History of Medicine in Japan

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Medicine in Edo Japan

Medicine in Edo Japan

Fujikawa Yū (1865-1940) was an early modern physician and medical scientist who lived in the Meiji period (1868CE-1912CE) and whose education in Western medicine was based on the German medical tradition. In 1881, at the age of 16, Fujikawa entered a medical school that was established within a hospital in Hiroshima. Shortly after his graduation in 1887, he moved to the capital Tokyo where he became a life insurance doctor. He then joined a news company that concerned itself with publishing papers regarding medical practices at home and abroad. After acquiring his medical license, Fujikawa published in several medical journals and went to Germany to study medicine. After coming back to Japan in 1891, he started his research on the history of medicine by looking thoroughly into historical records. He researched the history of medicine in Japan from ancient times starting from approximately 13000BCE until the Meiji period. Fujikawa acquired his expert knowledge mainly from Western medical books that were translated into Japanese. Fujikawa published his first book about this topic titled Nihon igakushi in 1904. 2 It
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Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan

Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan

In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others. Most of the non-physician members include psychology and nursing staff specialists. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine (JSPIM), founded in 1996, is another major society with more than 1,200 physicians that is mainly composed of internists. The first joint congress of the five major PSM societies from each field was held in 2009. They included the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Psychosomatic Pediatric Medicine, Psychosomatic Dental Medicine, and Psychosomatic Internal Medicine. Several subdivided societies in related medical fields have also been established for cardiovascular, digestive, dermatological, and oriental medicine and for eating disorders, pain, fibromyalgia, stress science, behavioral medicine, and psycho-oncology. JSPM and JSPIM participate in international activities including publishing BioPsychoSocial Medicine (BPSM) and the establishment of a sister society relationship with the Germany College of PSM. PSM in Japan has adopted a variety of professional psychotherapies, including transactional analysis, autogenic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Mutual interrelationship has been promoted by the Japanese Union of Associations for Psycho-medical Therapy (UPM).
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History, aims and present structure of psychosomatic medicine in Germany

History, aims and present structure of psychosomatic medicine in Germany

A main focus of DKPM scientists was clinical research involving patients of respective hospitals with psycho- somatic institutions. Additionally three psychosomatic basic funding fields (SFB’s) of the German Research Council were inaugurated together with other medical disciplines: psychological measurement/psychiatry and psychosomatics (SFB32, Giessen), pulmonary diseases/ endocrinology (SFB34, Hamburg) and epidemiology/ psychiatry and psychosomatics (SFB116, Mannheim). Later, research exchange formed strong ties to other European, American, and Asian societies involved in the field of psychosomatic medicine. An early exchange of scientists and discussions took place with the American Psychosomatic Society in the 1970íes (H. Weiner, R. Adler, F. Lamprecht). Later, DKPM members were involved in the European C/L study and the following co-operative studies (F. Huyse, U. Malt, T. Herzog, F. Creed). They founded the European Network on Psycho- somatic Medicine (2005) and become a member of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine (2008, K. Orth-Gomér, N. Schneiderman). Especially to Japan, there has been a long history of communication with members of the Japanese Society of Internal Psycho- somatic Medicine. Our first contacts were with Y. Ikemi, Y. Ago, and H. Suematsu in the 1970ies and 80ies of the last century [8], and now through the ICPM with C. Kubo, Y. Nakai, and M. Murakami. This culminated in the signing of an agreement about Friendship and Co- operation between JSIPM and DKPM in November 2011. Since that time there have been regular exchanges and meetings during national conferences in both countries.
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The International College of Psychosomatic Medicine – a personal history

The International College of Psychosomatic Medicine – a personal history

The next major event for ICPM was the 18th World Congress in Kobe, Japan in 2005 organized by Chiharu Kubo and Tomifusa Kuboki. This Congress again attracted attendees from all over the world, and attend- ance reached a remarkable 1300 registrants due to the great interest in psychosomatic medicine in Asian coun- tries. A highlight for me was meeting Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. It was a great honor that the Emperor chose to attend our ICPM Congress. When he arrived just before the opening ceremony, he was escorted up the back stairs by security, and those of us on the ICPM executive board were positioned to greet him. We were told not to shake hands, and instructed how to bow correctly. When he and the Empress came into the foyer where we were standing, he greeted each of us in turn. When he was introduced to me, he said in unaccented English, “You are from Hawaii, aren’t you?” and he shook my hand! Empress Michiko was equally gracious with us. The Emperor’s introductory remarks can be found at http://www.convention-news.co.jp/ psycho.htm.
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A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore

A Case Report of Puffer Fish Poisoning in Singapore

Although many Asians regard puffer fish as a delicacy since ancient times, puffer fish (Lageocephalus scitalleratus) is also a well- known source of possibly lethal food poisoning. The fish is gaining popularity in Singapore and can be found in quite a few restaurants now. Puffer fish contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent poison affecting the neural pathway. Puffer fish poisoning may cause a constellation of symptoms, such as giddiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the mouth, paresthesia, and muscle weakness. Severe cases may present with respiratory depression, circulatory failure, and death. TTX poisonings have been reported in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, and the United States (Haque et al. 2008). We report a case of mild poisoning and suggest observation for such cases.
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Recent updates on natural compounds in treatment of diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive Approach

Recent updates on natural compounds in treatment of diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive Approach

Several medicinal plant have shown to be effective in different stages of diabetes, such as curcumin is proposed to be used as one of interventions in pre-diabetes therapy to prevent the progression of T2DM due to its proven benefits and safety profile,(13) whereas, cinnamon can be a better option for diabetic patients who are having co- existing hypertension,(14) and on the other hand, the extract of Aloe vera leaf gel with doses of 300 mg/kg demonstrated increased levels of insulin from regenerated pancreatic beta-cells.(15) Therefore it is important to know the history of the patient and therapeutic benefits of the medicinal plant for proper treatment of the patient. The following sections of this
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A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present

A short history of Japanese historical seismology: past and the present

centuries in Japan. He listed up 213 earthquakes for the period from 416 ad to 1872. He also estimated damage areas of three large earthquakes, which occurred in the middle of nineteenth century. Since books he used were mostly compiled in the Edo era, it was the matter of course that his list was more contaminated by fakes and duplications than Hattori’s. He relied only on secondary materials for the ancient and the medieval period with- out realizing it. However, the discussion he did on his- torical seismology in that paper vividly showed his talent as a scientist as much as his papers on geology. After SSJ was founded, Milne (1881, 1882) listed 366 earthquakes for the period from 295 bc to 1872 ad from 64 docu- ments. However, his list rather retracted from Hattori’s and Naumann’s, since he compiled without distinction of myth and fact, or consistency between materials.
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Hare-lip surgery in the history of traditional Chinese medicine

Hare-lip surgery in the history of traditional Chinese medicine

open his own belly, which resulted in the protrusion of his internal organs.57 "t$X- Wei Yilin (1277-1347), a noted expert in the treatment of external diseases, in his book ?4 f$ Sh[r]

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The history of Chinese diplomatic missions in Japan, 1877-1911

The history of Chinese diplomatic missions in Japan, 1877-1911

The arguments Tseng Kuo-fan put forward in his memorial to the Throne in favour of a treaty with Japan were in the main similar to those of Li Hung-chang. He re-evoked the fear that if China rejected Japan's request Japan would most likely turn to the Y'estern countries for support and China would eventually be forced to acquiesce in her demands. It was a bad policy to reject a reasonable demand when the opponent was weak and to give in to an unreasonable demand when the opponent was strong. He supported Li Hung-chang's suggestion to send officials to Japan to control Chinese merchants there. As to the actual contents of the proposed treaty, Tseng clarified Li Hung-chang's earlier proposal that a treaty with Japan should be concluded but not on the lines of those concluded with festem nations. Tseng thought that it would be more convenient if certain items in the forthcoming treaty with Japan, such as customs tariff, were to follow those stipulations in the treaties China had signed with Western nations. What should not be admitted in the new treaty was the "most-favoured nation" clause which
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A History of Japan, 1582 1941: Internal and External Worlds

