rats. Twenty adult wistar rats weighing 190-215g were used for the study. They were designated into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and were orally administered 0.2ml of distilled water; the experimental groups (A, B, C & D) received 0.3ml, 0.6ml and 0.9ml of aqueous extract of ginger respectively for twenty one days. After the last administration, both group A and the experimental groups were weighed, sacrificed under the influence of chloroform vapour and dissected. The testes were harvested, weighed and fixed in10% formalin for histological studies. The final body weight of groups C & D decreased significantly (P<0.05) compare with the control Group A. The mean relative organ weight of groups C & D animals increased significantly (P<0.05) when compare with the control group A while group B had similar mean weight with the control group A. Histological findings revealed necrotic changes in the interstitial tissues, loss of spermatide and multinucleated gaint cells in groups C and D. From this study, aqueous extract of ginger consumed at high doses may cause histopathological lesions in the testicular cells.
This research determined the pathological effects of Moringa oleifera seed powder, a natural alternative to alum, used as a water purifier in fish culture enclosure in Nigeria. The histological changes in gill, liver, skin and kidney of fingerling and adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed at different sub-lethal concentration under static bioassay procedure are described. There were pathologic lesions observed which included different levels of cells degeneration in the gill, lamellar hyperemia; hypertrophy of gill arch occurred, while hyperplasia, disarrangement of hepatic cell, necrosis, and vacuolation occurred in fish liver and kidney. Damages of different organs became severe with increasing concentration of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds and time of exposure.
In summary, our study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of C.dactylon has been shown histopathologically and biochemically to possess hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity, which act by improving the insulin secretion due to activation of β-cells. However the exact mechanism to prove such effects still remains unclear. More studies on histochemistry and immunohistochemistry are underway to further prove the histopathological changes in the pancreatic islet of STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of C.dactylon.
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From ancient through medieval times, the citron was used mainly for medicinal purposes: to combat sea- sickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments, scurvy and other disorders. Citron juice with wine was considered an effective antidote to poison, as Theophrastus reported. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the juice is still used for treating conditions like nausea, vomiting, and excessive thirst (Bairagi et al., 2011).Citron has been used in the treatment and management of many diseases for many years, both in traditional and complementary medicine in Asia, Europe and some parts of Africa (Kalpesh et al., 2012). It has also been reported to be effective in the management of chronic metabolic disorders such as Diabetes mellitus (Archana et al., 2011). A number of biological effects, such as anticancer, antimycobacterial, antiviral, apoptosis- inducing and immunomodulatory activities have been reported for Citrus medica (Kabra et al., 2012). The major constituents of Citrus medica are the lecitins, polypeptides known as viscotoxins and a number of phenolic compounds (e.g., digallic acid, O-coumaric acid) found in their free state or as glycosides (Bhmya and Begum, 2009). Phytochemical properties of fruit decoction, peels (rind of fruit) and leaves of Citrus medica Linn had been found to have alkaloids,flavonoids, phenols, carbohydrates and mucilage; the peels had alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenols and carbohydrates; the leaves contained alkaloids, flavanoids, vitamins C, steroids and glycosides (Taha et al., 2012). The flavonoids reported from the fruits are hesperidin: 3,5,6- trihydroxyl -4,7 -di methoxy flavone; 3,5,6-trihydroxy- 3’,4’,7- trimethoxy flavones (Bhmya and Begum, 2009). Citronleaf has abundance of antioxidants (Taha et al., 2012).The study is therefore aimed at investigating some ameliorative effects of aqueous extract of citron leaf on the pancreatic histo-architecture of hyperglycemic wistar rats.
Modern medicine, even in the modern era, lacks effective medications in its armamentarium which could be useful to treat or prevent hepatic ailments. However, Indian Ayurvedic system claims to have many indigenous plants and herbal preparations which provide therapeutic benefit in the treatment of liver diseases. One of such herbal preparations claiming to be of benefit in liver diseases is Sarvakalp Kwath by Divya Pharmacy, Haridwar. This study was undertaken to explore the hepatoprotective effects of Sarvakalp Kwath in animal model using albino rats. The animals were administered aqueous extract of the preparation in the dose of 120 mg/kg for seven days followed by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) challenge. Animals were then sacrificed. Hepatic damage and protection from the damage was assessed by biochemical parameters viz. alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and albumin as well as histological studies. It was observed that aqueous extract of Sarvakalp Kwath offered significant hepatoprotection as reflected by improvement in all biochemical and histological parameters as compared to saline controls. In conclusion, Sarvakalp Kwath offers significant hepatoprotection as is observed in this study. Further studies are warranted to establish its therapeutic efficacy in humans.
Ginger is one of the plants with medicinal values. It is consumed as a delicacy, medicine or spice. It lends its name zingiber officinale to its genus and family zingiberaceae. It originates from Southern China after which it spread to Asia, West Africa, and Caribbean and appeared in Europe via India in the 1 st century as a result of the lucrative spice trade [8, 9]. If consumed in reasonable quantities, it has few negative side effects though it does interact with some medications . There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure, heart rhythms and affect individuals with gallstones [11, 12]. Therefore, from the negative side an effect of ginger, there is need to investigate its effects on the kidneys of adult wistar rats.
