Historical Institutionalism

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Historical Institutionalism and the Politics of a Knowledge Economy

Historical Institutionalism and the Politics of a Knowledge Economy

Historical institutionalism is not a systemic theory and struggles with a lack of predictive capacity regarding policy feedback. Adherents of HI acknowledge this (Farrell and Newman 2010, 619). As such, HI is often grafted on to more established theories such realism, neoliberalism or constructivism (Ibid). However, HI itself emerged from a criticism of dominant theories to account for history, such as the dearth of attention to long-term causes and long-term effects. Since Paul Pierson’s 2004 Politics in Time scholars, particularly in comparative politics, have paid more attention to these important issues of history and temporarily. HI has not emerged as a robust rival to established IR theories, but rather more of a complementary or problematizing framework to those theories. Farrell and Newman argue “historical institutionalism fills a major gap in international relations theory: it sets out mechanisms that explain how actors respond to a changing environment” (Farrell and Newman 2010, 611). This is one of the features that make HI an excellent lens for trade and IP issues. Regulations, follow-on trade negotiations, and IP case law are constantly in a state of flux. Accounting for change is an important task and has led to some interesting insights on international regime formation from an inside-out perspective, as well as starting to address the “monoculture” in US IPE scholarship that had largely omitted HI accounts (McNamara 2009, 75-6; Fioretos 2011).
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Using ideas derived from historical institutionalism to illuminate the long-term impacts on crime of ‘Thatcherite’ social and economic policies

Using ideas derived from historical institutionalism to illuminate the long-term impacts on crime of ‘Thatcherite’ social and economic policies

adopted, or a different sets of institutions to be created or developed) in a path dependent system (1999, see also Green, 1999: 23 on the liberal-market position within the Conservative Party during the period from 1945 to 1951). Those same actors and interest groups still exist (if in a less powerful or less influential state of being) and as such, can adapt their own stated policies or actual procedures to any emerging configuration of institutions. Such adaption(s) may mean waiting for more opportune moments to arise and/or assist in the reproduction of path ve to either embrace or reject any emerging set of institutions. Even the rejection of a position in some ways provides it with legitimacy, since to reject is at some level to recognise it (even only temporarily). Naturally, as Bulmer cautions us, the idea of path dependency does not mean that all policy areas will be affected (or, by extension, affected at the same time or in the same ways, Bulmer 2009: 310). Similarly, whilst a particular historical moment may create a critical juncture (see below) for one institution, it does not mean that all institutions will be similarly effected (Capoccia and Kelemen, 2007: 349). Even though an entire political system may face periods of widespread change, some institutions will remain surprisingly unaffected. Similarly, an unrecognised problem with the approach adopted by historical institutionalism is the consideration that a path dependency may become cumulatively destabilising over time. That is to say that continuing along a path may initially produce beneficial outcomes, but these may reach a critical threshold at which the benefits start to become outweighed by the negatives or lead to dramatic change (an analogy might be blowing air into a deflated balloon; this inflates the balloon, but continuing to inflate it will lead it to burst at some point). T P
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The Feminist Potential of Sociological Institutionalism

The Feminist Potential of Sociological Institutionalism

This essay proposes an integrated discursive institutionalism as a framework for feminist political analysis. Both historical institutionalism and discourse analysis have merits and limitations, and both perspectives complement each other and offer solutions to their respective deficiencies. Traditionally there has been a strong demarcation between the two perspectives. A common way to divide both approaches is between investigating “causal regularities” and “understanding meaning.” I argue that a feminist institutionalism needs to deconstruct the dichotomy of causal explanation versus meaning and description and to reformulate the concept of causality. There is no adequate explanation without “meaning,” and the stretching of institutionalism toward “ideas” exemplifies this inadequacy.
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EU Transport Infrastructure Policy, New Institutionalism and Types of Multi-Level Governance: The Case of Vienna

EU Transport Infrastructure Policy, New Institutionalism and Types of Multi-Level Governance: The Case of Vienna

Rational choice institutionalism paints a picture of MLG emerging as a result of the explicit choices of national political leaders as the shifting of authority ensures desired gains, be it the acquisition of bargaining advantages, the divesting of responsibility or as a means of ensuring effective problem-solving. On the other hand, historical institutionalism views MLG as resulting from a path dependent process of initial choices leading to autonomous supranational institution action and unanticipated consequences which disperses authority away from the central state. MLG then becomes ‘locked-in’ due to the procedural difficulties in the EU of reforming past decisions and a process of societal adaptation. A sociological institutionalist approach meanwhile emphasises MLG as a ‘learnt’ process whereby actors behave in accordance with their socially perceived roles. An analysis of the experience of the Vienna city administration in the TEN-T policy area shows all three of these institutional processes at work in the dispersal of authority away from the Austrian state.
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EU transport infrastructure policy, new institutionalism and types of multi level governance : the cases of Vienna and London

EU transport infrastructure policy, new institutionalism and types of multi level governance : the cases of Vienna and London

