History of medicine and pathology

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17th Annual Scientific Meeting and 9th Work Congress Of Indonesian Clinical Pathologist Association and Laboratory Medicine: Strengthening of Clinical Pathology in Facing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS)

17th Annual Scientific Meeting and 9th Work Congress Of Indonesian Clinical Pathologist Association and Laboratory Medicine: Strengthening of Clinical Pathology in Facing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS)

Developmental delay (DD) is defined as significant delay (more than two standard deviations below the mean) in one or more of the following developmental domains: gross/fine motor, speech/ language, cognition, social/personal, and activities of daily living. Global Development Delay (GDD) is defined as significant delay in two or more developmental domains, and associated with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stunting, the impaired growth of children whose height for age is below minus two or minus three standard deviations (moderate and severe stunting) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards. Stunting, which is usually associated with development delay and development disability, caused by poor nutrition, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. This condition associated with an underdeveloped brain with long-lasting harmful consequences, including diminished mental ability and learning capacity, poor school performance in childhood, reduced earnings and increased risks of nutrition-related chronic diseases in future. Establishing the cause of developmental delay/disability is important because a specific diagnosis may assist in prognosis, counselling parents as to the risk of other children being similarly affected, and identification of therapeutic and educational interventions. Elements for evaluation including history, physical and neurological examination, imaging and laboratory investigation. Laboratory testing should be considered as part of a comprehensive evaluation to assist with decisions about treatment and management, should be selective and rational, and determined by history & physical examination. For children whose condition remains unexplained, the first-line genetic investigations are a fragile X test and a microarray test. Other testing including FMR1 (FXS) testing, karyotyping, and metabolic testing (serum amino acids; urine organic acids, acylcarnitines, mucopolysaccharides; serum glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, pyruvate, ammonia, creatine kinase). Second-line testing including MECP2 and TPEN testing and other testing. These aspect of laboratory investigation of children with developmental delay/ disability will be discussed further in this paper.
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HISTORY OF INDIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE: A MEDICAL INHERITANCE

HISTORY OF INDIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE: A MEDICAL INHERITANCE

In 2013, the homeopathic pathogenetic pilot test for Hepatitis C (Hep C) nosode experiment has been led by Dr. Shah with the volunteers prepared to compose data in prescribed questionnaires and information were investigated. A fifteen-stage technique was used as a part of the planning of Hep C nosode (Genotype I and III), permitting future preparation of an indistinguishable nosode. 22 volunteers were entered, 15 got Hep C nosode in 30c potency, 7 got a placebo, and once per week for a month. The conclusion was that “an enhanced technique for nosode preparation utilized for a double- blind, randomized placebo-controlled pathogenetic trial of the Hep C nosode produced indications, which may encourage its remedy. The nosode ought to be additionally investigated for the treatment of immunologically mediated illnesses, diseases including Hep C, fibrotic pathology, and chronic inflammatory disorders [60]. Pediatrics published the outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trials treatment in children with the looseness of the bowels in Nicaragua. The treatment group had a statistically significant decrease in duration of looseness of the bowels (p<0.05) and the quantity of stool every day between the two groups after 72 h of treatment (p<0.05) [61]. There are innumerable confirmations which propose the herbals drugs cure the illnesses for many centuries and are affordable, ready-to-use for health-care services. Yet, Western medicine was dominated during the British period despite the strength and public faith in these systems of medicine, after the foundation of 1 st Asian Medical College and Hospital,
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Enhanced Inflammatory Status in Patients with Simple Central Obesity in Absence of Metabolic Syndrome

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This cross-sectional study involved 501 subjects aged 30-65- year-old, recruited from Specialist Clinics in Institute of Pathology, Laboratory and Forensic Medicine (I-PPerForM) and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sg. Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia, and community health screenings programmes. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Institutional Research Ethics Committee approval {reference code: 600-RMI (5/1/6/01)} was obtained prior to the commencement of the study and all subjects gave written informed consent. For each subject, a set of questionnaire was completed and detailed history taking including smoking habits, alcohol intake and family history of premature Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) were documented.
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Pestis minor : the history of a contested plague pathology

Pestis minor : the history of a contested plague pathology

incident are, in terms of illuminating colonial dynamics, at the same time they do not illuminate an intriguing aspect of the debacle: the fact that what Simpson claimed to have diagnosed was not at all supposed to be plague as commonly understood by us today or by colonial medicine at the time. In other words, Simpson’s contention was not that he had come across a plague outbreak in Calcutta, but rather that he had discovered a series of cases of what he called pestis ambulans and would soon be known as pestis minor. Hence, if Mary Sutphen is right to note in her analysis of the incident that what was at stake “was not whether plague bacilli were associated with plague . . . but how to interpret the bacteriological evi- dence,” in turn the actual object of medical debate was not plague in general but its supposed ability to naturally assume an insidious, attenu- ated form that allowed it to persist silently within a given population and thus potentially lead to future outbreaks by means of confounding its medical recognition. 13
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Leukaemia

