History of Conservation and Restoration

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Environmental history and conservation conflicts

Environmental history and conservation conflicts

This historic culture, whether perceived as right or wrong over time, resulted in a substantial modification of the natural world in the late nineteenth cen- tury and first half of the twentieth century in the upland ecosystems of Britain, the consequences of which we still wrestle with today (Holloway, 1996). The traditional utilitarian attitude to predators still survives and brings those who are charged with managing wildland and game species for economic bene- fit, leisure and class (sometimes with associated environmental benefits), into direct conflict with those who have non-utilitarian views (Smout, 1993a). The fortunes of some species have, in large part, undoubtedly improved in the sec- ond half of the twentieth century. Following the pesticide crisis of the 1960s, some raptors, including the osprey Pandion haliaetus, red kite Milvus milvus, white- tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, have gone from persecution to reintroduction and restoration to sustainable tourism icons (Cairns and Hamblin, 2007; Lambert, 2011). However, negative attitudes to these species still exist. Others like the hen harrier Circus cyaneus remain seemingly trapped in a historical time warp of negative attitudes to protect sporting inter- ests, despite national conservation endeavours by powerful mass-membership environmental NGOs such as the RSPB and county Wildlife Trusts (see Box 2).
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Conservation and Restoration of Endangered Plant Species in the Tropical Forests

Conservation and Restoration of Endangered Plant Species in the Tropical Forests

Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions; i.e. land areas approximately bounded by the tropic of cancer and Capricorn, but affected by other factors such as prevailing winds. Tropical forests occur in all three main tropical landmasses, America, Africa and Asia Pacific. Differences in the geological history, climate, topography, and extent of these three areas have resulted in characteristic differences in biota. By far the largest area of tropical forest occurs in the American or neo-tropical region, which contain approximately half (4x10 6 km 2 ) of the world’s total. Central and West Africa contains approximately 1.8x10 6 km 2 of tropical forest, extending from the Congo basin westward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also, smaller areas of tropical forest occur in Australia, Madagascar, East Africa, Hawaii and the islands of the South Pacific [1].
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Application of Microbial Biotechnology in Conservation and Restoration of Stone Monument

Application of Microbial Biotechnology in Conservation and Restoration of Stone Monument

tion and ultimately to physical damage. Even coatings that permit evaporation can cause problems of salt accumula- tion and crystallization; therefore, a protective coating must be sympathetic to the nature of the stone itself [2]. The most appropriate consolidating material is should be thoroughly infiltrated in the stone and don't just remain on the surface, especially if the stone is exposed to moisture and temperature changes [3]. Bioremediation is less harsh than the use of environmentally toxic chemicals or aggres- sive mechanical procedures, which are considered to be destructive methods. The production of the calcium carbo- nate layer generated by bacteria might offer a solution to this dilemma because the layer would not block the natural pore structure, thus permitting free passage of soluble salts through the stone [4]. Biomineralization is the process by which organisms form minerals, by creating physical and chemical conditions necessary for mineral formation and growth. Microorganisms are active in a wide range of mi- neralization processes and have been involved in the depo- sition of minerals throughout the history of the Earth [4]. Like other biomineralization processes, calcium carbonate biomineralization can occur by two different mechanisms: biologically controlled mineralization and biologically induced mineralization [5].
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New Zealand island restoration: seabirds, predators, and the importance of history

New Zealand island restoration: seabirds, predators, and the importance of history

The revegetation and translocations of land birds to Tiritiri Mātangi was achieved by a supporters group together with DOC (Rimmer 2004). This approach has been adopted as a model for programmes for the management of other islands, e.g. Motuora, Motuihe, and Mana. In 2009, the public no longer rely on central or local government to purchase and manage islands for conservation. For example, after DOC considered the environmental value of Kaikoura Island (535 ha) too low to support its purchase, public pressure resulted in a collaboration between private donors and the Government for purchase of the island in 2005 and the formation of a charitable trust to restore it and use it for environmental education. Eradication of selected non-native plants has taken place and work to eradicate all non-native mammals was underway in 2009. Restoration goals for islands vary from eradication of most non-native species on Raoul Island, to those where maintenance of non-native plant communities is desirable as habitat for threatened native taxa, such as takahē on Tiritiri Mātangi, or as a means of managing archaeological sites as on Motutapu. For Māori, maintenance of non-native plants that they introduced may also be important, for example the maintenance of non- native Cordyline fruticosa on two islands near Mimiwhangata (E.K.Cameron, unpublished data) is desirable for Ngātiwai, the tangata whenua, who regard this species, a relic of their former gardens on the islands, as a taonga (treasure).
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Conservation as a later addition