A History of Japan, 1582 1941: Internal and External Worlds

ultimately condemned as short-sighted, irrational and unrealistic. Was Ieyasu’s policy of inward orientation more rational than Hideyoshi’s policy of external expansion? Yes, because we know the outcome, but no if we look at the personalities of these two leaders, both of whom were highly pragmatic. Was ‘sakoku’ more rational than the continuation of openness to the outside world, as the author claims? Yes, because we know the positive outcome, but no if we think about the risks that self-isolation involved. The author’s assertion that ‘[R]ealism was one of Japan’s strengths from the 1850s onwards; abandonment of realism was the country’s later undoing in the 1930s’ (p. 13) is historically problematic, because the people who make the decisions never know the outcome. There were many moves before the 1930s (like the decision to attack Russia in 1904), which might have ended in disaster and there were later initiatives (like the negotiations with the United States in 1941 about a new status quo in southeast Asia) that might have ended in success. The book’s strength lies in the panoramic view that it presents, but its weakness lies in sweeping and dubious generalisations that this approach produces. It is difficult to agree with the author that ‘Japanese history poses greater problems of interpretation than the history of other countries’.(p. 17) It seems highly exaggerated to say that ‘in some respects, up to 1945 Japan had remained the bakufu [shogunal government] that it had still been under Meiji: a wide range of groups existed whose interests never fully converged’ (p. 279), just as it seems greatly overstated that ‘in a sense, Japan’s place in the world has never been settled since 1868’.(p. 282) These generalisations obscure the historical picture of Japan more than they enlighten it. The author does not regard culture as an important element in history. Although the book carries the title of A History of Japan and spans a period of three-and-a-half centuries, it hardly refers to cultural subjects. The great artistic and literary achievements of the Tokugawa era, like woodblock prints, haiku poetry, urban novels, or kabuki drama are absent or hardly mentioned. The names of twentieth-century thinkers, writers, poets, and artists like Uchimura Kanzo, Natsume Soseki, Mori Ogai, Yosano Akiko, Tanizaki Jun’ichiro, Nishida Kitaro, and Mizoguchi Kenji, who influenced millions of prewar Japanese, are absent.
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Evolution History of Gassan Volcano, Northeast Japan Arc

Evolution History of Gassan Volcano, Northeast Japan Arc

Evolution history of the volcano is essential not only to characterize the vol- cano, but also consider magma genesis beneath the volcano. Most of the stra- tovolcanoes in northeast Japan follow a general evolutional course: cone building, horse-shoe shaped caldera forming collapse, and post-caldera stages. However, the detailed history of each stage is not well investigated. We inves- tigated evolution history of young edifice of Gassan volcano, representative stratovolcano in rear side of northeast Japan arc. Most of the products are la- vas, which are divided into two groups by geomorphologic and geologic fea- tures. The former (Gassan lower lavas) is composed of relatively thin and fluidal lavas, whose original geomorphology remains a little, while the latter (Gassan upper lavas) is composed of relatively thick and viscous lavas, whose original geomorphology is moderately preserved. Based on geologic features, the upper lavas can be further divided into Gassan upper north lavas and up- per summit lavas in ascending order. After the formation of the thick lavas, horse-shoe shaped caldera was formed by the instability of the edifice, proba- bly triggered by fault activity. No evidence of post caldera activity inner part of it is observed. Based on K-Ar data, estimated age of Gassan lower lavas is ca. 0.75 to ca. 0.6 Ma, those of Gassan upper north and upper summit lavas are ca. 0.60 to ca. 0.55 Ma and ca. 0.55 to ca. 0.45 Ma. The eruption rate is es- timated to be ca. 0.0004 km 3 /1000 years in Gassan lower lavas and ca. 0.02
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Personalized medicine: Definitions, history, and implications for the OT profession

Personalized medicine: Definitions, history, and implications for the OT profession

governments, academia, patient advocates, and clinical practitioners, the concept of personalized medicine is not new (Tutton, 2012). Historically, it has been used to describe patient-centered care in which clinicians “elicit, understand and respond to patients’ perspectives and practice the ‘art’ of clinical judgement” (p. 1721). To these clinicians, personalized medicine is not a new concept ushered in by the development of genomics, but a practice that is endangered by the continued reductionism of biomedicine that focuses on the universality of disease processes and not on the individual with the illness (Tutton, 2012). There have been various movements throughout the practice of modern medicine that have pushed for either a focus on universal care or personalized care.
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The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