Man has been using medicinal plants to treat diseases for millennia. According to estimates, more than two-thirds of the world’s plant species are of medicinal value. WHO estimates that about 80% of people living in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs? About 50 to 60% of pharmaceuticals are of natural origin or are synthesized from natural products [1,2]. However, there are still many plants for which the mode of action, the biological targets and the side effects of the molecules are not yet elucidated. Yet, they are used by a large part of the population to heal themselves. This exposes them to serious and sometimes irreversible damage. It is then necessary to carry out pharmacological research to study the effectiveness of these plants used in traditional medicine. It is in this context that the plant species Cnestis ferruginea (Connaraceae) a plant used in the treatment of several affections including “sterility” and increased fertility according Tra Bi  and N’guessan et al. , caught our attention in this study. This work aims to show the pharmacological
The efficacy of Boswellia dalzielii (Frankincense) stem bark extract on some bacterial and fungal organisms was evaluated for its in-vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarium, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The research work was carried out in Biochemistry and Microbiology Laboratories of Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Well diffusion method was carried out on nutrient agar. MIC, MBC and MFC of the test organisms were carried out on nutrient broth. The phytochemistry revealed the presence of saponin, tannin, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpens and phenol in ethanol extracts while resin, alkaloid and glycosides were absent in hot water extracts. Alkaloid was also absent in ethanolic extract. The aqueous extract of the plant exhibited neither antibacterial nor antifungal effects against all test organisms used in the study while the ethanolic extract of the plant showed both antibacterial and antifungal effects on the study organisms. The
white crystalline solid is soluble in water and serves as a source of sulfide ions in the synthesis of organic and inorganic compounds. Thioacetamide (TAA) has long been known as a hepatotoxicant since its biotransformation to thioacetamide sulfoxide (TAAS) occurs along the Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent pathway, which is a toxic reactive metabolite. This reactive metabolite covalently binds to liver macromolecules and dramatically increases the production of reactive oxygen species which then induce acute centrilobular liver necrosis.  The use of a variety of natural and synthetic antioxidants to prevent thioacetamide’s toxicity has been considered and the combinations of thioacetamide with agents capable of blocking its reactive oxygen species mediated toxicity effect has been investigated.  The present study was carried out to investigate the biochemical effect of ethanol extract of Mimosa pudica leaf in thioacetamide-
The significant increase in lymphocytes observed on oral administration of plant extracts of O. usambarensis indicates a more accelerated production of these cells and a boosted immunity to mice by these extracts . The increased lymphocytes (main effectors cells of the immune system) indicate a possible stimulatory effect by these extract on lymphocytes production . This could be due to tissue damage caused by some constituents of the plants extracts. This argument is in line with the observed enlargement of the liver, brain, kidney, lung, spleen and Heart of mice orally administered with 1 g of O. usambarensis extracts/kg body weight. The fact that oral administration of O. usambarensis extract did not increase white blood cell count might imply that biotransformation of this extract components may be essential for this effect to be expressed.
5% pollen, and other substances (Burdock, 1998). Propolis has several biological and pharmacological properties, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant (Kanbur, Eraslan, & Silici, 2009). It is used as a sealant for small open spaces in the hive. Propolis has been used as a medicine in local and popular medicine in many parts of the world like Egyptians, Greeks and Romans since ancient times, at least to 300 BC, Because of its biological Properties as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and antiviral agent (Sforcin, 2007). Propolis also shows immunomodulatory effect, which modulates the non- specific immunity via macrophage activation, action on lymphocytes and antibody production. Propolis was able to activate macrophages and enhance its fungicidal action and bactericidal activity (Sforcin, 2007). As regards its role in the immune system, propolis has been shown to have both immunomodulatory and anti-inﬂammatory effects in mammals (Dimov, Ivanovska, Bankova, & Popov, 1992; Ansorge, Reinhold, & Lendeckel, 2003). Besides, long-term administration of propolis extracts Mojtaba Alishahi 1,* , Zahra Tulaby Dezfuly 2 , Mehrzad Mesbah 1
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Water-soluble polysaccharides of Spirulina appear to dis- play antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral effects . In addition, Spirulina does not have secondary undesirable effects, not being described episodes of occasional human or animal death as occurred with other microalgae, mainly due to the presence in those microalgae of hepato and neu- rotoxins. In parallel with those initial antiviral and anti- cancer studies, Spirulina extracts were tested for their immunomodulatory capacities. Since then, enhancement of the immune system by Spirulina has turned into a key research line for future uses of this organism. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America has included Spirulina in the group of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) products [16, 20].