Conservation as a later addition

Another kind of intangible ‘later addition’ can arise when an object is treated by a famous conservator. The Portland vase, for example, was smashed in 1845, and sub- sequently restored by John Doubleday, a key figure in the field of conservation, who thus became associated with the history of the vase. However, the ‘intangible addi- tions’ do not end there. The vase was restored again in 1948, and then again in 1988. The restoration in 1988 was regarded with such importance by the public that it was filmed and broadcast on TV; another addition to its significance and value (Smith 1992: 45). The physical fabric of the vase became so intricately tied to its eventful life history and the fame of its first conservator that its conservation treatment be- came a matter of public interest. It is worthy of note that public interest and involve- ment are some of the most important issues which conservation is starting to deal with and should be considered in all conservation treatments. The implications of this are considered below.
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Ground dwelling ants as surrogates for establishing
conservation priorities in the Australian wet tropics

Ground dwelling ants as surrogates for establishing conservation priorities in the Australian wet tropics

High turnover value for arthropod species along the alti- tudinal gradient could be attributed to the dispersal and distributional range of this group of organisms. Most alti- tudinal pattern studies were designed for fauna such as birds or mammals that have larger ranges and longer dis- persal distances than arthropod species. Conservation managers usually draw information from those studies that serve to reveal pattern at moderate to large spatial scales. This strategy allows decisions to be made on a na- tional level. However, the narrow altitudinal ranges of arthropod species merit concern when formulating con- servation strategies for areas such as the Australian Wet Tropics. This concern arises because climate change has been identified as the biggest threat to the biodiversity of this region and the whole Wet Tropics region consists of patches of highlands that harbour most of the endemics found there. The projected upward elevational shifts of organisms due to warming indicate the high vulnerability to extinction of organisms with narrow altitudinal bands such as arthropod species and highland specifics.
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Conservation and non conservation of genetic pathways in eye specification

Conservation and non conservation of genetic pathways in eye specification

The potential conservation of the ey paradigm in vertebrate oculogenesis has received tremendous attention. In the preceding sections, we have compared each genetic component of the ey paradigm to equivalent vertebrate genetics. While homologues of all of the genes from the fly ey paradigm are expressed during development of the vertebrate eye, the function of each of these genes has not been strictly preserved. The most notable example of non-conservation is the failure of mutations in Eya1 and Eya2 to produce an embryonic eye phenotype. It is intriguing to note, however, that the vertebrate genes are capable of many of the interactions present in the Drosophila eye, as evident from the vertebrate genes either rescuing Drosophila mutants or inducing ectopic eyes in the fly. This suggests that the orthologous verte- brate genes have maintained their molecular function but that the components have, to some extent, become uncoupled. In addition it is important to note that some aspects of the ey paradigm are well conserved. In particular, Pax6 is highly reminiscent of ey , while Six3 and Six6 have some characteristics of so . Thus, despite the lack of strict conservation of the ey paradigm, it is significant that several critical eye regulator genes have been preserved between the morphologically divergent fly and vertebrate eye.
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Research on the Fundamentals of Architectural Restoration Associate Degree Program

Research on the Fundamentals of Architectural Restoration Associate Degree Program

Abstract. Today, the effects of globalization can be easily seen in many areas in the world. In the changing process, both Architectural education and side branches need various updates. The "Architectural Restoration Program", which is one of these branches of Architectural education, aims to provide to the sector “Technicians” and educates “Architect Candidates”. The "Architectural Restoration Associate Degree Program" is a two year degree. In this context, the importance of this program's course curriculums is great. The Program is aimed to train qualified technical personnel for cultural assets that are common heritage of mankind which must be transferred to future generations. Program’s graduates work in the laboratories, on the construction site and office, in the archaeological excavation, as a technical staff with architects. In this study, the relationship between “Architectural Education” and the basic objectives of the “Architectural Restoration Program” is examined. In this study, various Turkish and American universities' "Architectural Restoration Program" module details will be subject for a further examination and evaluation
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The Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club Awards for 2014

The Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club Awards for 2014

Newspaper reports on scientific discoveries and envi- ronmental issues are notorious for errors, half-truths, and exaggerations. Too often, scientists and environ- mentalists avoid interviews with the local media due to the fear of being misquoted or misunderstood. Not so in Ottawa, where the Ottawa Citizen has Tom Spears looking after these topics. His clear and illustrative reporting of often complex and seemingly academic is - sues that are nonetheless important for both the invest- ed and general public to understand, has been remark- able. Tom has dealt with topics ranging from exposing the antics of pirate scientific journals, reporting impor- tant conservation achievements, tracing the redevel- opment of forests after fires, wolf studies in Gatineau Park, and the discovery of rare and ecologically critical species, to unravelling unwieldy and environmentally counter-productive bureaucratic processes.
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Restoration of Ancient History of Sri Lanka with the help of Sīhalavatthuppakaraṇa

Restoration of Ancient History of Sri Lanka with the help of Sīhalavatthuppakaraṇa

Abstract- The sources contribute to write history (Perera S. Lakshman,2001:46). Sīhalavatthuppakaraṇa is one of the oldest surviving sources, has gained its life due to the untiring efforts of Rev. Polvattē Buddhadatta. Initially, a Burmese copy of the Sīhalavatthuppakaraṇa has found from Burma and later on its Pāli copy, as well has been found in the Mahākappinna Mudalindārāmaya in Välithara in Sri Lanka. Following the due clarification, Rev. Polvattē Buddhadatta is credited to have published this particular book. It can be speculated that this book has been written during the reign of king Vattagāmiṇiabaya (104- 67 B.C.E). This can be illustrated as one of the oldest books available right at the moment and further, the way in which the Pāli language is used in this particular book proves the above fact. This book recalls us where Pāli, as a language was not highly used for the purpose of writing. Further, the book seems to have a lot of grammatical errors.
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What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond tree regeneration, pyrophilous and saproxylic species? A systematic review protocol

What is the effect of prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forest on biodiversity, beyond tree regeneration, pyrophilous and saproxylic species? A systematic review protocol

Background: Forests set aside from productive forestry are often considered best conserved by non-intervention. However, biodiversity is often maintained in natural forests by a background level of disturbance, which, in some forests, takes the form of forest fires. Set-aside forests may therefore benefit from continuation of such disturbances, which, in forests under protection, must be managed anthropogenically. While the effects of prescribed burning on tree regeneration and on pyrophilous and/or saproxylic species in some regions are well known, effects on other organisms are less clear and/or consistent. It would be valuable to broaden the knowledge of how prescribed burn- ing affects forest biodiversity, particularly because this practice is increasingly considered as a conservation manage- ment intervention. The primary aim of the proposed systematic review is to clarify how biodiversity is affected by prescribed burning in temperate and boreal forests. The ultimate purpose of the review is to investigate whether and how such prescribed burning may be useful as a means of conserving or restoring biodiversity, beyond that of pyrophilous and saproxylic species, in forest set-asides.
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Environmental conservation and restoration ecology: two facets of the same problem

Environmental conservation and restoration ecology: two facets of the same problem

The ecosystem has received little explicit recognition as a conservation goal, and the dialogue has been almost ex- clusively in the context of species conservation (Rogers 1996); in this context, habitat was to be preserved as the home of a given species (= the species “address”). Interest in preserving ecosystem function has developed only recently as a part of shift to ecosystem management. There still is no clear consensus on the subject (Yaffee 1999). In a few recent studies, however, habitat/ecosystem restoration has been given much attention when recovery plans for threat- ened species were made. Another interface between con- servation and restoration may be recognized when single- species-oriented studies are carried out to verify usefulness of particular species as restoration material. In such cases, however, plant species are not threatened although they may be locally rare. To illustrate these interfaces, I propose to consider two examples.
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Old-time Telephones: History, Design, Technology, Restoration

Old-time Telephones: History, Design, Technology, Restoration

In summary, this simple isolation circuit (a) puts a larger signal on the line than all other circuits described in this book (lower line losses), (b) puts a larger voltage on [r]

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Engineering conservation: the biogeography, biopolitics, and biotechnology of American chestnut restoration

Engineering conservation: the biogeography, biopolitics, and biotechnology of American chestnut restoration