What materialises from the application of the analytical tools of new institutionalism to MLG is a conception of MLG emerging and existing in three different types. The three conceptual lenses of new institutionalism offering differing accounts of MLG resulting from differing institutional processes (see Table 3.1). Rational choice institutionalism (RCI) views MLG emerging as a result of the explicit choices of national political leaders as the shifting of authority ensures desired gains, such as the acquisition of bargaining advantages, the divesting of responsibility or as a means of ensuring effective problem-solving. Historical institutionalism (HI) sees MLG as resulting from a path dependent process of initial choices leading to autonomous supranational institution action and unanticipated consequences which disperses authority away from the central state. Subsequently, MLG becomes ‘locked-in’ due to the procedural difficulties in the EU of reforming past decisions and a process of societal adaptation. A sociological institutionalist (SI) approach emphasises MLG as a ‘learnt’ process whereby actors behave in accordance with their socially perceived roles. Following an examination of the TENT policy area in Chapter 4, such an institutionalist understanding of MLG will be applied to the two case studies in order analyse the different rationales and forms that SNA engagement with EU level politics entails.
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Organic historical reasoning:redefining the concept of ‘Historical Empathy'

Organic historical reasoning:redefining the concept of ‘Historical Empathy'

(2003:15) assert that this focus on the methods of Collingwood originated with the work of Burston (1954:112-121) who first advocated the incorporation of the historical imagination into the teaching of history. Indeed, educators such as Lee and Shemilt (2011:47-48) discuss Historical Empathy (HE) as a mechanism, where students and school pupil attempt to re-enact the historical actor’s mind. They are careful about how they suggest this is done and try to make it clear that they are not advocating the use of fantasy. The act of re-enacting thoughts in this manner, they suggest, is entirely cognitive, a reasoning which they say is based on evidence. Lee (1984:85-90) argues that evidence and interpretation are pre- requisites of historical imagination and that if these are used well they will lead inevitably to a rational form of HE. Lemisko (2004:1) also argues that teachers can follow Collingwood’s methodological approach to the construction of historical knowledge, which relies on the historical imagination. As historians, he says we reconstruct and bring the past to life by reference to evidence but of necessity we also have to link our reconstruction to our own experience as humans without using fantasy.
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‘Except in the case of historical fact’: History and the historical novel

‘Except in the case of historical fact’: History and the historical novel

According to this line of argument, narrative history, dealing with ‘the particular and specific rather than the collective and statistical’ (4), supplements scientific history by combining the analytical with the personal. Narrative history, according to Stone’s account, emphasises the personal experiences of its often multiple protagonists whose voices are brought together by a single authorial perspective, sharing with memoir and oral history what John Tosh describes as the ‘powerfully attractive assumption’ that ‘personal reminiscence is viewed as an effective instrument for re-creating the past – the authentic testimony of human life as it was actually experienced’ (2010, 318). While, as Tosh points out, this assumption is problematic for many reasons, the desire to ‘enter into the experience of people in the past as fully as possible’ (319) perhaps accounts for the appeal of narrative history beyond the academy. As Stone suggests, ‘[o]ne further reason why a number of “new historians” are turning back to narrative seems to be a desire to make their findings accessible once more to an intelligent but not expert reading public, which is eager to learn what these innovative new questions, methods and data have revealed, but cannot stomach indigestible statistical tables, dry analytical argument, and jargon-ridden prose’ (15). Stone’s definition of narrative history is echoed in a number of accounts of historical fiction. John Marriott, writing for a readership of practising historians, argues that the novelist ‘deals not with the general but with the particular’ (1940, 105), Cohn, whose work has been highly influential in literary studies, tells us that ‘History is more often concerned with humanity in the plural than in the singular, with events and changes affecting entire societies, than those affecting the lives of individual beings’ (1999, 18), while Georg Lukács’s claim that ‘poetic awakening of the people’ is ‘what matters’ in the historical novel ([1937] 1976, 42) is not dissimilar to Stone’s ‘mentalité of the past’. This level of agreement works largely at the level of the subject rather than that of epistemological method, an issue that Stone’s article, pursuing its apparently modest aim of charting ‘observed changes in historical fashion’ (4) rather obscures. Nonetheless, Stone’s essay, through its opposition of narrative and science, works to establish the notion of scientific history as ‘non-narrative’ history. ‘No one,’ writes Stone, ‘is being urged to throw away his calculator and tell a story’ (4) a sentiment that is rather neatly undermined by the essay’s opening line, helpfully capitalised: ‘HISTORIANS HAVE ALWAYS TOLD STORIES’ (3).
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An Historical Novel or a Historical Novel? A Case of Variation in Spelling

An Historical Novel or a Historical Novel? A Case of Variation in Spelling

The use of the two forms of the indefinite article has an explanation in the pronunciation of these words. In British English the word historic(al) is sometimes pronounced without h , though only after an according to D. Jones and Wells. We are told that some RP speakers treat h in unstressed syllables as in historical as if it belonged to the group hour, heir, honour, eg an historical novel . But Gimson mentions that such pronunciations, as well as humour as /ju:m « /, are used by a minority only. In its turn the word historian is sometimes without h when after the indefinite article an according to Wells.
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localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of

localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of

Figure 4. The geohistorical object model, where each object is characterized by its historical source (for instance the historical map the object was described in) and a numerical origin process, which is the process through which the object was digitized. Besides source and origin process, an object is also described by a fuzzy date, a text and a geometry.