Leukaemia

This is thought to be the most rapid licensing of any drug in oncology by the FDA within the last 25 years. ASCO, which is usually a moderately boring meeting, today was apparently transformed by the news of the STI licensing. So what’s the moral of the story? The moral of the story simply is that here is a very elegant example of the translation of our understanding of what is literally the molecular biology of a form of leukaemia into therapy. There are other examples I know, such as the use of all-trans-retinoic acid for treatment of M3 acute leukaemia, the targeting of other kinases and I think there are other good examples, but possibly none as elegant as the one I have just recounted. I think there is little doubt in my mind, let me rephrase that, I very much hope that as we enter the twenty first century, we will see the end of the era of non-specific cytotoxic drugs designed to cure leukaemia – and they have undoubtedly been effective to some degree in that regard – and we will see the innovation, the instigation, of the era of so-called targeted molecular therapy for leukaemia. That was just a sort of personal reminiscence really. I have had the privilege of being a close observer and have been involved to a minor extent in this story, and it’s been great fun. I don’t think that needs a discussion unless anybody else has something to add particularly on that topic. It’s not even proper history – it’s recent history rather than distant history.
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Note on the History of Forensic Medicine of the Middle Ages

Note on the History of Forensic Medicine of the Middle Ages

The task of examining women in cases of criminal attempt was reserved for the matrons, who retained iOjuly 31, 1332, Master Henri Tristan, surgeon, ordered in place of Master Vailli, swo[r]

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Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581]

Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581]

The randomization visit assessment was conducted when all lab results were known and always within 4 weeks from the information and screening visit. First, digital rec- tal examination and trans-rectal ultrasound of prostate were performed. If there was any suspicion regarding prostate pathology, appropriate steps were undertaken to refer the participant to its general practitioner or consult- ing urologist. Four men were excluded for this reason. If the rectal ultrasound did not show any signs of pathology the participant continued the following baseline measure- ments: medical history, family medical history, vital signs (blood pressure, pulse), physical examination, anthro- pometry measurements (height and body weight, waist- and hip circumference, upper leg-, arm- and calf circum- ference, sagittal abdominal diameter), International Pros- tate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, functional mobility measurements, bone mineral density measure- ments via DEXA scan, health related quality of life ques- tionnaires and utilities instrument, measuring cognition (15-words test, Digit symbol Substitution test, Concept Shifting Task test, the Benton Judgment of Line Orienta- tion test and the Shephard rotation task), full body DEXA scan (lean body mass, fat free and fat mass), Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), abdominal ultrasound for fat distribu- tion.
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History and structures of telecommunication in pathology, focusing on open access platforms

History and structures of telecommunication in pathology, focusing on open access platforms

education of these two different and recharging diagnos- tic procedures. The selected still images can be com- pared with the VS (sampling), and the final diagnostic statement with the diagnosis derived from the selected region of interest (ROI) [7,34]. Especially, routine diag- nostic work using VS requires a correct (and usually quite slow) sampling process prior to the evaluation of diagnosis [5,6,22]. Additional tools such a multiple choice questionnaires, for example those developed in the digital lung pathology teaching atlas could be included using distinct links [7].

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The International College of Psychosomatic Medicine – a personal history

The International College of Psychosomatic Medicine – a personal history

The next major event for ICPM was the 18th World Congress in Kobe, Japan in 2005 organized by Chiharu Kubo and Tomifusa Kuboki. This Congress again attracted attendees from all over the world, and attend- ance reached a remarkable 1300 registrants due to the great interest in psychosomatic medicine in Asian coun- tries. A highlight for me was meeting Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. It was a great honor that the Emperor chose to attend our ICPM Congress. When he arrived just before the opening ceremony, he was escorted up the back stairs by security, and those of us on the ICPM executive board were positioned to greet him. We were told not to shake hands, and instructed how to bow correctly. When he and the Empress came into the foyer where we were standing, he greeted each of us in turn. When he was introduced to me, he said in unaccented English, “You are from Hawaii, aren’t you?” and he shook my hand! Empress Michiko was equally gracious with us. The Emperor’s introductory remarks can be found at http://www.convention-news.co.jp/ psycho.htm.
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High-Level Primary CD8+ T-Cell Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag and Env Generated by Vaccination with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viruses

High-Level Primary CD8+ T-Cell Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gag and Env Generated by Vaccination with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Viruses

Rose1,5* Departments of Pathology,1 Cell Biology,5 and Medicine,3 Program in Microbiology,2 and Section of Immunobiology,4 Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 0651[r]

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Immediate-early gene expression is sufficient for induction of natural killer cell-mediated lysis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected fibroblasts.