Environmental variables used in this model were selected with the aim of capturing as much of the fundamental niche -- the set of conditions that foster survival and reproduction in the absence of biotic interactions (Hutchinson 1957) -- as possible. Although soil attributes and elevation are often considered key determinants of American chestnut distribution (Russell 1987; Stephenson et al. 1991), and have been used to model American chestnut habitat in other studies (Iverson et al. 2008; Santoro 2013), limitation of the species to high elevations and well-drained, xeric soils appears to reflect niche contraction in the presence of chestnut blight (Burke 2012) and P. cinnamomi (Rhoades et al. 2003). In fact, American chestnut is known to have been abundant in riparian areas in the southern Appalachians before the arrival of blight (Vandermast and Van Lear 2002), leading to the conclusion that it may be a generalist in terms of site conditions (Jacobs 2007), particularly in the absence of Phytophthera, which is most virulent in poorly-drained and compacted soils (Anagnostakis 2001; Rhoades et al. 2003). Thus, soil factors and elevation may primarily be indicators of the realized niche of American chestnut -- the geographic limits to which the species is confined due to its interaction with other organisms. In the absence of these two pathogens or given the assisted evolution of resistance to them, other elevations and soil conditions may be suitable for American chestnut, so these variables were not included in our model. Additionally, while continental-scale climate patterns are illustrative, soil attributes vary on a much smaller scale and would be needed at a finer resolution to be meaningful for restoration decisions (Rovzar et al. 2016).
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Dynamics of logging in Solomon Islands: the need for restoration and conservation alternatives

Dynamics of logging in Solomon Islands: the need for restoration and conservation alternatives

A more recent approach, termed nucleation, involves planting selected tree species in strategic locations within heavily disturbed sites [67]. The planted trees develop into vegetation patches that attract seed dispersers, subsequently increasing seed rain into the disturbed landscape [58, 67]. This approach, however, does not work well for large-bodied dispersers such as forest-dwelling mammals, since they prefer to forage under continuous forests [58]. Nevertheless, nucleation is relatively inexpensive to implement and can be highly practical in large scale restoration efforts [67]. Although information on the impact of design and long-term viability of this approach is still lacking, the success of nucleation in an array of habitat types and species guilds seems possible [58, 67].
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Fish Assemblages in the Degraded Mangrove Ecosystems of the Coastal Zone, Benin, West Africa: Implications for Ecosystem Restoration and Resources Conservation

Fish Assemblages in the Degraded Mangrove Ecosystems of the Coastal Zone, Benin, West Africa: Implications for Ecosystem Restoration and Resources Conservation

Mangrove forests are unique habitats in their function as potential food source and nurseries, and support an important fisheries resource. In the Benin coastal zone, the mangrove fishes have been surveyed to investigate fish species diversity, community structures and ecosystem degradation impacts in order to protect and to improve the mangrove fish resources. Results from wet, high-water and dry season samplings revealed that the two dominant mangrove species, Rizophora racemosa and Avicennia africana, are being intensively degraded for domestic use such as firewood and house building. Fifty one (51) fish species belonging to 25 families were recorded with Eleotridae (7 species), Cichlidae (5 species), and Mugilidae (5 species), the most speciose families. Dominant trophic guilds were detritivores (54.57%) and planktinovores/microcarnivores (30.41%). Six (6) species, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Dormitator lebretonis, Gerres melanopterus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, and Aplocheilichthys spilauchen, dominated the samples and accounted for about 80.27%. Sarotherodon melanotheron constituted the major dominant species and accounted numerically for about 29% of the total catches and 46.7% of the total biomass. The Margalef index of species richness ranged between 2.42 and 4.43, the Shannon-Weaver index of species diversity between 1.39 and 2.27, and the evenness between 0.50 and 0.62. Lower indices were observed for the highly degraded and the moderately degraded sites whereas higher indices were recorded for the less degraded and the restored sites. Species richness, species diversity and dominant species abundance were positively correlated with depth and transparency and negatively correlated with temperature. Multi-species fisheries dominate the coastal zone with Sarotherodon mel- anotheron, Dormitator lebretonis, Gerres melanopterus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Liza falcipinus, Mugil sp. and Chry- sichthys nigrodigitatus, the major species in the commercial catches. In addition to the mangrove destruction, the hydro electrical dam have greatly modified the Mono River flooding regime, water quality and the fish composition of the Benin coastal lagoon system. An integrated approach of the mangrove resource management/conservation, including intensive mangrove restoration, management of key fish species, freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiun sp.), peneids shrimps, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea sp.), and crabs (Callinectes sp., Cardiosoma sp.), and habitat protection is required for ecosystem recovery and sustainable exploitation.
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Urban Ecosystems: Preservation and Management of Urban Water Bodies

