Historicallandscape reconstructions provide baseline information for evaluating current land management regimes and restoration potentials. We assessed the historicallandscape composition and structure of the state of Wisconsin (U.S.A.). This knowledge forms a basis for delineation of potential spatial distribution of forest species and landscape structures before major human- induced changes, quantification of the spatial extent and intensity of change in habitats and landscapes, and identification of target areas for ecological restoration (e.g., threatened ecosystems). Methods included two concept- ually and methodologically different vegetation classifications. The classifications rely on the original U.S. Public Land Office Surveys conducted during the nineteenth century to sell land to Euro-American settlers. The subjective classification method we examined was R. W. Finley’s ‘‘Original Vegetation of Wisconsin.’’ This classification accounts for qualitative information such as early land surveyors’ descriptions of ecosystems (e.g., distinctions into wet and dry prairies). However, the classification is hard to reproduce because some criteria are not strictly hierarchical or exclusive. Numerical cluster analysis was
In this excerpt (7) the author mostly avoids commenting explicitly on the positive or nega- tive effects of Canada’s entry into the war. Instead, evaluations of Significance (marked, watershed, sweeping) and Affect (rejuvenated, patriotic fervour) are the voice of a surveyor inspecting the terrain of historical significance and examining the mounds of collective emo- tions. While there are some instances of Engagement signalled by nevertheless (S4) in the Concur element of the Concur-Counter pairing, as well as the Graduation resources of Focus in of sorts (S1) and Force in many respects (S4), overall the text is not overtly dialogical. Its main function is to draw the contours of the historicallandscape, construing, rather categor- ically, the impact of the war on Canadians. The only other type of evaluation in this passage (7) is the instance of positive Appreciation realized by the noun triumph. But the evaluative force of this attitudinally-charged resource is blunted by the context in which it occurs. The notion that the First World War could be a triumph for Canadian imperialism is an ironic one — that so many citizens of such a sparsely populated nation, not known for its colonial prowess, relocated to Europe to participate in the war serves to emphasize the large scale (i.e., significance) of the conflict, rather than the author’s positive view of its impact.
“What you see is what you take”. This quotation from the title of a paper on the perception and use of prehistoric landscape written by Roel Brandt in the mid-1980s (Brandt 1986) highlights in an extended form the basic drive leading towards the ‘Protecting and Developing the Dutch Archaeological-HistoricalLandscape’ programme (PDL/BBO; Dutch: Bodemarchief in Behoud en Ontwikkeling = BBO; Bloemers et al. 2001) and the volume you have in your hands. In his paper, Brandt presented the notion of percep- tion in prehistoric societies as a factor to be considered in the research of his time to understand their exploitation and colonization of the Oer-IJ estuary. The extension of the use of ‘perception’ as a con- ceptual notion during the last 25 years is best shown by the two contributions in this volume (Ch. IV.2 and 3) on the Oer-IJ region in section IV ‘Imagination: facts and constructions’. In this context it covers perception not only in the past, but also in the present and even looking forward into the future. How- ever the connection, especially with this wetland metropolitan area northwest of Amsterdam, confronts us participants in this volume both from inside and outside the Netherlands, with a dimension of the historical environment with still much wider and fundamental implications: how and to what extent can we know past landscapes, how to avoid only considering ‘what we see’ as known and how to use this still hidden knowledge for actual sustainable management of landscape’s cultural-historical values? The exceptional value of the Oer-IJ historical environment is that its hidden archaeological-historical land- scapes extending back into a past of over 5000 years are extremely well preserved, precisely because of the rising sea level, and contain crucial information for e.g. settlement and water management problems this region is currently facing, as it did in the past. Intensive interdisciplinary research over some 50 years has opened up
Abstract- Banda Aceh has developed with historical heritage city. That heritage has through in the kingdom, colonial, and independence period. But that heritage is not managed properly. Research purposes areto inventory the historic heritage and to analyze the historicallandscape character of Banda Aceh.The method of this research was preceded by tracing the historical aspect, then the result was used in conducting assessment to determine the historicallandscape characteristics of the Banda Aceh.The results are the uniqueness component prioritize of the efforts to preserve Banda Aceh historicallandscape. Alternative priority for the preservation of the Banda Aceh historicallandscape is the colonial landscape.
Due to its promising natural ways of interaction with data and giving the user a more immersive feeling, MR could be of a potential use in the fields of cartography and visual analytics. This research attempts to transfer the existing web-based representation of the space-time cube (Figure 2) into a MR space-time cube and point out possibilities and limitations of this updated tool. The remainder of the paper is organized into three sections. The first section introduces the case study of the historicallandscape and proposes the steps towards bringing space-time cube elements and interactivities in MR. The second section reports on the implementation workflow, while the third one presents the results of the user study. The last section summarizes the results of this work and draws conclusions for future development.
