Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease that causes pain, joint stiffness especially in the morning and loss of function. Although there are many forms of arthritis, of those commonly known, rheumatoid arthritis is the most serious and the second most cur at any age but is more common in persons over the age of 30 years and affects women more often than men. It currently effects about 1-2% people worldwide. 1%. Very few studies have been focused on risk factors of RA in Andhra Pradesh therefore the aim of the present study was to find out the genetic factors responsible for the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis in Andhra 10 normal age and sex matched individuals as controls from Eluru, West Godavari district. The epidemiological data was taken from the study and designed questionnaire and analyzed by online free calculator In the present study age, gender, occupation, economic status, area of living, food habits, smoking, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption, family history, height and weight shows association with RA, whereas community, religion, education, age of onset, symptoms, other abnormalities, treatment type, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical condition, ABO blood groups and To conclude with, the results of the present study were in agreement with the literature
sphygmomanometer. Two readings were taken 5 minutes apart and the mean of the two was taken as the BP. If the difference between the first and the second reading was greater than 10 mmHg for systolic pressure and/or greater than 6 mmHg for diastolic pressure, then a third measurement was made; and the mean of all three measurements was taken. History of fast foodconsumption and soft drinks at least once in a week is considered as positive history of fast foodconsumption. 8
The patients were interviewed using self-designed questionnaire which was first validated. Information such as like name, age, sex, address, occupation, ethnic background, educational status, and type of family, number of family members, monthly family income and family history of UC. Investigation files of each subject were studied and detailed medical history, clinical history, present medications administered, detailed clinical history (lag in diagnosis, age of diagnosis, age at which symptoms appeared, no. of times the patient was hospitalized, no. of exacerbations, no. of endoscopic procedures, total no. of days of hospitalization, no. of times kept nil by mouth, frequency of bowel movements, baseline and present frequency of stools, nocturnal frequency, gastro colic reflux and disease activity) and extra intestinal manifestations (skin, joints, biliary, eyes) were asked to the patients. Data related to the lifestyle habits was also collected. After data collection nutritive intake was calculated using the Nutritive Value of Indian Foods (NIN), 2004. The diet recall for macronutrients was calculated in terms of energy in kilocalories (kcals), kilocalories per kg body weight, and total macronutrients was calculated. proteins (g) proteins in g/ kg body weight, carbohydrate content in grams and fat in grams
The life history of the Common leopard butterfly, Phalanta phalantha and larval performance in terms of foodconsumption and utilization, and the length of life cycle on its host plant Flacourtia indica are described for the first time. The study was conducted during 2009 at Visakhapatnam (17 o 42' N and 8218' E), South India. Phalanta phalantha completes its life cycle in 19 – 21 (20.20 0.84) days (Egg: 3; Larva: 10-12; Pupa: 6 days). The values of nutritional indices across the instars were AD (Approximate Digestibility) 66.49 – 96.29%; ECD (Efficiency of Conversion of Digested food) 1.95 – 30.12%; ECI (Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food) 1.88 – 20.03%, measured at the temperature of 28 ± 2 0
For most of our modern history, Australia has been a major producer of a wide range of agricultural and manufactured food products where exports far outweigh domestic consumption. It is in the Australian mind set to look to markets overseas. Our focus was once on Britain and Europe but has been shifting to Asia since the 1950s. The most significant and dynamic opportunity for Australia is the rapid growth and development of China since the 1990s and the opportunities this creates for Australian food producers who can deliver consistently high quality and safe prod ucts. China is growing so rapidly and the dynamic of the different demands across China is so confusing and the opportunities so large that it is diffi cult for a casual observer to interpret and comprehend. This book provides clarity that cannot be obtained merely by examining the statistics and data currently available from multiple Chinese government and international sources. It is not sufficient for Australian food producers and manufactur ers to continue to export what we have always produced, particularly on the commodity markets. We must understand the specific consumer needs within the different segments in the Chinese marketplace and innovate in what we produce and how we supply our products to satisfy real consumer needs. Australia does not have the capacity to be a dominant food sup plier to China. Zhou and I agree, therefore, that Australia's contribution to China's future food needs must focus on higher margin, value-added food products that exploit our well-earned reputation as a producer of consistent high quality foods with an exemplary reputation for food safety. Australia's strength is its ability to innovate new offerings of value-added foods for the emerging middle class and wealthy consumers of China.