Urban Ecosystems: Preservation and Management of Urban Water Bodies

In addition, water borne diseases like diarrhoea, jaundice etc., which were rampant in the lake neighborhood took another 10 days of work. Due to these illnesses, additional wage opportunity of Rs.2,000/- was lost per family per year. Apart from losing wages, the diseases also involved additional expenditure on health care. It was found that on an average a family spent about Rs.4,000/- per year on medical expenditure. In total, the sum of wage lost and additional expenditure, a family in Safilguda had to spend about Rs.7,200/- per year. However, after the restoration work of the lake, there has been a significant improvement in the wage income and reduction on medical expenditure.
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Study of Mutha River Water Quality with Respect to its Conservation and Restoration

Study of Mutha River Water Quality with Respect to its Conservation and Restoration

The impact of industrialization and urbanization had let up hazards disposal of sludge and garbage in the Mutha river which led to severe pollution of the river. Due to such irresponsible disposal of the industrial and domestic waste has disturbed the natural , biological and chemical parameters of the Mutha river, which has lead to the degradation of water quality. In order to maintain the quality of the river water various projects are initiated by various originations. For such projects detailed analysis of the river water is required for the further treatment of the water and for design of safety parameters for the disposal of industrial and domestic waste. The major problem is created by the direct disposal of untreated industrial and domestic waste is increase in toxicity of the river water and lead to reduction of dissolved oxygen leading degradation of aquatic life. The levels of various chemicals are drastically disturbed. The collection and analysis of the water sample collected from the various zones of the Mutha river will help in shaping the various safety parameters to be applied on the disposal of the untreated waste and domestic sewage in the Mutha river .This may help into restoration and conservation of the water quality of Mutha River. The application of the safety parameters will help in controlling the pollutant content of the river which will enhance the water quality, Aquatic life etc.
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Peatbogs and carbon: a critical synthesis to inform policy development
in oceanic peat bog conservation and restoration in the context of climate change

Peatbogs and carbon: a critical synthesis to inform policy development in oceanic peat bog conservation and restoration in the context of climate change

The construction of windfarms on peat has raised important questions about the relative carbon balance between the carbon savings of the windfarm and the loss of carbon storage and sequestration from the peat as a result of construction. The greenhouse gas impact of windfarms on peatlands depends very much on the type of peatland involved and the scale, location design and management of the windfarm. At one end of the spectrum, well planned developments under certain peatland conditions can limit the carbon loss through careful design and layout of the built infrastructure, combined with high quality peatland restoration management as part of the development. At the other extreme, poorly-planned and managed developments involving large areas of construction across extensive areas of active blanket bog have the potential to cause significant carbon loss, as well as a range of other impacts. One of the most dramatic responses to human actions shown by a blanket mire system in living memory was the bogslide which occurred close to the village of Derrybrien, Co. Galway, in October 2003 (Lindsay and Bragg, 2004). The bogslide occurred while Ireland’s largest windfarm was being constructed across the summit and upper slopes of Cashlaundrumlahan, above Derrybrien. The liquid peat flowed for several days, blocking a road into the village. Much of the material travelled more than 20 km down a local river system into Lough Cutra, where it killed an estimated 50,000 fish (approximately 50% of the fish population of the lake) and halted plans to turn Lough Cutra into the water supply for the adjacent town of Gort.
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Advanced Distribution Management System

Advanced Distribution Management System

ADMS provides the user access to a robust variety of network analytics to assist in outage management and service restoration. Decision support functions, such as fault location, can reduce patrol time — limiting unnecessary truck travel and shortening outage times. Large area load restoration functions can provide dispatchers with simplified scenarios for bringing back online large sections of the network in the event of a wide-spread grid failure. Switch management functionality along with a fast load flow solution lets operators quickly analyze pre-defined switching scenarios in the context of current conditions. This avoids overloads and repeated re-energizing of lines that shorten the lifecycle of cables and oil-filled equipment.
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