Immediate-early gene expression is sufficient for induction of natural killer cell-mediated lysis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected fibroblasts.

HOWELL,' LISA PETTERA,1 SHAHRAM TEHRANI,1 AND CARLOS LOPEZ2 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School,[r]

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Chorasmia Medical School from the beginning until the Mongol invasion

Chorasmia Medical School from the beginning until the Mongol invasion

By the rise to power of the Ghaznavids, they were under the rule of Mahmud of Ghazni, and with his attack in 1017 A.D., this golden era came to an end (18). As previously mentioned, the Khwarazm Shahs loved and supported scientific activities, but there is no information about the ancient kings of this dynasty and only the names of four kings are mentioned in history. These rulers were Abu-Ali Ma'mun I (ruled in 997), Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ma'mun (ruled 997-1008), Abu Abbas Ma'mun II (ruled 1008-1017), and Abu'l-Harith Muhammad (ruled in 1017) (19). The rulers of Ale Ma'mun attracted great scientists and physicians such as Avicenna, Abu Sahl 'Isa Ibn Yahya al-Masihi, to Chorasmia.
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Traditional medicine and complementary alternative medicine

Traditional medicine and complementary alternative medicine

Traditional medicines are frequently used in urban settings as alternatives in daily health care and self- medication against minor and chronic aliments. Modern medicines at present are chemically synthesized and some are isolated from naturally occurring plants on the basis of their use in traditional medicine. Since there is increased utilization of herbs on the collection of raw materials and consequently requires sustainable utilization of these plants. This system has advantages over the allopathic system. However, the globalization of trade and market has brought about an integration of different kinds of herbal medicines over the world. But there exist major differences in the usage of TCAM in developed and developing countries. While safety is the prime concern in developed countries, access and cost seem to be issues in developing countries. Herbal-based traditional medicine has become popular in developed countries in recent years and its use is likely to be increased in the coming years. Their toxicity/safety must be evaluated for universal acceptance. We need improvements regarding the processing of raw material, packaging, quality control most have no research and development or quality control system. Standardisation of chemical finger printing towards quality control is another major requirement in developing countries. Moreover, traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.
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Microbial Contamination of Staff’s Hand while Going out of Hospital

Microbial Contamination of Staff’s Hand while Going out of Hospital

Associate Professor of Pathology, Research Center for Cutaneous Leishmanaisis, Emam Reza Hospital,. School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences,[r]

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Recent updates on natural compounds in treatment of diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive Approach

Recent updates on natural compounds in treatment of diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive Approach

Several other species have been used in the ethnobotanical traditions of many countries around the world to treat diabetes (17–19), Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm., commonly known as gurmar, has been used since ancient times, particularly in Ayurvedic medicine, and its anti- obesity and anti-diabetic efficacy has been clinically demonstrated [20] and confirmed in animal models [21]. The anti-diabetic activity of gurmar has been attributed mainly to gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins and gurmarin contained in the leaves [22]. A dihydroxygymnemic acetate (20 mg/kg), isolated from G. sylvestre leaves, has been administered in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats for 45 days,
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[A418.Ebook] Free PDF Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology By J Robert Duncan Edward A Mahaffey Keith W Prasse.pdf

[A418.Ebook] Free PDF Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology By J Robert Duncan Edward A Mahaffey Keith W Prasse.pdf

require. As one of the motivating books, this book will certainly provide the visibility of this leaded Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology By J. Robert Duncan, Edward A. Mahaffey, Keith W. Prasse to collect. Even it is juts soft documents; it can be your cumulative documents in gadget as well as various other device. The essential is that use this soft file publication Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology By J. Robert Duncan, Edward A. Mahaffey, Keith W. Prasse to read and take the benefits. It is exactly what we imply as publication Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology By J. Robert Duncan, Edward A. Mahaffey, Keith W. Prasse will improve your ideas and also mind. Then, reading book will certainly likewise boost your life top quality much better by taking excellent action in well balanced.
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The Art of Healing: Mary Gove Nichols's Crusade for Women's Wellness

The Art of Healing: Mary Gove Nichols's Crusade for Women's Wellness

The long held tradition of bleeding and purging patients began to wane in the mid- nineteenth century. European schools of medicine offered more thorough training in anatomy and physiology, and emphasized the ability of physicians to specialize, making themselves more marketable to the public. “Over seven hundred American doctors spent time in France from 1820 to 1860,” historian Ira Rutkow calculated. These physicians, upon returning home, found more success than those physicians who did not seek further training. 47 Homegrown doctors who could not travel to Europe elected to continue practicing with their limited knowledge, something that they could still get away with in rural areas of the country, such as the small town in which Mary’s family lived when they called for a doctor for their ailing young daughter. Still others eschewed the ever more
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

