At the start, Muslim architects ought not to be bound by a single historical structural model, device or solution. The past is to be viewed all the time as such, i.e., the past. It is to be neither excessively venerated or idealized nor completely disregarded. (Akbar, 1988) The past must be put in its true perspective with such notions as wisdom, pragmatism and practicality leading the way. In their daunting search for contemporary Islamicarchitecture, Muslim architects and designers must be driven by a clear principled vision, a free spirit and an insatiable thirst for ingenuity, which must be shrouded in strong determination, self-belief and quest for excellence. However, should some modern structural devices or solutions appear to bear a resemblance, partly or totally, to the ones used in the past, one is not to shy away from reviving them within the existing contexts. The history of Islamicarchitecture is not to be looked down at as entirely outmoded and worthless. As we are against blind and ignorant imitation of the past, we are likewise against disengaging ourselves from it and completely ignoring the numerous lessons that we can learn therefrom. Indeed, much can be learned from history because the protagonists of any historical
Islamic architectural history encompasses a substantial amount of information that needs to be categorized and digitally modeled so it can be utilized proficiently in the design phases of any project that seeks Islamic construction character. This paper centers on developing BIM-driven three-dimensional object library for Hejazi IslamicArchitecture (HIAC) styles, construction methods, structural elements, and architectural components. The Ottoman style architecture has had profound effects on the Hijazi region for more than three hundred years. This influence remains largely uncategorized and digitally undocumented. Building Information Modelling (BIM) approach is used to develop parametric three-dimensional models of HIACs that are used in the structure and construction of Hijazi buildings. The HIACs are aggregated and classified according to their type and origin with respect to the chronological timeline of IslamicArchitecture (IA). The creation of this BIM-Driven Components Library for Islamic Facilities (BIM-IF), thus allows for the use of HIACs in the design phases of projects that aim to incorporate IA styles. Each HIAC in the BIM-IA library contains architectural, structural and constructional data that is categorized using informatics tables appended with the digital models. In addition to the essential design data, the BIM-IF library provides designers with various historical information and details about numerous unique Ottoman styles.
ABSTRACT: One of the biggest effects of the rise of Islamicarchitecture in the body of material poses an artistic truth In addition, your body architecture is always in the spirit of the readout elements such as decorations The creativity of architects, engineers and designers in such a way that Islamicarchitecture - Iran as decorations on buildings such as mosques, mansion Vmsakn magnificent Kamlakhlaqanh with unparalleled intelligence initiatives have, These elements have never been built without the sound and meaning of the body is constantly covers the concepts of Islamic spiritual . Architectural art, especially architecture of the mosque has always been throughout history a great wisdom . Decorative motifs coordinated rhythm that is very useful to understand the spiritual state mosque In total, it should be noted that mosques are located in the highest position of Islamic art and has always preoccupied the minds of a lot of artists And the talent and ingenuity that went into the ground so that his greatest masterpieces of Islamic art or mosques or Islamic mosques are affiliated arts. The purpose of this research is to achieve spiritual concepts in Islamic architectural monuments entrance door decorations. In the present study through library studies and analytical methods have been studied, the results show spiritual concepts used in Islamic monuments as an integral part of the architecture and construction was and is and use this Sayshmnd creates a sense of space was spiritual principles.
All outlined evidences firmly asserts that golden section used in the design of Hasht Behesht Palace, were certainly known by the architect (s) of the monu- ment and the repetition of such a proportion is by no means either accidental, unconscious, or imitative. Particularly because one specific composition of golden section, which was regularly used in the history of art, has been frequently ob- served in the palace. Such a special composition, called “golden cut” by Gyorgy Doczi, is classic structure includes a square with its golden rectangles on its two sides . This structure is seen in a number of art and architectural works in dif- ferent cultures and civilizations, from a Greek jug to Buddhist statues, and from Stonehenge and Roman monuments to temples of Mesopotamia and Japanese gar- dens. This composition can be observed in the central hall (Houzkhane ), verandas, ornaments and structure of Hasht Behesht Palace (Figure 14).
