Dr Carter G. Woodson, an African American historian, founded what started as a weeklong series of events, “Negro History Week”, marking the achievements and contributions of African-Americans in the United States in 1926. These events are observed during the month of February, which coincides with the birthdays of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln. In 1976, “Negro History Week” became BlackHistory Month and has been criticised increasingly over the years due to its lack of focus on its initial purpose. Asante provides the clearest explanation of BHM’s core essence, “Afrocentric perspectives should question the imposition of the White supremacist view as universal and/or classical; demonstrates the indefensibility of racist theories that assault multiculturalism and pluralism; projects a humanistic and pluralistic viewpoint by articulating Afrocentricity as a valid, non-hegemonic perspective” (1991, 173). In this way, Blackpeople are able to understand where they ‘fit’ within a globalised world and develop self-esteem and motivation to pursue their own interests rather than internalise racist stereotypes about ‘Blackness’ and the African diaspora. A series of events resulting from a deficit understanding of where a Black person ‘fits’ in Britain resulted in BlackHistory being founded in the United Kingdom a decade later.
African population has been understudied and was not identified officially as an ethnic group in Britain until the 1991 Census (Daley, 1998). The Black African group is diverse when compared with other ethnic groups as they come from varied origin, social and economic backgrounds. The migratory history of Black Africans is significantly different from other immigrants. Initially, majority arrived in Britain for education and economic purpose and was not recruited for employment purposes like other ethnic groups. They came in as students, seeking to improve their economic circumstances on return to their home country with superior education. The colonial linkages further gave an incentive to come into Britain and immigrants mainly from Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Somali, and Gold Coast settled close to the docklands of Liverpool, London and Cardiff (Killingray, 1994). Until late 1940s, the African communities were not well established, and their numbers were below 10,000 (Banton, 1955). Black African migration prominently focused on education and this gained significance after independence in the 1960s (Ojo, 2012). Black African students were given the opportunities to train for posts in technical and professional fields and most courses studied were medicine, engineering, nursing and education (Daley 1998). On return to home country, western education guaranteed position in prestigious government and professional establishments (Daley, 1998). However, the oil boom of 1970s saw an increase in foreign student, especially from Nigeria, and majority of them settled due to the demand for their acquired skills (Daley, 1998). As the home economy declined, more people settled. Political crises and human rights abuse led to the migration of refugees from African countries such as the Ugandan, Botswana, Somalia, Ethiopia, Ghana and Eritrea and recently Nigeria, Congo and Angola (Parsons, 1994; Oguibe, 1994). Ghanaians and Nigerians are the largest group represented in the Black African ethnic community and this is attributed in part to the 1970s oil boom in Nigeria and political instability in 70s and 80s in Ghana (Daley, 1998).
Overrepresentation of African people in Britain‟s mental health system More than 80% of patients in psychiatric wards are African. This is a fact that the government has recognized and has always known. I have only come across a few European people in the mental health system and when I have, their mental condition always seemed to be more severe than those of African patients. Some of them tie ligatures around their necks to kill themselves, others mutilate their bodies with sharp objects or burn themselves with cigarettes. I was scared by this as I had never seen it before in my life. When I would ask them why they do it, their reply was always that the Devil tells them to do it. Some of them admitted to worshiping the devil which triggers off their mental illness.
There seems to be a “tiresome ritual of either romanticising or demonising the sixties” (Donnelly, 2005). The 1960s Britain is like a wedding cake adorned with icing sugar which makes it look very attractive but underneath the sugar is a cake that is largely rotten. Looking at trends from the views of Marwick and other pro-swinging sixties, compelling evidence show that the sixties was a transformation period for Britain with the consistent and persistent rise in wages and standard of living, technological advancement and availability, benefits of increased education opportunities, and the ethnic diversity it witnessed. It also transformed the lives women, legalising abortion and homosexuality, a distinctive youth culture, uncensored contents and a rise in consumerism which tried to narrow the gap in-between the social strata. It was a period of titanic battle between the old and the new when people began to question the old way. A time of commercialisation of culture; pleasure for happiness, media satisfaction instead of long term goals. Despite all these, Sandbrook and other revisionists assert that majority of British largely outside London still lived in squalor and poverty, conservatives won more elections than labour with large margins, people still preferred Englebert Humperdinck over the Beatles and Rolling Stones, large population followed NVALA and enjoyed watching „the gentle Sumer of Dad‟s Army (1968) and „the Black and White Minstrel‟ Show, high rate of decadence, crime and insecurity. Just like the pluralists opine, this essay finds out that Britain in the 1960s was like a sweet-bitter pie where the people were swinging yet cautious.
