History of Holocaust Survivors In the Aftermath of World War II

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The Liberation of the Camps: the End of the Holocaust and its Aftermath

The Liberation of the Camps: the End of the Holocaust and its Aftermath

With the narrative of the book so greatly driven by survivor testimony, the raw emotions expressed in them stretch – at times overstretch – the ‘hearts’ of the readers. This is not a bad thing at all but in fact one of the merits of this book, embedded in historical context and based on evidence as the narrative is. However, I did not find the book equally compelling when it came to pushing the boundaries of our current understanding. Stone aims to demystify the term liberation and show that it was ‘a process, something that happened over time – sometimes a very long time’, arguing that ‘[i]n the popular imagination, the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps was a joyous affair bringing an end to the inmates’ torments’ (p. 2). I am not convinced that this is still the popular imagination. Our understanding of the ‘liberation’ of the Nazi camps has changed immensely over the last decade or so, and I would like to think that there is now wide agreement beyond historians and curators of Holocaust museums that ‘liberation’ is not limited to the day or the hour of the arrival of the Allied troops. For example, the re-developed permanent exhibition at the Gedenkstätte Bergen- Belsen, which opened in October 2007, includes a whole section which presents the liberation of the camp as a process linking the history of the concentration camp with the post-war history of the DP camp. Stone also focuses on the liberation of the camps ‘because it is fundamental to the unfolding of the postwar years in Europe’ (p. 3). Again, this linkage has been made in individual camp histories and exhibitions, not least at the Gedenkstätte Bergen-Belsen as the DP camp at Bergen-Belsen became one of the most important centres for the campaign for the right of Jewish Holocaust survivors to emigrate to Palestine. The richness and breadth of geographical coverage of Stone’s sources transform the local into a national and transnational narrative.
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Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Aftermath of World War II

Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Aftermath of World War II

Changes in the way historians view both US history and the history of Japan mean that it is now possible to place the period within broader studies of imperial history from both national perspectives. But, beyond the framework of the nation-state, and the more overtly critical diplomatic history of the Wisconsin school, the rise of global history and the influence of post-colonial studies – the turn to culture as a site of historical interaction and meaning – has also allowed a more nuanced and complicated picture to emerge of the way in which both sides of this embrace affected and were affected by each other. John Dower’s combination of socio-economic, cultural, political and diplomatic history was an early attempt to bring out the ambiguities. For a Western power, occupying Japan at the end of the Second World War was never going to be easy. Having weathered the storm of Western imperialism in the late 19th century and trounced the Russian Empire in 1905, the country took on the task of creating ‘Asia for the Asians’ in the 1930s. By the summer of 1942, after the rapid colonisation of most of Southeast Asia, the history of Japan’s experience of
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Can the Nazis be Funny? Can We Laugh at the Holocaust? Examining Comedic Representations of the Nazis and their Contexts from World War II to the Present

Can the Nazis be Funny? Can We Laugh at the Holocaust? Examining Comedic Representations of the Nazis and their Contexts from World War II to the Present

In the aftermath of the shooting, Tura disguises himself as Siletsky and returns to Siletsky’s hotel to destroy the classified information about the Polish resistance that Siletsky had been keeping there. Unfortunately, though, Tura is met at the hotel by a Nazi captain, and is taken to meet Colonel Ehrhardt himself. Tura is able to pass himself off as Siletsky, and learns that the next day Hitler himself will be visiting Poland. Unfortunately for Tura, though, Siletsky’s dead body is found in the theater, and Tura is forced to once again meet with Ehrhardt while posing as Siletsky. Tura is able to manipulate Ehrhardt into believing that he is the real Siletsky, and the imposter is dead by attaching a spare fake beard that he was carrying in his pocket. Realizing that Tura may be in big trouble, Maria sends the other actors in Nazi costume to storm into Ehrhardt’s office, yank off Tura’s false beard, and pretend to drag him away to prison. The trouble is not yet done for the actors, though, as they must now find a way to leave the country. Sobinski and the actors decide to sneak into a show that Nazis are putting on at their theater, dressed as Nazis. One of the actors charges towards Hitler’s box, distracting his guards long enough for another actor, Bronski, who had been famous for playing Hitler, to emerge wearing a Hitler mustache along with his
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Mickiewicz and the Holocaust : an alternative history