In fact, two of nine essays in the collection concern Israeli architects and/or planners, which in itself presents an argument for the constitutive role that Israel has played in the dynamics of the modern Islamic world. This is perhaps the most provocative challenge to the idea that a history of architecture in this area must be oriented around the fate of ‘pure’ or ‘Islamic’ forms; as Christensen relates, the scholar’s obligation is to recognize an ever-changing terrain for building practice across a broad spectrum of contexts. The question of what should be considered ‘Islamic’, then, is left open – for better or worse. The volume, which emerges from a 2015 special issue of an academic journal, was finalized before the appearance of Shahab Ahmed’s posthumously published What is Islam?, but the engaged reader might pursue a productive dialogue here with Ahmed’s line of questioning, his asking the questions ‘what is Islamic about Islamic philosophy?’ or ‘is there such a thing as Islamic art?’, for instance.  What is Islamic about Islamicarchitecture? What, for these contributors, constitutes the/an ‘Islamic world’?
documents when they left their positions. In his article Benmansour ties the life of records and archival documents to the post-colonial difficulties Morocco experienced in recuperating lands in the Western Sahara, and showed his understanding of the role of archival documents in offering clarity in disputes. He wrote that public records and archival documents are in themselves capable of “clarifying opinions and discovering the truth whether it is for us or against us.” Without documents, he explained, history “becomes only conjecture (takhmīnāt), suppositions (taqdirāt) and individual judgements (ijtihadāt)” and it becomes impossible to then express firm points of view (Benmansour, 1976). Written just after the infamous Green March of 1975 in which Hassan II led everyday Moroccans into the Western Sahara to claim it for Morocco after the withdrawal of Spanish colonial forces, the idea that the Western Saharan conflict could be settled through documentary proofs seems to be a plausible one from the reasoning presented in Benmansour’s article. It is easy to see then, how some of my informants could believe that initial concern for Morocco’s claim to the Sahara could have been one of the initial motivators for the creation of the H-II Prize. 1
The Internet is a medium that has been well known by the public in general, especially students. It's just based on research shows that current students are not maximal enough in using internet media as a media literasi especially knowledge of Islamichistory. One of the reasons for the lack of interest of students in accessing the history of Islam through the internet is the lack of internet links that discusses the history of Islam in the form of scientific studies, most of them are less reliable blogs, so students prefer to find literacy sources from libraries ( printed book). The results of this study are expected to provide an overview for the writers and researchers of Islamichistory to be able to further export and disseminate the results of research widely through the internet media. It is also expected that universities and related institutions to provide access for students to access e-library from overseas campus, so that students can more easily in obtaining information and scientific studies about the history of Islam.
Another work that addressed Western audience and published in the West was authored by Essid (1995) entitled “A Critique of the Origins of Islamic Economic Thought”. He maintains that Arab-Muslims have made a significant contribution, one which is not yet well recognized in the West. He rightly admits that Arab-Muslim thinkers were indebted to Greek scholars. But his thrust in this work is on indebtedness of Muslim scholars to Greek ideas, not their additions to and improvements over them. In many cases the author accepts assertions of Western critics of Islamic economics at their face value without checking them in the basic sources of Islam. One who has knowledge of the basic sources of Islam would surely be surprised to see that the concept of “mean” or “middle course” emphasized in Muslim sources is regarded as the Greek or Persian origin (see Essid, 1995, pp. 33-34). Similar course is adopted by Hosseini (2003a, p. 94). In an effort to show objectivity (or to imitate Western style 19 , these authors try to trace for many Islamic provisions an origin in Greek or ancient Persian traditions without substantial proofs and in many cases just repetition of the statements of Orientalist writers. As an example, myth of Bryson may be presented here. The German scholar, Helmut Ritter, in 1917 somewhere observed that ‘the whole economic literature of Islam 20 can be traced to economics of Neo-Pythagorean Bryson’ (Heffening, 1934, p.
DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.912135 1845 Creative Education Introduction to Architecture covers a special chapter—Chinese Architecture Past and Present. The Space Construction of Chinese Architecture is added to the course Basis of Architectural design . As for second year students, Course Design on Traditional Architecture Form is assigned in Architectural design, to help students get a better understanding of classical architecture terms. When they move to the third year, having taken Chinese Architectural history, students are required to survey and record ancient architecture. After three years basic training, students are expected to take the course Traditional Architecture Image Design , including research field, research background, image explanation and image expression. This course is the cornerstone for the innovative teaching ap- proach. For the graduates, they need to finish their design project or graduation thesis. Through this model, students are meant to meet the practical needs of so- ciety.
