History of Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence and Applications

Artificial Intelligence and Applications

ABSTRACT : Artificial Intelligence is the Science and Engineering of making intelligent machines which are able to perform tasks using human intelligence. Artificial Intelligence is broadly characterized as the study of computations that allow perception, reason and action. Computerized reasoning is slanting to end up noticeably a prevalent field in software engineering as it has upgraded human life in the majority of the regions. Ponder in this field has offered ascend to a rising innovation called Expert System. Applications in this area have a huge impact on different fields of life as the expert systems are used a lot these days to solve complex problems in areas like engineering, medicine, science, business, etc. This paper gives the introduction, history, growth of AI, future, various applications specifically focusing on Artificial Intelligence in Medical Industry, gaming.
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Imitation learning in artificial intelligence

Imitation learning in artificial intelligence

Using the largest knowledge pool in the history of the human civilisation is a promising source from which future AI agents can mature and reach higher-levels of intelligence. Thus the Icarus engine aims to acquire knowledge extracted from widely and freely available information found on the Internet. The Icarus engine is the first step towards an agent which learns by being taught ”how to read and under- stand” the Internet data thereby transforming information into knowledge. Albeit the domain is natural language, it is not constrained by algorithms or models tai- lored for natural language processing (NLP) and should be able to parse and acquire knowledge from other domains. Its main purpose is to project textual information found on the Internet onto a knowledge representation (KR) structure. It does that by satisfying all the cognitive agent (CA) criteria set by [Lawniczak and Di Ste- fano, 2010], but it is not limited by finite-states or heuristics. Furthermore, the way the memory is organised adheres to the Icarus specifications of a hierarchical and structured knowledge index, with corresponding short and long term memory. The Icarus engine is in a sense a parser, which instead of being programmed how to parse, learns how to parse by example. By doing so, this thesis researches and experiments into the specifics of imitation learning and extracts conclusions about the suitability of such agents and systems for cognitive AI functionality.
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

3. Policy for managing adverse effects: What policies could help increasingly automated societies flourish? For example, Brynjolfiesson and McAfee explore various policies for incentivizing development of labor-intensive sectors and for using AI-generated wealth to support underemployed populations. What are the pros and cons of interventions such as educational reform, apprenticeship programs, labor-demanding infrastructure projects, and changes to minimum wage law, tax structure, and the social safety net History provides many examples of subpopulations not needing to work for economic security, ranging from aristocrats in antiquity to many present-day citizens of Qatar. What societal structures and other factors determine whether such populations ourish? Unemployment is not the same as leisure, and there are deep links between unemployment and unhappiness, self-doubt, and isolation understanding what policies and norms can break these links could significantly improve the median quality of life. Empirical and theoretical research on topics such as the basic income proposal could clarify our options .
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Intelligence vs  Artificial Intelligence: The King Is Naked

Intelligence vs Artificial Intelligence: The King Is Naked

denoting consciously themselves as semi - human machines , devoid of feelings . Alberto Sanza The phylogenetic history of the genus Homo , of which we can claim to know, in its fossil record, at least five species of which only one, Homo Sapiens , currently living, began about 2.5 million years ago with Homo Abilis . To date, the study of brain evolu- tion in the fossils it has been restricted to the analysis of the variations occurred over the phyletic time 1) by the cranial capacity, 2) by the surface layers of the cerebral vol- umes, such as the marks left on the intracranial wall by the cerebral convolutions and by the vascular structures (arteries and veins) that have been shaping the surface of the cerebral cortex, and 3) by the bony structures that serve as docking or anatomic refer- ence for the soft tissues, all variables that are suitable to be used in studies of compara- tive paleo-neuro-anatomy, but that does not give any information on the deep areas of the brain, and especially do not allow to trace the phylogenetic evolution of the psychic functions. In recent times, the transition to digital morphology and multivariate analy- sis techniques, interpreted according to the principles of morphological integration, has increased dramatically the possibility of anatomical reconstruction, allowing the study of intracranial form ( endocast 37 ) to go well beyond the simple analysis of brain volume.
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Harnessing artificial intelligence

Harnessing artificial intelligence

In addition to its potential economic impact, AI has quick- ly become an element of geopolitical competition. Vladimir Putin may have been engaging in hyperbole when he de- clared that “The one who becomes the leader in this sphere will be the ruler of the world”, but China and the United States also see AI as a factor in geopolitical power. In fact, China and the US see each other as the main competitor and are racing to be the leader in AI. They directly compete for talent – Qi Lu, one of Microsoft’s top executives, left the company in 2017 to join Chinese competitor Baidu – and in research: in October 2016, the White House conceded that China had overtaken the US in the number of journal arti- cles published on deep learning. This competition can even touch on matters important to the culture and history of each country, such as when a reported 280 million people in China watched a machine owned by Google parent company Alphabet win at Go against one of the world’s best human Go players. As one observer noted at the time, a Califor- nian firm “had conquered a game invented more than 2,500
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Benefits & Risks Of Artificial Intelligence

