Economics aims to explain things and to aid policy. It has a priori elements, but also strong empirical claims that seem to be testable. This produces huge numbers of publications and of specialized journals. We would not focus on all this if founded today because there is just too much material and too much competition. Philosophy of the SocialSciences keeps a watching brief on these developments whilst rarely hosting the major debates. This is because our orientation has always been towards sociology, anthropology, and political science. History, geography, and economics, have their own journals, and so do their respective philosophies. We publish the occasional spillover from them. One way to characterize this spillover would be to say that we are the journal of choice for the most general of issues, methodological, historical, and metaphysical. Authors who want to examine the presuppositions of current thinking in a field will see us as the journal of choice. Hence we publish work by critical realists who combine metaphysical and metaphorical critique of contemporary social science. We publish critical rationalists who conduct an ongoing campaign to make the socialsciences more open to falsification and less in search for justification. We occasionally publish broadsides from the Wittgensteinians, who offer particular kinds of a priori critique of social science. The huge and continuing discussion about collective intentions and collectivities generally stemming from the work of GILBERT, TUOMELA, SEARLE and many less august philosophers is partly conducted in our pages. This discussion is simultaneously metaphysical and methodological, and has replaced the older holism/individualism debate.
research undertaken within the colonial situation is ‘affectée d’une impureté essentielle’ [my emphasis] (Bourdieu, 1963, 251) and insisted, instead, that research encounters do not occur in a context of existential freedom but, rather in full reflexivity about the socio-historical conditions of both observed and observers. The French ethnographer working in Algeria needed to choose ‘entre le langage de la nécessité ou du destin et le langage de la liberté et de la responsabilité’ (Bourdieu, 1963, 258). He was already tacitly rejecting Sartre’s egological phenomenology, opting for the ‘soft determinism’ which the concept of the habitus was subsequently used to operationalise. As he was later to indicate in “Le mort saisit le vif. Les relations entre l’histoire réifiée et l’histoire incorporée” (1980), we carry out research in present circumstances which embody prior history. Bourdieu’s position was already close to that articulated by Merleau-Ponty in “Sur Madagascar” – an interview which was published in L’Express in August, 1958 and republished in Signes. Merleau-Ponty argued that Marxist analysis was moribund in respect of the colonial situation. His interviewer supposed that Merleau-Ponty was believing in the superiority of western values over those of under- developed countries, but he retorted:
More important were developments since then in the two academic fields. Isis, the first- born of history-of-science journals publishing in English, has evolved in ways that, I suspect, would have bothered Feigl and would have utterly dismayed George Sarton, the journal's founder. What integration amounted to for a great many historians of science was taking on board a much broader conception of science as a multifarious human activity. The social, political, and broader intellectual contexts that shaped in so many ways the sciences of the past now shifted from the periphery to the center of the research concerns of a great many historians, among the younger generation in particular. What accelerated this trend, to my mind, was that the internalist aspects of the science of the great figures of the past could easily have come to seem to someone in search of an original research topic to have been already been worked over, if not to the point of exhaustion, at least to the point of diminishing returns.
But history may have much more work to do here. As Alan Love has begun to show us, the story of the ‘exclusion’ of embryology/developmental biology from the synthesis is only part of the answer to the question of why philosophical work needs to be done toward integrating evolutionary and developmental studies. An equally significant ‘exclusion’ relates to another puzzling feature of the current revival of interest in development—the renewed interest in the biological investigation of form—functional morphology. In some writers who created, and now defend, the neo-Darwinian synthesis, neo-Darwinism is virtually synonymous with the rejection of morphology—which they associate with essentialism, typology, and sometimes with German idealism. ‘Population thinking’ is the key to the triumph of Darwinism, and it swept away morphology.
VA101: INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL CARE/FELINE FOCUS 17.0 Credit Hours This quarter is designed with many vital components that form the basis for the remainder of the Veterinary Assistant Program. Students begin by introduction to animal care, and the various types of animal behavior as well as common animal behavioral problems. Students become familiar with the anatomical and veterinary procedure terminology as well as metric terms and abbreviations. Students learn about different cat breeds as well as how to properly restrain cats. Key elements of a physical exam and obtaining patient history will be studied. Students learn about the make-up of cells as well as the following body systems: integumentary, musculoskeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, renal, and nervous. Students will also learn about sensory organs as well as parasitology. Handouts, videos, and lecture form the basis for this quarter's instruction as well as laboratory time with small animals to see and discover the various care and concepts that have been covered during the quarter. Students are expected to study presented material and meet skill evaluation items that are required for this quarter. Major focus is on felines for this quarter.