How human beings consider their position in the world and where they can find themselves in it has a profound effect in his worldviews, having a prominent importance in determining his attitudes towards life. This is particularly so, be- cause it determines the type of his interactions with the nature and his sur- rounding world. “For instance, one of the features in Iranian culture is to dis- tinguish the spiritual and the material worlds. This intrinsic view and the innate relations between the appearance and the backend conscience and has been among the cultural characteristics of Iranians, having its most profound effects in their behaviors with each other, deducing the speeches and behaviors of oth- ers, as well as in expressing and creating the artistic works” (Ditto). Such a belief has also been effective on the Iranian views towards the nature. Both in the an- cient eras and in the Islamic era, the Iranians considered the sky, earth, moun- tains, plains, deserts, and seas not only the various aspects of the natural world and required elements for human life, but they are also considered for the spiri- tual connections between the nature and human beings. Humans should learn thinking and interacting about the nature as the ethics and rituals that reflect greater realities. Otherwise, the nature is studied as a creature that can be mani- pulated and dominated, and therefore, it can never be perceived realistically” (Nasr, 2007).
One of the most important achievements of intellectual, philosophical, artistic, synthetic and productive civilizations and human societies of the city, which has both relative survival, is the manifestation of the cultural beliefs and values of society, and also affects human behavior and, in addition, it represents the identity of society in the views of the world and history . Cities are the main source of human social activity. It is in this place that the conflict between man and nature reaches its limit. In the meantime, the goal of urbanization should be to establish a good and sustainable relationship between the people of the community and the natural environment and their artifacts. In the past, when the process of urban change and development slowed down and the possibilities and variety of materials, construction materials, technology and tastes were limited, the customary and culturally common system worked well and produced those cities with balanced shapes which were consistent [, p. 52]. Creating an environment through the history is one of the main forms of cultural expression that simultaneously reflects the technical ways of shelter, artistic sensibilities, aesthetic values and religious beliefs . Nevertheless, religion, based on the inhabitants of the country, can also
The cultural landscape of the Makli site is notable for its extreme variability. Researchers have defined and studied this variability mainly through semi monolithic typology and, specifically, the frequencies of certain construction tool types. The work described in this research represents an attempt to determine the place of new assemblage’s procedure yet keeping intact the integrity of the old architecture, at the northern site of Makli, within the region's chronological and cultural framework. This research has led to questions about the way we study our Sindhi cultural variability in the region generally. Surveys and test carried out here have discovered at least two sites at Makli in different exposures of what seems to be the same period. Although one of these fits easily by conventional criteria into the Geometric patterns, the other is more problematic and complex due to Hindu influence. Its assemblage presents an apparent contradiction between some evidence that suggests a semi monolithic assignment due to porosity of the stone and other more porous material: brick, including more dense stone that support a later date due to less wear and tear as observed at the Jamia Masjid, mosque area.
However, not all of the NA workers were indifferent to the situation and more so the African NA workers realized the limit of their power. Bello Kagara, one of officials at the regional headquarters in Kaduna, for example examined the problems associated with the study of religion in government schools and wrote a report to his British superior in this regard. He noted that; ‘little attention is given to religious education in these provincial schools and that secular education is likely to make demand for Arabic most insignificant. Most of the pupils in the secular elementary and middle schools were not taking religious instruction seriously with most having mastered only the first , second or third of the sixty divisions of the Qur’an, even though there were Qur’anic teachers in all these schools. Pupils go through school without much Islamic education and go on to work for the NA.’ This, he observed, was the cause of the discomfort of the mallams. Since it was part of the curriculum, it should be supervised and examined too, he argued. The need to increase the time allocated to it was also important. Most students also did not complete the Arabic syllabus. A mallam should be attached to the boarding establishment to help interested students. He advised that the teachers of Arabic should draw a schedule and methods of teaching to be harmonized. The teachers should also keep a record of work done and individual report of each students be kept. He also advocated for corporal punishment to keep the students disciplined. He then made suggestions of how a new syllabus should be drawn and actually drew one in this respect. The British officials did not agree with everything suggested by Kagara, especially the increase in time or extra lessons and the idea of a whip to keep the boys disciplined. 195 Kagara’s superiors only accepted what they considered important from his recommendations; even though it is discernible he had been objective and had written his report with insights of a northerner familiar with traditional thinking and western methods.