Mickiewicz and the Holocaust : an alternative history

nationalism won, reinforced during the Second World War by Germany’s anti-Semitic laws and Holocaust. During the war and in its aftermath, it became ‘normal’ to the average Pole that a Polish-speaker and self-proclaimed Pole could not be a ‘real Pole,’ if her or his ancestor – irrespective of how distant – ever happened to profess Judaism. One of the most important poet of interwar and postwar Poland, Julian Tuwim, survived, because he managed to leave for the United States by the way of Romania and Brazil. The most beloved children poet, Jan Brzechwa, stayed in wartime Warsaw and his life was saved by the poet’s unrequited love that drove him insane. Brzechwa became so careless that Germans believed he could not be a Jew. Poland’s Kafka, or Bruno Schulz, was not so lucky, a German soldier shot him to death in a street, jealous that his
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Post-Memory: Tracing the Aftermath of the Holocaust in the Second Generation Jewish Holocaust Diaspora with Special Reference to Art Spiegelman's Graphic Novels Maus I and II

Post-Memory: Tracing the Aftermath of the Holocaust in the Second Generation Jewish Holocaust Diaspora with Special Reference to Art Spiegelman's Graphic Novels Maus I and II

Art Spiegelman‘s graphic novel Maus: A Survivor‟s Tale is a self-conscious and innovative attempt palpably conveying a sense of absence and loss. The consciousness that the memory of the past is an act firmly located in the present has been starkly communicated in his attempt to sketch the experiences of his parents, Vladek Spiegelman and Anja Spiegelman. The son of two Auschwitz survivors, a cartoonist who grew up in the United States, his work is a testimony to how ‗post memory‘ works through the transformations and mediations from the father‘s memory to the son‘s post memory as he proclaims: ―I still want to draw that book about you‖, coaxing his father to narrate more ―About your life in Poland and the war‖ (Maus I). In an interview(1986) he asserts: ―…for the parts of my story—of my father‘s story—that are just on tape or on transcripts, I have an overall idea and eventually I can fish it out of my head. But the parts that are in the book are now in neat little boxes. I know what happened by having assimilated it that fully. And that‘s part of my reason for this project, in fact.‖ 4
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The case for establishing a Holocaust survivors cohort in Israel

The case for establishing a Holocaust survivors cohort in Israel

lustration of the difficulties [26]. It was based on babies delivered by one community midwife between 1923 and 1937, and was used to study the effects of undernutrition during German occupation of the island during World War II. Guernsey was occupied from 1940 to 1945, but starvation was at its worst for 9 months in 1944-1945. In order to determine exposure, the midwife records were matched by hand to Guernsey birth registers, to obtain the parish of residence, and to German occupa- tion registers, to identify people who were resident on the island during the occupation (many islanders were evacuated before the occupation). Outcomes were hos- pital admissions for cardiovascular events, from hospital episode statistics (HES). A total of 113 individuals died before the age of 18 years; a further 457 had no HES record, and it was impossible to determine whether these had left Guernsey (before or after the occupation) or had simply never required hospital admission. Of the 1673 original births, only 225 were resident during the occupation and survived until the HES system began. The study showed an increased risk of cardiovascular events in men and women resident on the island during the occupation, suggesting that exposure to a combin- ation of stress and undernutrition during childhood, adolescence or early adult life was associated with an in- creased risk of cardiovascular disease. The sample size was too small to examine effects of exposure at different ages. There was no individual-level data available on the severity of the exposure, and it was difficult to exclude the possibility that the families left behind on the island were a more deprived group in the first place than the families who got away.
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LESSONS. Exemplary PRE WORLD WAR II EUROPEAN JEWISH LIFE PHOTO PROJECT UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ARTHUR AND ROCHELLE BELFER LESSON BY