I matriculated (became a member of the University) in 2006 when the old Arch & Anth course was still running. In my first year at Cambridge I studied biological anthropology, social anthropology and archaeology. This is a great combination of subjects and I think it produces critical thinkers with a broad palette of resources to draw on. I enjoyed all three of the disciplines, and found the interplay between them fascinating. When it came to choosing a subject for my second year, I struggled hard to make up my mind but eventually decided upon social anthropology. I spent the next two years feeling wistful that I could no longer study archeology or bio-anth, while simultaneously knowing that I could never give up my chosen discipline.
1. A candidate seeking admission as a Student for the Degree of Master of Public Policy shall apply to the BSG Graduate Studies Committee. Candidates for admission shall be required to provide such information as the committee may determine from time to time by regulation. Applicants shall in addition be required to undertake such other tests and meet such conditions as, subject to the approval of the SocialSciences Board, the committee may determine by regulation.
1. Administrative and territorial division of Ukrainian lands in the composition of Russian Empire on the beginning of XIX century. The development of capitalist relations and the beginning of the industrial revolution. Social contradictions. 2. Western Ukrainian lands within the Austrian Empire.
About a dozen years ago I started a journal and wrote a book, both with the name social epistemology (Fuller 1988; Fuller 1996). In the intervening years a few intrepid philosophers and sociologists have tried to map this area, and the two books under review represent two very important, yet very different, efforts from both sides of the disciplinary divide. But before proceeding further, I should say that ‘social epistemology’ is not the only rubric that philosophers and sociologists have used to map a common conceptual space. To be sure, in the days when Popper and Wittgenstein aroused passions,‘philosophy of the socialsciences’ could lay fair claim to that goal. Much of the work of Gouldner, Habermas, Foucault and Bourdieu is also easily interpreted as exercises in social epistemology, as each in its own way theorises the place of the knower in the production of social knowledge. However, at the same time, there has been considerable resistance to social epistemology amongst both philosophers and sociologists in Britain. (It is no coincidence that Collins and Goldman are American.) Instead, what may be called social ontology turns out to be the terms in which philosophy and sociology have sought common ground, and much of what today passes for ‘social theory’ – especially that which takes Anthony Giddens as a significant presence – falls under this rubric (Fuller 1995).
In 2004 a survey was undertaken, by the authors, of women of childbearing age, (taken for the purposes of this study to be 15 to 45 years) in seven rural villages in Bangladesh. The villages were chosen such that they had non-contiguous boundaries and because of the difficulties of women travelling in rural Bangladesh, this meant that networks tended to be confined to the village. This helped to mitigate against one of the major difficulties of SNA – that of identifying the full network, of course there are still influences from those external to the village such as siblings who migrated to cities or are working overseas. Women of reproductive age, who w as married and had at least one child, were interviewed and the interviewer completed a questionnaire. The women interviewed reported on their social and demographic background, including; their age, number of children, experience of child death, years of education (coded 0 for no schooling, 1 for primary and 2 for secondary or above), permission to travel unaccompanied, female participation in decision making and number of possessions. From combining questions of permission to travel unaccompanied outside their home measured on a scale from never to always, hours worked outside the home and decision-making power in household matters measured on a five-point scale from none through equally with husband to normally the sole decision maker, an indicator of female autonomy status was formed. Principal component analysis was used to create the indicator by taking the first principal component, which accounted for 79.6% of the original variation. For further particulars of the data collection and variables used, see Gayen, (2009). The respondents were also asked what religion they adhered to ( 1 = Muslim, 0 = other) and if they were in a micro credit organisation as being so is associated with contraception use, (see Amin, Li and Ahmed, 1996
A second set of problems is linked to the tools and methods used for modeling and simulation. First of all, simulation uses tools that may make implicit assumptions having nothing to do with the tested theory. For example, the use of cellular automata assumes that the world is a regular grid, which may have massive consequences on the global dynamic of the simulation (Troitzsch, 1997). Then simulation tends to develop its own finality, hence the importance to ground it in social theories in order to avoid the trend to develop simulations for themselves and to mistake them for reality. The balance is difficult to find: "If our ’toy models’ serve only to reify and naturalize the conventional social science wisdom, then they are indeed a Medusan mirror, freezing the victim by the monster’s glance" Lansing (2002, p.289).