Although many topics of visual materials are no different than those found in print materials, the difference in medium necessitates some variations. Many topics are more commonly found in print than they are in images. Conversely, many topics are more commonly represented by visual works than they are in print format. Therefore, a resource designed for textual materials might include many subject headings that cannot be visually represented, and it may not contain subject headings specific enough to adequately convey certain visual concepts. Since print materials and visual materials are inherently different, it is necessary to use multiple resources in order to select the best subject headings for each type of material. To that end, there are thesauri specifically designed for use with visual materials. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) and The Thesaurus of Graphic Materials (TGM) are two such resources.
Bagley, who discusses matters ‘with reference to counsellors of the sultanate’ as stated by Hefner and Patricia, affirms that “the ulama’s positions in terms of political power are varied throughout Islamichistory, for example al-Ghazali in his ‘Nasihat al-Muluk’ wrote that the Sultan was ‘God’s Shadow on Earth”(F.R.Bagley 1964 and W.Hefner and Patricia Horvatich 1997:p.10), and was the Lord’s delegate over his creatures and must therefore be held in high regard. Al- Ghazali also ‘stigmatized’ any form of rebellion, even if this was against an oppressive and evil monarch. For al-Ghazali (F.R.Bagley 1964 and W.Hefner and Patricia Horvatich 1997:p.10) Muslims must do nothing in the face of such oppression and evil, but must instead keep bitter thoughts in their hearts” (Massino Campanini 2002:260) In this way, social peace and harmony can be achieved in the outer world. Thus, war and violence should be avoided at all costs even in the face of an autocratic rule (Al-Marbawi vol.13:105)
The Shi’i were unable to wrest the caliphate away from the Umayyad Dynasty in the seventh century; however, they continued to follow an Alid Imam as their rightful spiritual leader, and recognized the caliph as a political leader with only borderline legitimacy. They followed this pattern until 941, when the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al- Mahdi, reportedly went into “occultation,” a state of suspended animation that allows him to continue to have authority over the community, and to guide and protect its members, even though he cannot communicate with them. Iranians recognize this concept of occultation in their recurring “myth of a hero believed to be dead, but who, either hidden or asleep, awaits the time for his return.” 7 The prime example of pre-Islamic Iranian occultation is in the tale of Kay Khosrow, the Kayanid king who did not die, but instead mysteriously disappeared into the side of a mountain, leaving his soldiers with the belief that he might one day return to the world to restore justice. 8
Under such social background of 1950-1960s, Chair Mao believed “class struggle” was the force for social development, which greatly influenced Liu’s study. The point that class struggle and the People is the pusher of social devel- opment gradually became one of his theoretical bases for architecture develop- ment pusher. In Wang’s paper (Wang, 2007: p. 8). On the Implication and Un- derstanding of Liu Dunzhen ’ s Posthumous Manuscript — The Influence of Chi- nese Feudal System to Ancient Architecture (written in July, 1964 but later omitted in 1980), he pointed out that Chinese ancient architecture developed and matured in the feudal society, deeply confined by productive forces, produc- tive relationships and class struggle as well as ideology with a distinct social fea- tures and impacts. In Liu’s point of view (Liu, 2007b: pp. 9-10), it is the key to write The History correctly before having a correct understanding of architec- ture development rules and forces, which could be testified by letters for his col- leagues.
Whatever the merits (or otherwise!) of the arguments of the book, it is plain that its method and approach could be challenged from several stand- points. One of the more obvious objections is that global history, and the attempt to explain its central puzzle the ‘Great Divergence’ between Europe and Asia requires a systematic comparison between the states and societies that ‘succeeded’ in the ‘great transformation’ and those that ‘fell behind’. The historian should not rely upon an impressionistic account of performance and capacity but study in detail the range of key institutions, behaviours and beliefs whose collective divergence might explain the overall outcome. Thus forms of government and their relative efficiencies; the nature of legal regimes and their treatment of property and personhood; social attitudes to knowledge and science and the institutional forms for their collection and diffusion; the nature of class and other social distinctions (including ethnicity), their openness or rigidity; the nature of religious beliefs, not least in relation to science, and the degree of toleration permitted; as well the familiar indicators of economic performance: all require close comparative study to trace why and when their characteristics diverged, and with what wider effects. Once the results of enquiry have been gathered and analysed, we might venture a more confident statement of the causes of divergence, and the drive-motor of world history.