LESSONS. Exemplary PRE WORLD WAR II EUROPEAN JEWISH LIFE PHOTO PROJECT UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ARTHUR AND ROCHELLE BELFER LESSON BY

Over the years, I have found that students who take my Holocaust-studies elective are there because they want to know more about that period of history, and usually, they already have a basic knowledge of the Holocaust. Unfortunately, that knowledge seems to be based simply on “a lot of Jews died.” I feel very strongly that they must study the people who became those lost lives—the individuality, the culture, the community, and the diversity of those lives. Much of my approach in the course consequently focuses on the individual’s experience of the Holocaust, so that students may, in turn, find a parallel to their own experience. Living in a small rural town, where there is no diversity, fuels my drive to teach this course. As a result of my course, and specifically this lesson, students will better appreciate people as individuals, rather than as stereotypes or groups.
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Influence of personal and environmental factors on mental health in a sample of Austrian survivors of World War II with regard to PTSD: is it resilience?

Influence of personal and environmental factors on mental health in a sample of Austrian survivors of World War II with regard to PTSD: is it resilience?

In contrast to other reports on positive posttraumatic outcome [30,35], PTSD and non-PTSD were not charac- terized by differences in social acknowledgement or of having had the opportunity to talk openly about war- time experiences with someone. These conflicting results may be due to sampling differences: Forstmeier et al. [35] investigated former WWII child soldiers, whereas Maercker and Müller [30] studied survivors of political imprisonment in former Eastern Germany and recently traumatized crime victims. These samples may have been representative of persons who had some ‘special’ or uncommon traumatic experience. Most civilian WWII child-survivors are not recognized as having a special or in some way outstanding history to tell. Consequently, social acknowledgement and the seeking of such may be generally lower in the cohorts of civilian WWII child- survivors. While social acknowledgement could have been beneficial to them, they might not have had the chance to acquire it.
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A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

September 1914), close to the border with the Cape Colony. German fusiliers inflicted a serious defeat on the British troops and the survivors returned to British territory. The Germans began an invasion of South Africa to forestall another invasion attempt and the Battle of Kakamas took place on 4 February 1915, between South African and German forces, a skirmish for control of two river fords over the Orange River. The South Africans prevented the Germans from gaining control of the fords and crossing the river. By February 1915, the South Africans were ready to occupy German territory. Botha put Smuts in command of the southern forces while he commanded the northern forces. Botha arrived
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The BBC Polish Service during World War II

The BBC Polish Service during World War II

Issues of censorship and propaganda during the Second World War, and the role of the BBC in this process, have received widespread attention in the literature. In particular, Briggs provides a comprehensive analysis and, as demonstrated in this literature review, other scholars built up their arguments based on his primary research. Nonetheless, the BBC European Service has not been subjected to the same in-depth examination as the Home Service. Furthermore, there has been very limited discussion of the Polish Service, which is surprising given the importance attached to the Polish broadcasts by listeners in Poland and the Polish government-in-exile. Nor has the role of the PWE impact on broadcasting been examined in depth: Garnett’s book on the history of the PWE waited over 50 years for clearance to be published. Most importantly, this literature review demonstrates that the BBC claim to objectivity and neutrality is questionable; the European Service was designed as an instrument of British propaganda and therefore was demonstrably not neutral. Broadcasting to Europe was selective in nature and all information was censored before it could be transmitted. This was particularly evident in coverage of the Soviet political manoeuvring, the Warsaw rising and the Holocaust.
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Forum : Holocaust and history of gender and sexuality