debates surrounding wartime Britain using an economic history of evasion and black markets. As he points out in this volume's preface, economic history has generally studied historical trends using hypothetical rational actors whose choices can be understood as responses to structural economic forces. Despite the influence of E. P. Thompson and others who echoed his calls for greater attention to cultural factors when studying responses to economic trends, economic historians have continued to struggle with the best ways of incorporating such non-structural factors into their analysis.(3) As this book demonstrates, wartime and post- war evasion provides an ideal case with which to critique economic histories that fail to take into account personal and cultural factors. As Roodhouse contends at the book's outset, limiting the analysis to the 'structure of control' simply cannot explain why some people chose to participate in the black market and others did not (p. 9).
knowledge of the secondary literature with much archival research, producing, in his chapter on beer drinking at least, a much needed history of a central aspect of British popular culture which has been long overdue. He combines economic, social and cultural history and stresses throughout the importance of political factors to this history as well. He thus follows a recent trend in the study of consumer society which has looked to the role of the state in influencing demand, though his previous work on adulteration and government legislation might be seen to have preceded this type of analysis.(3) For instance, in his chapter on milk, he emphasis the importance of fears over physical degeneration which prompted the Edwardian governments to form Infant Welfare Centres and Milk Depots where mothers could obtain bottles of sterilised milk at 2d. for a day's supply. Such intervention in consumption set important precedents for the role of the welfare state which would be followed by the establishment of the Milk Marketing Boards in 1933 and the provision of free school milk from 1946. In other chapters, too, Burnett describes the role of government in, for example, the retail licensing of tea, in the setting of high excise duties for coffee, in the regulation of drinking hours in pubs and in the municipalisation of the water supply following a series of cholera epidemics in the mid-nineteenth century.
establishing local black leadership began when General Orlando Brown of Virginia, the assistant commissioner of the Bureau, commanded that officers in every district of Virginia send in the names of black individuals deemed to be the smartest and most capable of being a leader. Lowe importantly notes that these men had to be in good standing and approved by both whites and blacks in the area. He points out that men who were literate, of mixed race, and free before the Civil War were overrepresented in the group of black men chosen to be local leaders. Lowe also explains that the local black leaders of the Freedmen’s Bureau did not coincide with the majority of black citizens’ idea of a black leader, thus failing to fulfill the purpose of electing black leaders. The Bureau was highly unsuccessful because, according to Lowe, “to the delight of most white
Sublime Anatomies: Medicine, Materiality, and the Transcendent in Early Modern Britain. A book-length study of the philosophical, cultural, and literary contexts in which eighteenth- century views on physiology both undergird and dislocated the articulation of sublime experience.
Chapter 1 looks at an object under the name ‘attempted suicide’ prominent during the early twentieth century (1910s and 1920s). This is compared to one found in the late 1930s, in a mental-observation ward attached to a general hospital. This 1937 study marks the emer- gence of a distinctive psychological, psychosocial object. Chapter 2 assesses the significance of the Second World War (1939–45) and the subsequent founding of the NHS (1948) for this psychological concern, and subjects some of the work of Ivor Batchelor (1953–6) and Erwin Stengel (1952–8) to close reading, both in terms of their intellectual contents and institutional settings. Chapter 3 takes a close look at the Mental Health Act (1959) and the Suicide Act (1961), to see how various legal changes enable much broader governmental interven- tion focusing psychiatric attention upon physically injured patients, enabling the object to assume national (even ‘epidemic’) significance. Chapter 4 examines a government research unit on psychiatric epide- miology in Edinburgh, and on how the profession of psychiatric social work is vital in relating a hospital attendance to a social situation, calling the object ‘self-poisoning’. Chapter 5 details the rise of a new form of ‘self-harm’ in Britain – self-cutting as a means of internal tension reduction – which surfaces during the 1960s (in both Britain and North America). The British literature on self-cutting is analysed, with the chief focus on how self-cutting emerges in inpatient settings and is gradually understood as motivated by internal tension, rather than analysed as a potentially contagious social phenomenon. This internal tension is then seen to differentiate self-cutting from self-poi- soning; self-cutters are previously a barely remarked-upon minority in parasuicide studies at A&E departments. Self-poisoning then falls out of the spotlight somewhat, as the new behavioural phenomenon of self-cutting renders it ambiguous. The Conclusion describes the signifi- cance of this shift in broader terms: the displacement of overdosing by the prominence of self-cutting; a psychological object embedded in the social setting replaced by one focused upon internal, individual emotional struggles.
