In reviewing Mark Cornwall's monumental study of 'front propaganda by and against the Habsburg Monarchy in the First World War, I feel I ought to register a certain personal interest. In the summer of 1982, when I was embarking on my own doctoral research in the Vienna archives, I ran into Roy Bridge, leading expert in the diplomatic history of Austria-Hungary. Roy, always the soul of kindness, introduced me to Mark, one of his postgraduate students, whom he was initiating into the mysteries of the Haus-Hof- und Staatsarchiv, and who was remarkable (in my experience) for having a working acquaintance with both Serbo-Croat and Hungarian as well as German. For the last week or so of my stay that year, as I remember, Mark and I worked alongside one another in that peaceful little backroom of the Ballhaus. Together we also weathered an evening in the Zwölfapostelkeller with the unsinkable Dr. Bridge. The following summer, when I next visited Vienna, Mark was still there, having spent an entire year mining the archives,
This project centers on what I call the “masochistic aesthetic,” which emerged as literature dovetailed with medicine and law in German-speaking Europe and Russia around 1900. I argue that incipient totalitarian societies instrumentalized art and literature to produce citizens who enthusiastically consented to painful social discipline — that is, political masochists. Masochistic narratives like Leopold von Sacher-Masoch’s Venus in Furs (1870), Anton Chekhov’s The Duel (1891), or Andrei Platonov’s Happy Moscow (1933-6) reflect the ethnographic attention to borderlands, regulation of the body, and indefinite delay of pleasure inherent in the imperial or totalitarian settings that engendered them. After tracing the origins of the masochistic aesthetic to the synthesis of sexology and literature in Austria-Hungary, I track its passage into degeneration discourse in late-imperial Russia (Lev Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov) and the labor rationalization movements of interwar German-speaking Europe (Franz Kafka, Robert Walser). I conclude with an analysis of political masochism’s apotheosis in Stalinism (Andrei Platonov, Daniil Kharms), showing how the convergence of literature with bio-centric labor theory in the Soviet 1930s produced an ethos of joyful self- sacrifice and indefinitely delayed gratification. By casting masochism as a tool of political and ethnographic normalization, my work revises the traditionally psychoanalytic approach to the phenomenon in Russian culture. Mobilizing masochism’s understudied “Slavic” underpinnings and the Germanophone influence on its Stalinist incarnation, this project offers insight into the uneasy nexus of politics and private life that gave rise to Stalinism and Nazism. My research contributes to debates in comparative literature, labor history, and gender and sexuality studies, addressing themes central to the intertwined cultural histories of Russia and German-speaking Europe.
. While scholars like Harry Francis Mallgrave and Ákos Moravánsky have demonstrated the theory’s significance for modern architecture, Houze argues that its relevance also resonated in the realms of art history, museology, exhibition practice and modern art and design (p. 2). She claims that the link with clothing was omnipresent: ‘From the influence of Gottfried Semper’s Bekleidungsprinzip in the 1860s, to the extraordinary effort to seize control of women’s textile arts in the last quarter of the nineteenth century by the Austrian and Hungarian schools and museums, to Adolf Loos’ problematic reading of fashion and disguise at the fin-de-siècle, clothing motivated programs of change’ (p. 291). The link could be both
On the outbreak of the war, Watson provides a good summary of the machinations of July 1914, one of the most studied months in all history. Watson, like Christopher Clark, emphasizes the importance of Austria- Hungary, where the decisions for war were taken first.(4) Fritz Fischer and his school, which blamed German expansionism and militarism, are given short shrift (p. 31). The mobilization both in Austria- Hungary and in Germany went relatively smoothly and there was widespread consent, epitomized by the German Social Democrats’ vote in favour of war credits. Watson’s previous work on morale and volunteers serves this section well. Here, as throughout the book, Watson skillfully interweaves testimony from
In Greece, the pro-Russian agenda is much more dominant. There is greater support for closer ties to Russia and bringing an end to sanctions in Greece than in any other country in Europe. It is the country most sceptical of a European security order based on Western institutions and scepticism against transatlantic links is almost as strong as in Hungary. That said, Euroscepticism is weaker than might be expected, and, despite the refugee crisis, the Greek political mainstream does not campaign on an anti-refugee platform. Still, anti-secular fears and anti-liberal tendencies are present. The close ties of the prime minister, Alexis Tsipras, to Putin have barely drawn comment, primarily because the country is utterly dependent on financial assistance from Europe and Germany in particular. Hence Athens’s freedom of manoeuvre on foreign policy is limited. 17
Abstract This paper analyses the TFP heterogeneity of a sample of manufacturing firms operating in seven EU countries (Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and UK). TFP data refer to 2008. The empirical setting is based on the multilevel modelling which provides two main results. Firstly, we show that TFP heterogeneity is largely due to firm-specific features (85% of TFP variability in the empty-model). Interestingly, we find that some key-drivers of TFP (size, family- management, group membership, innovations and human capital) influence heterogeneity in productivity with the expect sign, but do not, on the whole, absorb much of firm-TFP variance, implying that differences in productivity are due to sizable yet unobservable firm characteristics. Secondly, as far the role of localization is concerned, we demonstrate that country-effect is more influential than region-effect in explaining individual productivity. Net of the country-effect, the localisation in different European regions explains about 5% of TFP firm heterogeneity. When considering the case of three individual countries (France, Italy and Spain), location in different regions explains 4.7% of TFP heterogeneity in Italy, while this proportion is lower (2.9%) in France and higher (7.6%) in Spain.
• Human values – The existence of fundamental human values, such as democracy, tolerance, openness, trust and participation may materially influence the given organization, and even the mindset of the entire country. In Hungary the one-party political and power system collapsed at the end of the 1980s, and the first free parliamentary election, held in May 1990, was a form of plebiscite on the communist past. A rapid transition from centralized state control and national economic planning to free market, globally competitive capitalism is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The difficult political and economic process has a number of basic elements, of which four major changes should be highlighted in respect of human resources at the macro-economic level:
considered are the following ones. As expected, there is a strong positive correlation between aversion to migrants and right-wing positions (‘Left-right scale’) in all the significant cases (5 out of 6), while the relation with ‘Education’ presents even higher significance in all the six regressions but with the opposite sign. The profile of the individuals who are more averse to immigrants also reflects a moderate impact of dissatisfaction for the institutions (politicians, EU, government) and for the democratic rules at the status quo. This is true for all cases where the related variables (‘Trust politicians’, ‘Trust EU’, ‘Satisfied gov.’, ‘Satisfied dem.’) are significant, with the only exception of Austria 2002 where government satisfaction is positively correlated with the DV at a 90% level of significance. These individuals are also more likely to be concerned about living in a safe and secure surrounding (‘Feeling safe’; significantly and negatively correlated with the DV in 5 out of 6 cases), while a smaller role is played by the importance to follow societal rule (‘Follow rules’; significant, with a
Due to the revalidation of S. oschanini, the distribution of the true S. pyri remains con- fused. It has been recorded from Albania, Austria, ?Belgium, Bosnia Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan (European part – Ural’sk), Macedonia, Moldavia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (Central and South European Territory), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey (European part), Ukraine; Algeria, Morocco; Azerbaijan, Georgia, ?Kazakhstan (Asian part), ?Turkey (Asian part), Cyprus, ?Israel, and ?Jordan (P ÉRICART & G OLUB 1996, C HUMAKOV et al. 1997, P ROTIĆ