From the above results it is evident that a majority of the study subjects were of normal weight, followed by 4.5% who were obese. When Chi square was computed between BMI and family history of obesity or underweight (thinness grade 1 is <18.5 BMI) it was significant at p<0.05. Waist circumference was within the cutoff point of less than 88cm for women 8 , showing absence of central
Results: Out of 372 students, 67.7% were males. Mean BMI of the students was 23.68 ranging from 14.96 to 43.70. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 4.8% and 24.2% respectively. Overweight and obesity were significantly (p<0.05) associated with age, family history of obesity, place of residence, frequent fast foodconsumption. However other variables like use of electronic gadgets and vehicles, place of foodconsumption didn’t show any significant association.
The major factors contributing to this market growth include concerns of increased health, food safety, environmental protection, and animal welfare [8, 9], in addition to the general increased usage of natural and organic products. Thailand is a developing country and one of the largest economies and business centers in Southeast Asia; its substantial economic growth was in part caused by the modernization and industrialization of Thai agricultural food production. Thai government has promoted high-input agricultural systems focusing on exports to increase the country’s growth rate. However, the environmental and socio economic effects of the currently adopted agricultural strategy has resulted in a slowdown of the country's agricultural sector. In particular, poor farm management techniques and heavy reliance on synthetic chemicals to protect crops against weeds, pests, and diseases has led to decreased productivity . During the past decade, Thai imports of pesticides have increased substantially, with the total weight more than doubling between 1987 and 1996, that is from 20,357 million tons in 1987 to 45,071 million tons in 1996 . In 2013, the value stood at approximately 172,000 tons (24,000 million Baht) , and it is expected that Thailand will import more than 200,000 tons of pesticides annually in the near future. This has led to numerous problems such as an unsustainable economy, environmental issues, and health hazards (e.g., pesticide residues on foods). To reduce the use of pesticides on farms, the Thai government together with certain NGOs, have implemented an initiative on food safety through the Royal Project and the Department of Agriculture. The main focus has been on organic agriculture and is one of the sustainable agricultural approaches that have been promoted and practiced extensively in Thailand. Through this approach, food safety is likely to increase. Increases in food safety can lead to lasting changes in foodconsumption intention and behavior . Human food choice models reflect the complexity of understanding the behavior of food choice . Foodconsumption is associated with several types of environmental impacts and a collaborating production–consumption system is needed for sustainable foodconsumption [14, 15]. Briceno and Stagl  reported that sustainable consumption need to be considered as a social activity, enhancing the quality of ___________________________
Some products have stimulants or taste with strong appeal to the senses that, in many cases, the brain is unable to control their habituation and acceptance. Products that fall under this category, for example tobacco, alcohol, drugs, etc., are never consumed for hunger/thirst. The activating event for the consumption of such products is purely desire or consuming experience that can be classified as addiction. Pure stimulants or tastes are very few in number, and consumers are prepared to pay expensive price for the product despite harmful effects. The effect of stimulants or taste cannot be offset by physical exercise. In the absence of high end medicine, the best way to prevent the harm is not to consume such products.