Benefits & Risks Of Artificial Intelligence

In the long haul, a critical inquiry is the thing that will happen if the journey for solid AI succeeds and an AI framework turns out to be superior to people at all intellectual assignments. As pointed out by I.J. Great in 1965, planning more quick witted AI frameworks is itself a psychological undertaking. Such a framework could possibly experience recursive self-change, setting off a knowledge blast deserting human judgment far. By designing progressive new advances, such a super intelligence may enable us to annihilate war, sickness, and neediness, thus the production of solid AI may be the greatest occasion in mankind's history. A few specialists have communicated concern, however, that it may likewise be the last, unless we figure out how to adjust the objectives of the AI to our own before it progresses toward becoming super intelligent.
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Scope of Artificial Intelligence in Law

Scope of Artificial Intelligence in Law

Legal AI can be visualized as the exercise of technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing, speech recognition, legal robotics, planning, natural image understanding, rules-based expert system, neural networks, logic programming, artificial vision, machine learning and neural networks in relation to legal issues. The concept of AI gathered huge importance because of its ability to deal with a large amount of data. Results of AI are more accurate because of inclusive plus apposite along with fast testing making it a hot topic in the field of legal practice. Manual dealing with resources consume time and involves a large amount of money making clients unhappy. Legal AI has shown tremendous results in different applications including Case-based reasoning, document modeling, deontic logic, conceptual retrieval, intelligent tutoring and so on. [1-4].
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Significance of Emotional Intelligence in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: A Study on the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Financial and Educational Services Sector

Significance of Emotional Intelligence in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: A Study on the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Financial and Educational Services Sector

The study is both explorative and descriptive. Secondary sources of data have been used to study the application of artificial intelligence in the BFSI. The sources include mainly surveys and studies conducted by government and non-government organisations, reports and articles in newspapers and magazines. A structured questionnaire was used to study the role of artificial intelligence in educational services. This was distributed among 107students consisting mainly of UG students and PG students. Hypothesis on factors affecting learners‟ perception towards higher education and adoption of virtual courses was framed (Table 5). The data was analysed using graphs, descriptive statistics and Chi- square tests.
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Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

Abstract: We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or self- determined, even unpredictable conduct), 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision), 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes), 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity), 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual) community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like
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Spirituality in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Spirituality in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

powerful that one sees and feels this cloud or mighty eagle raise it up and carry it aloft in its wings.” 267 “The experience also leaves a rare detachment… more than spiritual things alone are involved… the spirit is completely detached from things… (as if)… the Lord wants to effect this detachment in the body itself.” 268 Today’s scientists may be able to identify a purely biological source for the phenomena 269 Teresa had no way else to describe and interpret in her time than as mystical experience. 270 One would think that such materially disconnected mysticism, would negate an ability for practical action and yet Teresa opened seventeen convents, many men’s cloisters and reformed the Discalced Carmelites over a period of some twenty years, as well as being a prominent writer of the counter reformation, theologian and ultimately a Doctor of the Church. Language description and resulting experiences may be accounted for by the intelligence and consciousness media of her time. Leonardo Polo 271 may, however, say Teresa is his universal persistence personified. Her unique dependence on God is the basis of a freedom and inward openness based on self-knowledge and self-giving. 272 She is open
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Primer on artificial intelligence and robotics

Primer on artificial intelligence and robotics

More generally, there are reasons to expect that artificial intelligence will have com- plementary effects on labor. This has been the case for prior episodes of automation — for example, Bessen (2015) describes how the adoption of ATM machines by banks was associated with an increase in bank employment—and early evidence suggests it will be the same for artificial intelligence. Bessen et al. (2018) provide survey evidence that software sold by artificial intelligence startups is designed in most cases to augment the work that humans do. According to their findings, artificial intelligence startups are most likely to provide technology that helps their customers “make better predictions or decisions”, “manage and understand data better”, and “gain new capabilities to im- prove services or provide new products.” It is notable that these are all related to man- agement and strategy. Given the dramatic impact that these technologies could have on labor and society, it is vitally important to have a clear understanding of the relation- ship between artificial intelligence, robotics, and labor. This is one area that we believe would greatly benefit from research by organizational scholars, who are adept at de- scribing mechanisms affecting the organization of work.
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Human Intelligence and Memory Recall in Artificial Intelligence