Flowers of E. amoenum obtained from Alamout) a village in Qazvin provinces, Iran) in June 2006. Identity of the plant was authenticated by Qazvin Agriculture and National Resources Research Center, Iran. A voucher specimen (986) was deposited in the Institute’s Herbarium. An aqueous extract of the E. amoenum was prepared. In brief 100 g of the dried flowers placed in a container with 1000 ml of water, and boiled for 15 min. the preparation was left standing to cool, filtered and dried in oven in 40-45ºC. the extract was diluted with saline.
On the other hand, studies carried out by Magos and Vidrio (6) showed that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. edulis seeds cause hypotension in normotensive animals and vasorelaxation in isolated organs (7). bioassay-directed fractionation of the methanolic extract of C. edulis seeds led to the isolation of seven components with cardiovascular activity (8). Because people usually do not use the seeds but the leaves or the stems to treat their health problems, we were interested in studying whether C. edulis leaves also have antihypertensive effects besides the cardiovascular effects already known, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible antihypertensive effect of the aqueous extract of C. edulis leaves by using three models of experimental hypertension, as well as on the vascular reactivity of the isolated perfused rat kidney.
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Histological examination of liver sections from the control group showed normal hepatic architecture with distinct hepatocytes, sinusoidal spaces, and a central vein. The hepatocytes had a normal polygonal appearance with eosinophilic cytoplasm and a large spherical nucleus with a prominent nucleolus, some hepatocytes have two nuclei. The regular hepatocytes arranged in hepatic cords running radially from the central vein with blood sinusoids arranged in between these cords with the fine arrangement of Kupffer cells (Fig. 2a and b). The most pronounced histopathological abnormalities observed in rats of Group V treated with KCV solution showed the distorted liver architecture, degenerative changes in most of the hepatic lobules, the hepatocytes were enlarged with light and foamy cytoplasm filled with numerous vacuole-like spaces and apoptotic cell death. There was centrilobular coagulative necrosis characterized by loss of cellular detail, with severe congestion and dilatation in the central veins, sinusoidal dilatation, and prominent Kupffer cells. Mononuclear cellular infiltration was observed between
Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen class are able of inducing oxidative injuries to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two medicinal plants Camellia sinensis and Tinospora Cordifolia using two methods DPPH and Reducing power assay. The extract of Camellia sinensis aqueous extract exhibited good antioxidant activity as compared to aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia in both the methods. These differences might be due to their different antioxidant mechanisms or variations in their ability to scavenge free radicals.
Al-Badrani (2002) found that crude ethanol extract of coto- neaster fruit posses the antibacterial effects against staph. au- reus and Strept.pyogens, but (Watt et al.,1962) referred that there was no effect of the plant cotoneaster as antibacterial. The antibacterial effects can attribute to phytoallexins of Coto- nefuran type (Burden et al., 1984; Kokubun et al.,1995). As noted above, the plants are rich in terpenoids and phenolic compounds known to posses’ antimicrobial activity. In our study, no relationship between total phenol content and the antimicrobial activities of extracts was observed. The antimi- crobial activity of plants may vary depending on the types of terpenoids and flavonoids. The results of the present study may suggest that all extracts presumably possess compounds with antimicrobial properties against some bacterial.In conclusion from results we can concluded thatagar well diffusion method was more valuable to determine the antibacterial effects of both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of cotoneaster sp. In compari- son with agar disc method.The alcoholic extract was more ef- fective and showed higher antibacterial effect against all bacte- ria sp. In comparison with aqueous extract .also both aqueous and alcoholic extract were concentration dependent as they were more effective atconcentration 50 mg /ml in comparison with 25 mg /ml. at 100 mg /ml were highly effective in com- parison with 25 and 50 mg ml the plants used in this study could be potential source of new antimicrobial agents.
Based on these results, it may be postulated that dill has anticonvulsant effects. There have been contraindications; including resistance, side effects, and many adverse effects observed in anticonvulsant chemically synthesized drugs, so it is desirable to produce herbal medicines with fewer side effects for treating severe neurological disorders. Herbs are a powerful source for the pharmaceutical market, and among these various plants, dill extract has exhibited protective effects on the central nervous system which could decrease epileptic convulsions.
The aerial part of A. wilhelmsii was collected from Nishabour city (Khorasan Province, Iran) and was dried at room temperature. The plant was identified by the Ferdowsi University Herbarium (voucher No. 164-2218-2). Three hundred grams of aerial part of A. wilhelmsii were macerated with ethanol (50%) at 30 º C for 24 hours and shaken intermittently. The solution was then filtered and dried in oven at 40 º C. The average w/w yield was 13%. The dried extract was dissolved in the distilled water to make 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg concentrations.
One hour after vehicle/standard/extract treatment PTZ (pentylenetetrazole 80 mg/kg) was administered i.p. to all groups of mice. Each animal was placed in to individual plastic cage and were observed initially for 30min and later up to 24 hrs. The following parameters were recorded during test session of initial 30min and up to 24 hrs: Latency (onset of clonus),Onset of tonic convulsions, Status of animal after 30 minutes, Status of animal after 24 hrs, Percent protection.