We observed that the company needed to contain the high expense of lubricants. These actions were simple but generated significant results. In view of the above, a simple analysis of the current situation of the process hitherto adopted has opened the door to several arisen during the study, opportunities that lead to recognition of the critical lines, that is, those that represent higher grease consumption, which culminated in assertive work to alleviate the problem. In the context of action lightening, since analysis of the whole problem lead to implementation of actions and practical In the flowchart that serves as the basis for future work, it is evident that the project followed a , analysis, or data would be lost. The main legacy of the study is the implementation of a new lubrication process that brings benefits not only to operators which sees reduction of expenses and investment. Finally, considering the initially established goal and the "step-by-step" plan of action, up to the point where the results are consolidated, the project can be considered a success. In addition, since all the work was focused only on the most critical lines, as it would not have been feasible to reach all the lines of the plant, there is still a lot of opportunity and much to be achieved regarding the reduction of grease consumption.
We presented a prototype of a mobile foodconsumption tracking application which is useful for monitoring daily dietary in a long term manner. With the capability of recognizing food photos taken by user, our system can manage to understand if the user have a balanced dietary. In addition, to further understand food ingredient intake, our app allows scanning of the barcode or ingredients labels on packaged food products to obtain included ingredients and provide proper health suggestions. A preliminary user study reveals that our application is ease to use and potentially helpful to promote healthy dietary to the general public. The current food recognition method identify only one type of food in a photo, however, it is common that there are multiple kinds of food within a single photo. Similar to Figure reffig:foodphotos (b), (d) and (e), there are various food in a set or a meal. A possible extension is to incorporate the current deep trained network into a RCNN model so that the bounding boxes of the food can also be identified. We prepare to implement this functionality in our next version of the mobile application. In addition, the speed of scanning ingredient labels should be further improved, and multiple languages should be supported to enable users in identifying the potential allergens and additive for imported food with ingredient labels written in foreign languages.
Methods: The BNFCS2014 is a cross-sectional study. A representative sample ( n = 3200) of the Belgian population aged 3 to 64 years old was randomly selected from the National Population Register following a multistage stratified sampling procedure. Data collection was divided equally over the four seasons and days of the week in order to incorporate seasonal effects and day-to-day variation in food intake. Information on food intake was collected in adults with two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (using the GloboDiet® software). In children food intake was collected with two non-consecutive one-day food diaries followed by a completion interview with GloboDiet. Additional data on socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits, lifestyle, food safety (at household level), physical activity and sedentary behaviour were collected with a face-to-face questionnaire using a computer- assisted personal interviewing technique. In the time between the two visits, participants were asked to complete a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and health questionnaire. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. In addition, children and adolescents were asked to wear an accelerometer and keep a logbook for seven consecutive days to objectively measure physical activity and sedentary behaviour.
n this paper, the effects of the Food Stamp (FS) Program (now referred to as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-SNAP) on individuals’ food choices are evaluated. In other words, I examine how households' food choice or relative foodconsumption is changed by FS participation. For this purpose six food groups are created using 2016 Consumer Expenditure Diary Survey (CEDS) results and Consumer Price Index (CPI). Five of these food groups are food consumed at home which are bakery products, dairy products, meat and meat products, vegetables, and others. Also food consumed away from home is included as sixth group. Multinomial probit and conditional logit models are applied to analyze the data set. The analyses results show that FS can change individuals' food choices by decreasing the price effect on food since FS is a kind of income transfer which subsequently affects participants' price sensitivity. In addition, the results show that FSusage may increase the relative meat consumption of households and food consumed away from home in comparison to other food groups.
Several points are worth emphasizing from these studies. First, suspected food allergy is extraordinar- ily common in early childhood, with at least one fourth of all parents reporting 1 or more adverse food reactions. Second, true food allergy can be con- firmed in 5% to 10% of young children with a peak prevalence at ⬃1 year of age. Third, as is discussed in detail in the next section, most food allergy is lost over time. Finally, children who begin with 1 food allergy, especially if it is an IgE-mediated allergy, have a very high chance of developing additional food allergies as well as inhalant allergies. It is there- fore critical that children with food allergy be iden- tified as early as possible, both to initiate an appro- priate diet for their existing allergies and to institute preventive measures that may help to reduce their chance of developing additional food allergies, as well as asthma and allergic rhinitis.