History of landscape structure (Brabcová, Molnarová, 2010) therefore involves the development of relationships in human society that are also reﬂ ected in the semantic development of terms: the “hide” was originally an amount of land suﬃ cient to support a household, but later in Anglo- Saxon England became a unit used in assessing land for liability to “geld”, or land tax. The Anglo- Saxon word for a “hide” was “hid” (or its synonym hiwisc). Both words are believed to be derived from the same root hiwan, which meant “family”. Bede in his Ecclesiastical History (Bede, 731) describes the extent of a territory by the number of families which it supported, as (for instance), in Latin, terra x familiarum meaning ‘a territory of ten families’. In the Anglo-Saxon version of the same work hid or hiwan is used in place of terra … familiarum. Other documents of the period show the same equivalence and it is clear that the word hide originally signiﬁ ed land suﬃ cient for the support of a peasant and his household (Lennard, 1944). The term “pluzina” (ploughland) is of the same origin and it describes the way of division of land tenure among family members and later among all the inhabitants of a village.
the tribe as there is not a complete written history of the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs in existence. Each exhibit creates a contact zone where historical inquiry and engagement can take place with Native perspective and voice driving the interaction. The unique nature of the Museum at Warm Springs highlights the American colonial ambivalence of other museums in eastern Oregon such as The High Desert Museum. As highlighted in Chapter 2, the Native American collection at the High Desert Museum was donated by one non-Native woman, Doris Swayze Bounds. The High Desert Museum uses different tactics in their displays to get the visitor to engage with Native history, opting for games, beautiful displays of art, and incredibly interactive experiences. Instead of focusing solely on Native people as the original inhabitants of the region, the High Desert Museum dedicates most of its space to the pioneer history of Oregon. The exhibits pick and choose when to place Native historical narratives in the past and when to place them the present. The exhibits perfectly represent how the American national consciousness chooses when to ignore Native history and when to highlight it.
The urbanization of a campus landscape has required much space for this ex- pansion, reinforcing the status of geographical space as a limited resource. We analyzed the effects of land cover change assessed over temporal dataset on composition and configuration dynamics of UFSCar (Federal University of São Carlos) campus landscape, based on a descriptive view of the hemeroby levels, over a 54-year period (1962-2016), in order to understand the impacts of past anthropogenic induced landscape change and inform decision making with regard to biodiversity management. The classification of land use/cover dynamics, over time, was obtained based on screen digitizing of aerial photos and LandSat imagery. An ordinal scale ranging from ahemerob to metahe- merob was applied to assess the hemerobiotic state of each land use type. Currently, The UFSCar landscape campus configures a biocultural mosaic in different stages of hemeroby. Thus a campus landscape dynamics model, which can be denoted as “forestry-conservation-urban model”, anthropogenic landscape is replaced by natural one, later by land cover reflecting the spatial anthropization process. Through time, two hemerobiotic trajectories were identified, in which 1) an euhemerob landscape matrix is substituted by an ahemerob one, resulting in increased naturalness of the campus landscape, and then 2) metahemerob patch types will later on increasing as a conse- quence of ongoing urbanization. Expressive amount of ahemerob patches in campus landscape fulfills one of the conditions for maintenance of the capac- ity for self-regulation and sustainability of a biocultural landscape. This framework provides an essential tool supporting with essential information about current and historicallandscape sustainability for campus landscape How to cite this paper: Fushita, A.T., dos
elements, their functional systems, types of village patterns and to their landscape environment. The assortment composition was evaluated on the level of the species, and in fruit-bearing trees excep- tionally on the level of the variety. The landscape value was assessed by the five-point evaluation system according to Machovec (1984). Terrain assessment was carried out in selected localities of Central, North-eastern and Southern Bohemia. In this study background materials of the project participant from the years 1954–2005 and lo- cal archival documents of municipalities were
From the viewpoint of the plot area structure and the changes of vineyard landscape segment the structure of parcels according to 5 category of the area size were assessed (Table II.) Higher number of the plots was identiﬁ ed of area size 1,000 to 5,000 m² (0.1–0.5 ha). There are 345 parcels in the total area of 61.067 ha that represents 44.1% of all the vineyards area. The second area size category of over 10,000 m² (1.0 ha) is represented by two parcels only and takes up altogether 42.287 ha, it means 30.52%. From this group 1 parcel reaches 27.92 ha. Both parcels belong to large size plots. They were established between 2007 and 2010 and represent new progressive vine growing technologies and new plant sorts and cultivars. The third area size group of 500 to 1,000 m² takes up 17.87% of all vineyard areas and was inventoried especially at slopes and more shallow soils, very o en terraces such as anthropogenic relief forms with anti-erosion eﬀ ect occur. The vineyard parcels space distribution in the countryside according to area size is shown in Fig. 2.