Psychoanalysis. The language of psychoanalysis and the language of sculpture both use the terms object, relations, material, transformation, and generation of discourse. My reading of sculpture through a dynamic play of object relations provides a context for reading the complex space of sculpture in Britain through an inter-generational narrative. Not only does my association of time, of place, and of the student / master relationship at the core of this transcription process sit within the rubric of object relations, the actual act of juxtaposing objects enacts Bollas’ ideas within a specific pedagogical context of British sculpture. Interpolating a transformative drawing system into an object of knowledge (the Plackman drawing - the archive in this instance) enabled my invention of a situation where minds (or the plastic representation of minds) may mingle through the interplay of artists’ objects.
The book is organised into seven thematic chapters, each of which serves well as a stand-alone section while also fitting nicely into the bigger picture. Moreover, this thematic approach emphasises that diversity and those commonalities Storer has set out to highlight. Chapter one examines ‘British travel and tourism in Weimar Germany’ and expounds various motivations for visiting the Republic. Storer notes that at that time, Germany, and in particular Berlin, was a crossroads for European travel on both an East-West and a North- South axis. The war had temporarily interrupted British travel to Germany – which had been developing since the 18th century – but was quickly resumed after hostilities ended, albeit in considerably altered circumstances. Having distinguished between various groups of visitors to Germany, ranging from military personnel and diplomats to holiday-makers touring the western and southern regions, Storer outlines the diverse nature of British ‘intellectual travel’ to the Republic, setting the scene for the rest of the book. An unprecedented number of British intellectuals visited Germany after the war; some purely for pleasure, some in search of career opportunities or in professional capacities as correspondents or in order to research for books and articles, others wanted to observe the exciting and turbulent situation in the new Germany for themselves, seeing their trips as educational and, in some cases, acts of self-discovery and rebelliousness. The number of intellectual visitors peaked in periods of crisis – 1921–4 and 1929–33 – suggesting that it was precisely the Republic’s instability, and the general feeling that history was being made in Germany, which attracted them to it. One could add other reasons for visiting Germany to those described here, for example, intellectuals who were invited by German political, social or cultural institutions or who travelled with the specific task of fostering intellectual understanding and co-operation, but since it is not Storer’s intention to give a comprehensive account – he points out that this would be impossible in one volume (p. 6) – such examples would be welcome enhancements rather than necessary additions.
tain guanxi, which, similar to family relationships, determined that they had an obligation of mutual support (King, 1991). Despite such shared attri- butes, they also had long-term interactions that helped them maintain mutual guanxi. The leader of the Sheffield Chinese Church (SCC) described the interactions between them and the initiator of Sheffield CNY Joint Committee: “We (the SCCC and SCC associations) always support each other. When he asked us to take part in CNY celebrations, we didn’t take it so special. We just came and sup- port him.” These New Territories Chinese migrants, therefore, had maintained their guanxi over a long period of time, either through association activities or personal interactions, before the establishment of the CNY organization committee. It is interest- ing, and perhaps surprising, that guanxi can also be found to operate even when organizations such as the CSSA—which receives funding from the Chi- nese government and/or companies—are present. The personal guanxi between the leaders of the CSSA-Nottingham and the manager of Expressing Travel, a travel agency specializing in the ethnic Chinese market, was claimed as an important moti- vator for their collaboration: “Other associations are usually run by the Hong Kong Chinese. We are both from mainland China. I used to be a member of CSSA. We have known each other for a couple of years. It is much easier to work with people you know more and trust more. . . . This is guanxi.” This illustrates the key argument that guanxi based on shared ancestral origins and/or native places may be found among both Hong Kong origin and main- land China origin Chinese communities.