Although the DDS cannot provide a complete scenario of the sufficiency of the nutrient consumption, the findings of the present research illustrate that simple counts of food items can be applied to indicate nutrient sufficiency of the diet of female residential students of Bangladesh as indicated by FAO. However, such indicator is particularly important in identifying the adequacy of trace elements such as iron, zinc, and calcium, and these intakes should be of concern if similar diet selection is to be practiced over a long period. It is because if the diet lacks one or more micronutrients and this dietary habit continues for a longer period, one may become the prey to micronutrient deficiency. This is the case for female residential students as the present study found that their micronutrient intakes were low and many could not meet the requirements for various nutrients. They are at risk of developing micronutrient malnutrition if the current dietary pattern is followed. The present dietary and health status of female residential students could be attributed to their awareness level on the importance and benefit of nutritious and balanced diet in the betterment of the health of women of reproductive age. Hence, one recommendation is to educate the students about the nutritious foods enabling them to make a wiser selection of foods from available.
The return of peace has given policy space to think about what sort of economy Northern Ireland might have, in which sustainable food could hold pride of place. The room to do this is helped by awareness of the acute financial troubles now enveloping the Irish Republic, after its financial bubble has deflated. The wider politics makes more valid the case for moving sustainable food to the heart of regeneration in Northern Ireland. Its natural advantages – water, land, rural base, urban proximity, proud cultures, and more – all signify the opportunity to build better rural-urban linkages, to see food skills on land and in towns as a bond between the urban majority and the rural population, and to build a healthier diet based on authentic foods. Such possibilities, as throughout the UK, require a combination of political leadership, partnerships and concerted pressure from the rest of society. 161
Data Food Networking (DAFNE). The National Nutrition Centre in Athens (Greece) has organised a number of events since 1987 aiming at developing the most appropriate way of using the data from the national Household Budget Surveys (Trichopou- lou et al. 2005). Even though the data of the food balance sheets are a valuable source to determine the trends of food availability over time, they are less appropriate for inter-country comparisons. Individual nutrition surveys are expensive, labour- intensive, and conducted with different method- ologies (Trichopoulou & Lagiou 1998). On the basis of the above-mentioned reasons, the results of the Household Budget Surveys were used for DAFNE. Recognising the need for the dietary data that would provide a regular flow of comparable nutrition information, the DAFNE project devel- oped a freely accessible database (DAFNE 2013) which – according to a common classification system for the food and socio-demographic vari- ables – contains the daily individual food data of the participating 24 countries (Trichopoulou et al. 2003). The DAFNE database is a useful tool to identify and qualify food choices and habits in order to promote healthy eating (Trichopoulou & DAFNE Contributors 2001), to make social and cultural differences in foodconsumption hab- its (Trichopoulou et al. 2002), and to develop strategies, which promote healthy food decisions (Naska et al. 2000).
exhibit when they are exposed to allergens such as peanuts. In contrast, earlier food allergists, the subset of allergists who were convinced that allergies to foods were a common cause of otherwise unexplained health problems, were not as concerned with peanuts or the types of severe reactions they could cause. Instead, they dealt primarily with the delayed, lingering, chronic, and elusive reactions that could manifest themselves in symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal and respiratory problems to dermatological and neurological complaints. Peanuts were rarely listed as a common cause of food allergy until the late 1980s, and were not considered exceptionally allergenic prior to then. Rather, milk, wheat, eggs, and potatoes were commonly-cited culprits, along with food additives. Although clinicians did come across anaphylactic reactions, they treated delayed, chronic reactions more often. Confusing the issue somewhat is the fact that the term anaphylaxis, coined by Charles Richet and Paul Portier in 1902, was used instead of Clemens von Pirquet’s 1906 term, “allergy” until the 1920s, when its use was restricted to what is now known as anaphylaxis. 12