Forum : Holocaust and history of gender and sexuality

Moreover, we still have trouble integrating the study of “victims” and “perpetrators” (which Elissa and Doris bridge), between history and memory studies, between Holocaust and comparative genocide research, and (certainly in my work) between “history” and family “memoir,” while at the same time making sure to foreground gender in all those projects. My current research on a long neglected topic, Polish Jewish refugees in the Soviet Union (after all, the largest group of East European Jews to survive the Final Solution), highlights the ways general blind spots compound those we face in the study of gender and sexuality. Ironically, our immense progress in writing about “gender and” or “women and “ or the “politics of sexuality in,” or, indeed, the widespread adoption of Doris’s textbook, War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (now in its third edition!) which matter-of- factly includes gender, has empowered us to embark on more broadly conceived studies that dispense with such specific themes – where, to my chagrin, I find myself struggling to re- insert gender as the key category I know it is. This is especially the case with a topic where so much basic research (in multiple languages and regions) remains to be done and there are no rich layers of prior scholarship to build on, complement, and critique.
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Immersive Historicity in World War II Digital Games

Immersive Historicity in World War II Digital Games

same way as in the Medal of Honor games – it is rather the fantastic fictional world of for example the Indiana Jones films (like Raiders of the Lost Ark) that we are experiencing parts of. The background story of Return to Castle Wolfenstein tells us that Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler has an evil plan to create a new breed of invincible German super soldiers by using occult forces. The task is being carried out at Castle Wolfenstein by his occult SS elite guard and led by his faithful companion in the Dark Arts, Marianna Blavatsky. You have to stop them before it is too late. This fantastic representation of the Third Reich has its place in a long tradition of more or less bizarre speculations and elaborations focusing on Nazi interest in the occult and the esoteric, especially represented by Himmler and parts of the SS. Although not being very mainstream – with Indiana Jones as the obvious exception – this is nevertheless a flourishing theme within many parts of popular culture. This makes the sometimes rather obscure references in Return to Castle Wolfenstein to historic persons and events just as valid to those who understand them as those in the Medal of Honor games, although they are referring to entirely different kinds of mediated worlds. The events are taking place in the past, within a certain historical time frame, but it is not the real past – it is rather a fantastic version of it, built upon a mix of elements that have components both from reality and from popular myths. From this follows that the games to a high degree seem to share the characteristics of the palimpsest of historical consciousness, the mixing and blurring of historical and mythical authenticity, that Sob- chack (1997) finds in film.
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TYPE OF SOLDIERS THAT CAME TO MANIPUR IN WORLD WAR II

TYPE OF SOLDIERS THAT CAME TO MANIPUR IN WORLD WAR II

Ng. Amrita of Thangmeiband (northern part of Greater Imphal) says that during the Second World War he was staying at Khurkhul, about 17- 18 km west of Imphal. There, he saw all types of soldiers at Khurkhul including the Africans. He also says that Gora (white mainly British) and Africa soldiers stay in Khonghampat about 10 --11 km north-west of Imphal. They stay at the house of the Meitei who fled their house or who were evacuated for the settlement of the British and other allied forces. 11 P. Amar of Sekmai Bazar (18 km north of Imphal) says that he saw English soldier working in
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World History 3201 UNIT 3 – THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939-1945

World History 3201 UNIT 3 – THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939-1945

3. Allied opinion that communism was the threat prior to war, not the Nazis – Britain and France failed to make any kind of military alliance with the Soviet Union prior to the outbreak of war, fearing it could allow the USSR to gain more territory or expand their sphere of influence in Europe. In 1935, King George V was quoted as saying, “... [I] would rather abdicate and stand in Trafalgar Square in central London singing the Red Flag [communist anthem] than allow my country to go through another war like 1914-1918.” This led Britain and France to appease the Nazis and fear the Soviets more.
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The Positioning of the Albanians towards the World Conflict (World War II, WWII)

The Positioning of the Albanians towards the World Conflict (World War II, WWII)