Human Intelligence and Memory Recall in Artificial Intelligence

In any domain, either profession or education, intelligence plays a curious role. Intelligence is the capacity to learn experience and ability to adapt to different contexts. Intelligence is the act of thinking about thinking. We must have heard the words like Artificial Intelligence in contrast with human intelligence. Technology is growing day by day; Scientists are more and more interested to found something innovative. AI is usually defined as the science of making computers do things that require intelligence when done by humans. Robots are by default termed as “intelligent” as their application is used in real- time, and with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), intelligent robots can be developed. It major function is to add some human like qualities in robotics. We can identify this analogy in some of the applications like game playing, general problem solving, Expert Systems, Natural Language Processing, computer vision, Robotics, Education and others. There are other forces that are in favoring of combining these two sources in order to have complete product. To know the difference between Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence, let‟s dig out the roots!
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On Controllability  of  Artificial Intelligence

On Controllability of Artificial Intelligence

Less intelligent agents (people), can’t permanently control more intelligent agents (artificial superintelligences). This is not because we may fail to find a safe design for superintelligence in the vast space of all possible designs, it is because no such design is possible, it doesn’t exist. Superintelligence is not rebelling, it is uncontrollable to begin with. Worse yet, the degree to which partial control is theoretically possible, is unlikely to be fully achievable in practice. This is because all safety methods have vulnerabilities, once they are formalized enough to be analyzed for such flaws. It is not difficult to see that AI safety can be reduced to achieving perfect security for all cyberinfrastructure, essentially solving all safety issues with all current and future devices/software, but perfect security is impossible and even good security is rare. We are forced to accept that non-deterministic systems can’t be shown to always be 100% safe and deterministic systems can’t be shown to be superintelligent in practice, as such architectures are inadequate in novel domains. If it is not algorithmic, like a neural network, by definition you don’t control it. The only way for superintelligence to avoid acquiring inaccurate knowledge from its programmers is to ignore all such knowledge and rediscover/proof everything from scratch, but that removes any pro-human bias. A superintelligent system will find a shortcut to any goal you set for it; it will discover how to accomplish a goal in terms of least amount of effort to get to the goal state all else being ignored. No definition of control is both safe and desirable, either they lead directly to disaster or require us to become something not compatible with being human. It is impossible to build a controlled/value-aligned superintelligence, not only because it is inhumanly hard, but mainly because by definition such entity can't exist. If I am correct, we can make a prediction that every future safety mechanism will fall short and eventually fail in some way. Each will have an irreparable flaw. Consequently, the field of AI safety is unlikely to succeed in its ultimate goal - creation of a controlled superintelligence.
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Comparative Assessment of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Comparative Assessment of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Abstract— Artificial Intelligence has become a prominent area of interest for researchers from past few years. There has been lot of debates over the point whether machines should be given thinking and decision capabilities like human beings. Developing and imposing human mental features and phenomenon over robots and similar kinds of machines can prove to be a boon or a bane for the human beings. Besides these arguments, researchers continue to bring out interesting facts about the phenomenon of human brain functionality and keep proposing new approaches for developing artificial intelligence in machines as close to human intelligence as possible. Cognitive science has also emerged as an area of research in recent years to imitate human brain power by using the concepts and theories related to the fields of psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science, artificial intelligence, humanities and linguistics. Human Alike intelligent computer systems (HAICS) having the best of machine intelligence and human intelligence abilities will give birth to a superior intelligence capability for which research is ongoing. This paper presents a comparative assessment of human intelligence versus artificial intelligence. The intent of the paper is to bring out the scope and benefits of using artificial intelligence over human intelligence and vice-versa.
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Artificial Intelligence and Climate Change