By alluding to the figure of the Amazon or to Atalanta, Opie’s painting reflects on the partly erotic nature of the public’s obsession with Betty, while the recourse to classical imagery also illustrates the character’s young age, energy and heroism. By eluding the picturesque effect of Scottish costume, Opie creates a kind of visual palimpsest that echoes Homer and Ossian, bringing together evocations of Scotland, classical Antiquity and a distant British past. Indeed the breastplate, footwear and spear could also be construed as a-temporal or primitive signifiers, found in Neoclassical art as well as in illustrations of the early stages of British history. Betty embodies a Scottish, almost primitive teenage hero. Here it seems possible to establish links between Opie’s portrait and imagery related to the figure of Ossian. For instance, Betty’s intent gaze and wind-swept hair evoke Ossian’s young attendant in Ossian and Alpin's Son Hearing the Spirit of Malvina Touching the Harp (1816) by Danish artist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein Stub (1783-1816) (Figure 104). 65 Although the latter was painted much later, the similarities between both youths evince the period’s interest in the representation of young romantic heroes from the past (albeit a fictional one). The picture can therefore be interpreted as creating an association between the youth of the character and the medieval or primitive state of Scotland. Just as Ossian appears as both the repository and the source of ancient Celtic literature, so are ancient Scottish youths (like Norval and Alpin’s son) presented as heroes and symbols of the future of a nation. Norval strides over the moors, gesturing to somebody as if coming to help or greet them. In the conflation of old and young, the picture conveys a sense of heritage as well as new energy.
Highways form the economic backbone of the country as well as an integral part of every human being. As the facilities of roadways increase, the population of vehicles also increase there by resulting in increased number of traffic congestion and accidental casualties. However the road infrastructure is insufficient to handle the increased number of vehicles resulting in increased road accidents. Road safety is one of the most important problems the society recently. Every year 1.2 million of people are killed and between 20 and 50 million people are injured in road accidents globally. If current trends continues, road accidents will be third leading contributor of Disease and injury by 2020 which will be a burden globally. In Kerala, there were 336 major accident locations during the year 2016 there are 4287 fatalities, 39420 road accidents and 44108 grievous injuries (Kerala Police, 2016). There were 12 fatalities happened on the State per day. In Kerala more than half of the road accident victims are in the age group of 20 to 55 who are the key wage earning and child raising age group. The loss of the main bread winner and head of household due to death or disability is catastrophic which leads to lower
2. Feminism and black feminism: “as purple to lavender” As has been illustrated, besides race, gender is an important aspect of a black woman‟s identity. Many black female scholars have pointed out that although it is certainly true that blackpeople are faced with racism as a community, black women are faced with sexism not only from outside, but also from within that same community.
which developed in tandem with Western democracy. Porneia, “houses where people went naked” and filled with purchased slave women and girls, had been created in 6 B.C. which were the first well-organised and state-supervised prostitution trade disentangled from the religious and ritual boundaries that had marked the sale of sex in earlier periods. Typologies of prostitutes were discernible in Babylonian times but became more clear during Greek liberalism where distinctions were made between deichtrides (women of humble means on display in porneia), auletrides (free women with artistic skills and accomplishments) and heterae, or “companions” who were free agents and property owners and thus the top stratum of Greek prostitutes. Chapter five undertakes to provide a history of prostitution within Hinduism which was characterised by ambiguity. Seen as members of society it was considered a good omen to meet a prostitute in the street while it was a bad omen to meet a widow. Hindu culture was thus distinguished by great sexual freedom combined with an ambiguous view of the female sex. Chapter six takes the reader to Rome which places prostitution within prevalent Roman ethics and a moral code which separated sex and love consecrating the family for procreation and prostitution, meant to take place outside the city walls, for sex. The New Testament is discussed in chapter seven with Mary Magdalene receiving focal attention. Chapter eight takes us briefly to China and the story of a girl named Yü Hsüan-chi before the next chapter broaches “Muhammad’s women” through sources in the Qu’ran. Ten goes to medieval Europe and it “guilds, cloisters, rogues and rapists” and gives some attention to discourses around women travelling and bathhouses as locations of prostitution.