Albanians started their resistance on 7 April in 1939. Italians were received by guns by the Albanian people. The Albanians of Kosovo and Çamëria were willing and determined to come to the protection of “their motherland”. The evidences demonstrate the great sacrifices that Albanians had made while fighting against the fascists troops; they suffered great material and economic damages. The sacrifices of the Albanian people beyond what were the borders of Albania in 1913 are most evidenced as they fought to crush the Nazi troops in the regions of Montenegro, Sanxhak, Bosnia and Slovenia. Understantig and tolerance have been characteristic features of the Albanias during World War II, as has been the case throughout the history of the Albanien people. Althpungh during the 1939-1944 period the Albanianes were involved in a specific, extremely complicacated, and frequently contradictory situation, they managed to manifest, not only the characteristic mutual tolerance, but also in Naturally the Albanian nation joined the great antifascist coalition, likewise rendering a relatively considerable contribution along with the other nations. In this respect, the Albanians were promtend by the mere reason that such a position should be assumed in view of the pan-national and regional interests involved, the target being the establishment of a post-war free and unified Albania, as well as the establishment of the Balkan characterized by peace, understanding, and collaboration. It is from this angle that Anyone should view the multi-from manifestations of tolerance, existing not only among the common people, but also among the top political opponents, tolerance towards the neighbouring nations, the Italian soldiers captured after the fascist Italy capitulation inclusive. In this context, emphasis should be made of the foct that fratricide and blood feud among the Albanians, during the 1939-1944 period were relatively rare phenomena, since the blood shed by the Albanians during the World War II years contributed to conquering fascism, liberating the world peoples and nations, as well as constructing a democratic world. The controversy over Albanian territories and the Albanian people as a nation is wide and great during the time framework of the World War II. This paper aims at elaborating on the Albanians’ positioning towards the world conflict and on realistically determining their standing and attitude as well as elaborating on the political drives which urged that positioning.
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The development of the Soviet Navy since World War II

The development of the Soviet Navy since World War II

However, all this analysis and calculation will be to no avail unless the political will is there to allocate the necessary resources for a policy taking into account the country's need [r]

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Edward Steichen and World War II naval photography

Edward Steichen and World War II naval photography

fi side of the American The success Steichen 's sense exhibition of Road of the could photography graphic not a as only persuasive both sharpen his the Naval determine the at unit's whic[r]

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Playing the Second World War: Call of Duty and the Telling of History

Playing the Second World War: Call of Duty and the Telling of History

Likewise, in the opening animation of Call of Duty: Finest Hour, American, British, and Russian soldiers appear engaged in battle during diverse scenes of military conflict, as words appear onscreen in the series' proprietary bold, stocky typeface: “They answered the call, ordinary soldiers who forged extraordinary bonds ... in the war that changed the world.” Such references to the overarching conflict as a closed event, albeit brief, provide an historical basis for the ensuing missions and incorporate the individual game’s forthcoming play within a genuine past occurrence. This situating of World War II as a closed event establishes the presence of “real” history that is constantly referenced during the ensuing game play. Through such bombastic declarations of the Second World War’s meaning—while war fundamentally “changes the world,” individual participants change as well, achieving the “extraordinary”—the Call of Duty games also position the War as both a globetrotting display of might and a personal journey of self-discovery. These cinematic openings foreground an understanding of Allied military force as both fundamentally heroic and tied to a Western individualist ethos within a closed history that exists distinctly in the past.
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Chapter 29 - World War I - History 10.ppt

Chapter 29 - World War I - History 10.ppt

Germany declared war on France, an ally of Russia Germany declared war on France, an ally of Russia 7.. Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914, so that German Germany invaded Belgium[r]

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Deaf Japanese-Americans during World War II

Deaf Japanese-Americans during World War II

- Analyze the development of American culture, explaining how ideas, values, beliefs, and traditions have changed over time and how they unite all Americans - Discuss several schemes for[r]

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