like crime, social conflict and violence, and HIV/ AIDS; as well as the critical deeper structural con- ditions behind poverty and inequality. These are all related to the nature of Caribbean societies, global- ization, and governance. These crises pose threats to development, stability, democracy, human rights and nation-building. This course studies the limita- tions of Caribbean political systems in responding to these crises. Its main question is: Are Caribbean political systems designed for crisis governance in states that are very vulnerable and prone to crisis? It begins with a critical analysis of the concept of gov- ernance in the Caribbean context. The concepts of crisis and governance are applied comparatively to Haiti, Cuba, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ja- maica. We try to understand their relevance to failed or fragile states and state-building (like Haiti) and small, vulnerable and dependent Caribbean states generally. The course also addresses this question at the regional level of CARICOM. The course is de- signed for students of political institutions, and of pri- vate and public sector institutions that inevitably face crises; and for students of regionalism.
Many researchers in the School belong to research networks which extend beyond the Law School. For example, the School’s competition lawyers are members of the ESRC Centre for Competition Policy [CCP] which was formed in 2004 with core Centre funding from the ESRC. CCP comprises of Faculty members from the Law School, the Schools of Economics and Political, Social and International Studies, and the Norwich Business School. It attracts a significant number of PhD students each year.
The Social Science Data Archives (ADP) provide the disciplinary data centre services for SocialSciences in Slovenia. Research data are acquired from academic research projects and government or commercial sources. Their importance for science and their long- term usability is evaluated by ADP. Methodological descriptions, such as defining target populations, sample size and design, survey procedures and meas- urements, provide the basis for assessing the quality of
The graduates of individual faculties who graduated in 1985-2003 agree on their opinions of important social competencies. In their opinion ability to solve problems, communicate with people and learn is important for practice. One half of the graduates stress the necessity of the ability of teamwork. The graduates who have been working for longer time stress ability to risk. It is possible to deduce from the above information that in practice it is more important for them to be able to solve problems and communicate with people than to adapt themselves to the situation of an enter- prise. It is good that these opinions are not advocated only by the graduates who hold high posts. The information witness that the graduates agree on principle regardless a faculty from which they graduated and a year in which they did so. The differences result from the variety of positions which they hold after fi nishing studies.
The public sphere (Habermas 1989; Jeffries 2011) is a central element to constitute society and democracy. So, the impact of socialsciences via the media, as the fourth pillar of a democratic society is essential. In a world, which becomes more and more virtual, it seems that we live in a global village (McLuhan and Powers 1992). The newest global tendency is characterized by the US-American George Ritzer as The McDonaldization of Society (Ritzer 1995, 1997). The German author Ulrich Beck beacme quite prominent with his book The Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Beck 1992), arguing that a second, reflexive modernization is in the making (Beck and Lau 2004; Beck and Bonß 2001). However, the risk is that this argument is historically not enough reflected and too sociologistic, neglecting the economic dimension (Széll 2001). Actually the theory of ‘ Self-fulfilling prophecies ’ might be one of the most influential in daily life (Merton 1968). Coping with the issue of universality I would like to mention two more, rather neglected approaches: Franco Ferrarotti proposes the notion of ‘Polycentric Society’ (Ferrarotti 1992) and Wolfgang Pape ‘ Omnilateralism ’ (Pape 2009). However, religion, astrology, mythology, literature, arts and oracles had and have so far more impact on history and society than all socialsciences together (Cipriani 2000; Colonomos 2013; Esquerre 2013).
But this success is not matched by public support for the political processes that have made it possible. Participation in elections has been on a downward track in Europe and the US and loyalty to old mass movements has been eroded by new social structures and new employment patterns. A European Science Foundation project led by Max Kaase in Mannheim, Germany and Kenneth Newton in Essex, UK, looked at beliefs in government across Europe. They found that an increasing percentage of the population lives in a fluid way and does not feel an attachment to the organisations and societies which have produced the major political parties we now see. This insight also suggests that people’s disinclination to vote has much in common with their reluctance to go to church. At the moment, the researchers found, many voters do not believe that politicians have real power, which means that voting is inherently a waste. More adventurous means of involving people in democracy might focus on new institutions with visible effects. They point to local planning cells