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How To Write A Book On A Historical And Historical Corpus

How To Write A Book On A Historical And Historical Corpus

Examples leading to the principle of multiple tokenizations Variance in historical/diachronic texts.. Implementation.[r]

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CHALLENGING (STRATEGIC) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY: INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE-BASED APPROACHES AND NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

CHALLENGING (STRATEGIC) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY: INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE-BASED APPROACHES AND NEW INSTITUTIONALISM

(homogenisation). The concept that best captures the process of homogenisation is isomorphism. Isomorphism is a constraining process that, say Dimaggio and Powell (1983), forces one unit in a population to resemble other units that face the same set of environmental conditions. There are two types of isomorphism: competitive and institutional. Competitive isomorphism assumes a system of rationality, which emphasises market competition, niche change, and fitness measures, and is most relevant where free and open competition exists. For a full understanding of organisational change Dimaggio and Powell (1983) focus on an alternative perspective: institutional isomorphism. Three institutional mechanisms are said to influence decision-making in organisations: coercive mechanisms, which stem from political influence and the problem of legitimacy; mimetic mechanisms, which result from standard responses to uncertainty; and normative mechanisms, which are associated with professionalization. Coercive influence results from both formal and informal pressures exerted by other organizations upon which they are dependent, as well as by strongly held cultural expectations in society at large. No wonder new institutionalism is linked to the resource dependency theory (e.g. Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978; Oliver, 1991; Zucker, 1991) and population ecology theory (e.g. Trist, 1977; Hannan and Freeman, 1977). According to Greenwood and Hinings (1996), new institutionalism assumes that organizations conform to contextual expectations in
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Spain's Historical Memory Law : a study of successful historical reconciliation

Spain's Historical Memory Law : a study of successful historical reconciliation

compensate the victims of the Civil War and Dictatorship and to reject Francoism. This effort, which is the basis of the Historical Memory Law, is contentious not because of its moral and economic reparation initiatives, but because of its symbolic significance. Conservatives in the PP reject it as a threat to the pacted transition, the constitutional arrangement of the state and for fear of examining old wounds (many caused by their own fathers). Researchers, victims’ associations and regional left parties have been the backbone of the effort for reparations and memory recuperation. Yet, they have often criticized the government, whether PP or PSOE, for insufficient action and making concessions in terms of the fascist legacy. Because of its politically sensitive nature, the reconciliation effort is often portrayed incorrectly. Critics seek to vilify its intent or emphasize its uselessness, whereas supporters frame it as a mere act of solidarity with victims.
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Irrigation: An historical perspective

Irrigation: An historical perspective

Future increases in irrigated area will likely come mainly from the development of the so-called "supplemental" irrigation in humid rainfed areas, from improvements in water use [r]

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Broadbalk: Historical Introduction

Broadbalk: Historical Introduction

various mineral and other substances added to Rothamsted soil in pots and small plots affected the growth of different crops.. He was impressed by the eflects of'earthy[r]

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Historical Notes: Genesis and Progress in Concepts of Preventive Cardiology: A Historical Overview

Historical Notes: Genesis and Progress in Concepts of Preventive Cardiology: A Historical Overview

This study clarified the importance of life style related risk factors and was in fact the first to attempt identification of “risk factors” for heart diseases and relate the influence o[r]

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Neo institutionalism and corporate responsibility initiatives : the case of cement corporations in Mexico adopting the United Nations Global Compact

Neo institutionalism and corporate responsibility initiatives : the case of cement corporations in Mexico adopting the United Nations Global Compact

The second wave of Scandinavian research on translation started in the late 1990s (Boxenbaum and Pedersen, 2009). Authors in this stream, highlight the strategic opportunities arising from different interpretations. They recognize there are different ways in which actors can translate a new practice within the organization. When actors are aware of alternative frames of interpretation they may intentionally try to translate a new practice in a way that supports their own interests. This stream of research tries to explain why actors choose a certain interpretation over another. Its objective is to better understand organizations’ responses to institutional pressures. This stream of analysis reflects “an agentic line of inquiry within the translation literature in Scandinavian institutionalism”. This characteristic aligns translation research with the literature on institutional work, as the concept of institutional work is concerned with the deliberate actions performed by individuals and organizations aimed at creating, maintaining or disrupting institutional arrangements (Boxenbaum and Pedersen, 2009; p. 193).
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Historical Restoration

Historical Restoration

...Our museum is located in Bloomington - the heart of Indiana’s limestone country. One of your products, OneRestore was recently used for our exterior restoration and cleaning project of the historical Carnegie Library, which is part of our museum. The building was built in 1918 from local limestone and have appeared to have never have been cleaned. Needless to say, the cleaning task was formidable.

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Historical Controls

Historical Controls

The use of historical controls is often advocated when a series of studies for treatment of a particular disease is planned. The best treatment group in the most recent study becomes the[r]

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