Artificial Intelligence and Climate Change

16. Globally, transportation accounts for roughly fourteen percent of GHG emissions. See id. AI can assist in decarbonizing transportation through improved vehicle engineering, enabling intelligent infrastructure, optimizing how freight is routed, and lowering barriers to electric-vehicle adoption. Rolnick et al., supra note 11, at 13-15; see also Amy L. Stein & Joshua Fershée, Chapter 14: Light-Duty Vehicles, in L EGAL P ATHWAYS TO D EEP D ECARBONIZATION IN THE U NITED S TATES 353, 375-76 (Michael B. Gerrard & John C. Dernbach eds., 2019) (highlighting the importance of the transportation sector for decarbonization efforts and providing legal recommendations for the light-duty transportation sector to decrease carbon emissions), https://www.eli.org/eli-press-books/legal-pathways- deep-decarbonization-united-states [https://perma.cc/V9VZ-KY2T]. The Chinese Hanghzhou “City Brain” project focused on reducing traffic emissions by optimizing real-time traffic flows. Simon Greenman, How Can AI Help Tackle Climate Change, M EDIUM : T OWARDS D ATA S CI . (Dec. 6, 2019), https://towardsdatascience.com/how-can-technology-and-artificial-intelligence-help-tackle-climate- change-b97db0ff4c95 [https://perma.cc/N4X4-27UG].
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Artificial Intelligence and Its Review

Artificial Intelligence and Its Review

In the current period artificial intelligence is the wide concept that all humans are curiously preparing algorithms to establish it everywhere. The work we have done is based on Artificial Intelligence . Artificial intelligence is very much important because that can reduce stress of human beings and do the work automatically according to the human knowledge and it will think how the humans thinks, where it is programmed by humans .The researchers studied about Artificial intelligence to help human in many ways. The algorithms are built and came out in such a way that humans will get accurate solution to their problems. in this research paper we done about AI and defined AI ,its advantages, and also mentioned applications of AI . we have researched some points about the use of AI in healthcare. we have taken the example of robots that works by artificial intelligence and where it is implemented and also how it works .
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IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TOOLS

IMPORTANCE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TOOLS

This paper,” Importance of Artificial Intelligence Tools” helps us in understanding the real concept of artificial intelligence and the importance of artificial intelligence tools. It gives the awareness of how artificial intelligence (AI) plays an important role in our daily life especially in the case of medicine. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain. In this paper information regarding the tools of AI and it solves the current problems in the field of medicine. There seems to be many pitfalls in the field of medicine which can’t be resolved b any other means other than AI. Thus further improvement in the field of AI will be a boon for the development of scientific technology and to researchers, if done as it has to be. There seems to be many cons in the current trend which can be easily solved. Thus one of the applications of computer science being artificial intelligence solves all these problems and helps in accessing individual patient risk.
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Recent Trend in Artificial Intelligence

Recent Trend in Artificial Intelligence

Abstract: We are living in the midst of a surge of interest and research into Artificial Intelligence (hereby A.I.). It can seem like every week there is a new breakthrough in the field and a new record set in some task previously done by humans. Not too long ago, A.I. seemed a distant dream for especially interested researchers. Today it is all around us. We carry it in our pockets, it's in our cars and in many of the web services we use throughout the day. As this technology matures, every business must ask itself the central question: how will this disrupt my industry?

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Artificial Intelligence in Indian Irrigation

Artificial Intelligence in Indian Irrigation

Agriculture Automation is the major concern for India owing to the agricultural complexities resulting in decreased production of the crop and farmers commit suicide due to the heavy loss incurred . India is considered to be an agricultural country where farming and agriculture is the main occupation throughout. With the increase of population, the food demand is ought to increase manifold, thereby, the need of advanced agricultural systems has been elevated. It is imperative to apply artificial intelligence in irrigation process to increase the production. Various implementations have been made with the help of Artificial Intelligence and other Expert Systems. This research paper focuses on the use of Artificial Intelligence in Indian Irrigation. Further it focusses on the blending of embedded technology and Artificial Intelligence in agricultural sector. There are some areas which create hindrance in the agricultural fields like storage management, water management, control of pesticides and fertilizers, crop diseases, and lack of irrigation. These are some of the major problems that are faced by the Indian agricultural sector. India is facing a lot of issues of availability of water for irrigation and government is working for the same in order to implement automation in agricultural sector. Agricultural Automation concentrating more on efficient irrigation can be achieved by making use of the latest technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Arduino and Raspberry devices can be embedded with moisture and temperature sensors along with the help of Machine Learning algorithms to attain advancement in irrigation. The world is getting advanced in terms of technology and the data storage as well as management of sensors is shifted towards online cloud. This makes it easy for the users to access the data from anywhere at any moment. Automatic irrigation is a vital topic for the evapotranspiration process and the crop prediction. Evapotranspiration process is the process of water management and the hydrologic cycle to develop a sustainable irrigation method. The paper discusses the application of Artificial Intelligence and other embedded systems in the agricultural sector by keeping in mind the past breakthroughs. The problem of water usage that is faced by the farmers will be solved with the help of the smart irrigation system. It is a fully automated irrigation system that is easily accessible and very beneficial for the future of agriculture.
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