In conclusion, as an appropriate ending and for the purpose of showing how our predecessors viewed physicians and medicine as a whole and what people expected of a physician or in more comprehensive terms a "hakim", I quote an excerpt from Nezami Aroozi Samarqandi's book Chahar Maqaleh, in the hope of making us more aware of our responsibility i n this era, and more serious about reviewing and re­ structuring training and educational methods and proc­ edures in medical universities with a view to educating future generation physicians: "A physician should be soft in temperament, wise in his nature and plausible in his guesses, and guessing is a movement inside a man to arrive at a plausible pronouncement; in other words, it is the transitional speed from known to unknown. And any physician who does not recognize the dignity of man's soul is not soft in temperament; unless he knows logic he can not be wise in nature; and unless he receives divine assistance he can not be plausible in his guesses, and anyone not plausible in his guess can not become
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2019 Association of American Physicians Presidential AddressDiversification in the medical sciences fuels growth of physician scientists

2019 Association of American Physicians Presidential AddressDiversification in the medical sciences fuels growth of physician scientists

It has been a privilege and pleasure to serve as the 2018–2019 president of the Association of American Physicians (AAP). This venerable organization was founded October 10, 1885, by William Osler (president, 1895), William Pepper (president, 1891), William Draper (presi- dent, 1888), Francis Delafield (president, 1886), James Tyson (president, 1908), Robert Edes, and George Peabody, who was joined by William Welch (president, 1901) at the first meeting of this organiza- tion in Washington, D.C., in 1886 for the “advancement of scientific and practical medicine” (1). Under Linda Fried (pres- ident, 2016), the goals of the AAP were further articulated as to “inspire the full breadth of physician-led research across all fields of science related to medicine and health, and to build a community of physician scientists in support of the prin- ciple that objective science and evidence are essential foundations for improving patient care and the health of Ameri- cans” (1). Additional key goals of the AAP include elections honoring physicians who have made outstanding and enduring contributions to medical science across all spectrums of specialties and to holding an annual meeting in which to meet, interact, and exchange information. The AAP now has more than 2300 elected members, of which 1700 are active and 600 are emer- itus (triggered by 75 or more years of age beginning in 2019), with 60 new members elected annually (moving to up to 70 new members in 2020). The AAP spawned the American Society for Clinical Inves- tigation (ASCI) in 1907 and helped spawn the American Federation for Clinical Research (AFCR) in 1940. Beginning in 1940, trisociety meetings were held. In
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Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for MRI-defined brain infarcts in a population-based setting

Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for MRI-defined brain infarcts in a population-based setting

and Mental Health (V.T.), University of Melbourne, Aus- tralia; Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, Psychiatry (H.B., W.W., A. Thalamuthu, N.J.A., E.C., K.A.M., P.S.S.), Dementia Centre for Research Collaboration (H.B.), and School of Medical Sciences (P.R.S., J.B.K.), University of New South Wales, Sydney; Mathematics & Statistics (N.J.A.), Murdoch University, Perth; Neuroscience Research Australia (K.A.M., P.R.S., A.Thalamuthu), Randwick; Brain and Mind Centre (J.B.K.), The University of Sydney, Camperdown; Queens- land Brain Institute (M.J.W.), University of Queensland, Brisbane; National Ageing Research Institute (D.A.), Mel- bourne; Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age (D.A.), University of Melbourne, Australia; Department of Cere- brovascular Diseases (G.B.B.), Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta,” Milan, Italy; CTSU, Nuffield Department of Population Health (J.C.H., C.M.v.D.), and Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences (P.M.R.), University of Oxford, UK; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (C.B.W.), NIH, Bethesda, MD; In- stitute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (D.J.S.), and Robertson Centre for Biostatistics (I.F.), University of Glasgow, UK; German Center for Neu- rodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) (K.W., H.J.G.), Site Rostock, Greifswald, Germany; Interfaculty Institute for Ge- netics and Functional Genomics (U.V.), University of Greifswald, Germany; John Hunter Hospital (C.L.), Hunter Medical Research Institute and University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia; Neurovascular Research Group (NEU- VAS) (J.J.-C.), Neurology Department, IMIM–Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Cardiovascular Research (P.S.), Royal Holloway University of London & St Peters and Ashford Hospital, UK; Center for Human Genetic Research and Department of Neurology (J.R.), Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston
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