In both Scotland and Wales, recent research frameworks have attempted to address these issues. In Scotland, possible future directions in post-medieval archaeology are suggested in the Scottish Archaeological Research Framework (ScARF). The ‘Modern’ panel, which covers the post-medieval period, sets out an ambitious stall - where previous approaches to the post-medieval period in Scotland might be accused of tinkering away at the edges of pre- existing historical narratives, ScARF engaged with topics which are fundamental to the nature of life and society in the modern period. 128 Following a conference arranged by the IfA Wales/Cymru in 2001, the Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales (RFAW) emerged after consultation with a number of stakeholders. It was devised to provide an assessment/audit from which an agenda and research strategy could be framed. This remains an ongoing, iterative process and meetings and updates on assessments and bibliographies are available online. 129 One of the fundamental issues already identified is that there is “no clear intellectual starting point for approaches to the period”. 130
restructures the core ecological zone (Cancino, 2005 and Lee et al., 2008) which will harm the sustainability of the ecosystem. It can be considered as having a hidden impact towards a complex landscape mosaic that is not easy to interpret with the limited knowledge about the ecological response resulting from human land use activities. The quality of ecological function as it relates to the natural landscape has been seriously highlighted in the past and some theoretical frameworks were developed to resolve this challenge. Nevertheless the integration of these two components is not a simple matter without the combination of good knowledge and tools in terms of the decision-making process (Jogman, 2002; Corry et al., 2005; Mortberg et al., 2007; Reino et al., 2009 and Llausas et al., 2012). While in the process of considering and dealing with the issue, the different levels of knowledge on spatial land use change behaviours and specific ecological responses tend to increase the knowledge gap.
Many of the strengths and weakness of these assessment models are apparent from earlier discussions in this context. The expert and psychophysical models have been most used by environmental decision makers and managers. They rate high on utility because they specifically address those attributes and characteristics of the landscape that can be manipulated. In many cases, these techniques have been developed in close cooperation with environmental agencies (such as Bureau of Land Management). The cognitive and especially the experiential models, which have been of less interest to environmental managers, have tended to resist translation into landscape design or management. In many of the psychophysical and cognitive studies, a great deal of care has been taken to demonstrate that the measures are valid and reliable. Procedures are usually consistent and the information is presented in ways that enable replication and generalization. The data provide decision makers with some indication of the amount of confidence they can have in the findings. The expert and experiential approaches, on the other hand, are more subjective and idiosyncratic, and are often not amenable to rigorous statistical analysis. As a result, reliability and validity cannot be measured in the usual psychological sense. Sensitivity, in terms of the ability to detect real differences in meaning and value, is probably greatest in the experiential model. This approach probes most deeply into individual interactions with the landscape. However, much of the information may be highly personal, making it difficult to generalize to values held by a larger public. Both the cognitive and psychophysical have ‘’give up’’ some of that sensitivity in return for applicability to wider public or general human values. It is uncertain just how sensitive the expert model is. Often the expert eye is apt to detect differences that are not perceptible to people without ecological or artistic training. On the other hand, many of the expert rating scales are ordinal (value ordered) and differences between valued landscapes may be difficult to clarify. As stated earlier, the psychophysical model relies
The paper focuses on perception of landscape, forest and settlement in four Czech protected landscape areas (Kokořínsko, Český Kras, Železné Hory, and Blaník). It studies the relation of perception between the mentioned variables. To study this relation the probability model of logistic regression and Spearman’s correlation coeﬃ cient are applied. Necessary data for conducted analysis are collected through visitors’ (both tourists and residents) survey in studied areas. Data collection was eﬀ ectuated during summer 2011. The results prove the positive relation between studied variables and are supposed to help to improve economical, ecological and social conditions of these areas. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from a solution of the institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their eﬃ cient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“ and the Internal Grant Agency (IGA) of the Czech University of Life Science in Prague, Registration Number 201111110049.
Here a paradox emerges. The more it appears that unique place identity is valued and its virtues promoted though place branding, the more homogeneous place becomes – because all such places serve the instrumental purpose of being products whose identities have been created to serve a common function. An urban park in Asia and a Scandinavian mountain are very different landscapes physically and culturally but both are reduced to functioning as commodified objects when refashioned as brands. With its eye always on the market, place branding practices tend toward a reduction of landscape
While I have learned new techniques and approaches, I have always maintained my conscious awareness of the unique characteristics of Korean oriental painting. I believe that artists are rooted within their distinguishable cultural and historical contexts and that their artworks are inherent in a conscious concern for their identity. The 4,300-year-old Korean civilization is considered one of the oldest of its kind. The insights of some Korean artists have inspired me to develop new visual compositions and incorporate symbolic subjects from nature into my art. Each of the artists’ artworks that influenced my work and beliefs was selected during the Chosun Dynasty.
The design proposes an architectural intervention as an augmented landscape – a blooming and watery condition which is in living and verdant contrast to the desert. The museum’s vast roofscape is ﬂooded with water in various states that fray into the surrounding dunes. Glass-bottomed tanks and wells allow the sun to ﬁlter through to the museums below. This produces a caustic light that drenches the walls and ﬂoor of the galleries. (image 12) A circulation of water ﬂows from irrigation channels and drains to a shallow delta which is planted with indigenous ﬂora which ﬂowers in sequence throughout the day and acts as a vegetal chronograph of diurnal and seasonal abundance.