The History, Present Situation and Prospect of Chinese Medicine Cosmetology

Chinese medicine beauty should establish real skin needs Chinese cosmetic brand based on the development of ancient Chinese medicine traditional beauty health culture, and establish a co[r]

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Severance Hospital: Bringing Modern Medicine to Korea

Severance Hospital: Bringing Modern Medicine to Korea

Throughout these early years, along with its role as a medical and educational institution, Severance remained committed to helping Korea achieve its independence from Japanese colonial rule. Among its first and second graduate classes, Pil Soon Kim, Hyeon Chuk Joo, Chang Hui Shin, Seo Yang Park, and Tae Joon Lee contributed significantly to the building of bases for independence fighters in Man- churia and Mongolia. The Severance campus also played host to student and faculty led struggles against colonial powers during the March 1st Movement in 1919. Faculty members Dr. Frank William Schofield, Gap Seong Lee, and Tae Young Ham, along with students Yong Seol Lee and Moon Jin Kim, were particularly important in leading cam- pus-wide demonstrations. In addition to treating many of the injured, the hospital was also utilized as a safe location for which to compose and store the nation’s Declaration of Independence from Japan. For a number of years, Sever- ance would remain more than just a hospital for the physi- cally sick; it would stand as a shelter for nursing the heart- ache’s of a nation.
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Race, biometrics, and security in modern Japan : a history of racial government

Race, biometrics, and security in modern Japan : a history of racial government

Like Western counterparts, the Japanese colonial discourse of race, as well as its biologist deployment of biometric identification, however, ceased to exist in the aftermath of World War II. More globally, the ‘sayability’, as it were, of biological race was denounced in the mid-twentieth century, clearly manifested in the 1950 UNESCO statement on the ‘Race Question’. Accordingly, biometrics such as fingerprinting was no longer a scientific technology to classify and identify biological racial differences but became predominantly a technology of individualisation. In Chapter Four, I will critically examine this paradigm shift in the field of fingerprinting in relation to the development of a new, postcolonial, model of racism in post-WWII Japan. In particular, the chapter investigates the interplay between the postwar governmental discursive racialisation of former colonial subjects in the mainland of Japan – known as the Zainichi (‘residing in Japan’) population – who were abruptly racialised in criminal terms, and the operation of fingerprinting surveillance under the 1952 Gaitō hō (‘Alien Registration Act’), which was introduced to monitor and control the Zainichi population.
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JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH

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Medical Humanities is an interdisciplinary area. Medicine and the Arts, Philosophy of Medicine, Medical Anthropology, Medical Sociology and Bioethics, are among the various disciplines constituting the Medical Humanities. Asia is a huge continent and has diversity of cultures, but with certain shared values. A number of medical schools have been opened in Asia. Medical Humanities first took root in the United States. Strong programs also exist in the UK, Europe, Israel and Argentina. Administrative support, financial and technical backing, and sharing of resources are among the many factors which led to the success of programs in the west. Many hurdles exist towards starting MH programs in Asia, but these can be overcome. A voluntary module might be a good approach to initiate MH learning.
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Continuity and change in disaster education in Japan

Continuity and change in disaster education in Japan

With this background, this article offers an analysis of the history of DE in Japan, focusing on the post-war period with the following threefold purpose. First, tracing the post-war DE policy in compulsory (Elementary and Junior High School) education, the article discusses what has remained the same and what has changed about the policy. The focus of the article is natural disasters (hereafter ‘disasters’), however, manmade disasters are also discussed to a certain extent in order to contextualise DE. The associated topics of disaster management, preparedness and volunteering are discussed at the generic level in analysing the historical transition of DE. The article recognises some linkages between those areas and DE but does not intend to claim any causal relationships between those areas and DE. Second, through this historical description, the article sheds light on the dual nature of DE – disaster as ‘scientific knowledge’ and disaster as ‘life skills’ – and explores when and why one is emphasised and the other is not. Characterising the changes is also attempted. Third, the article considers which direction DE has been taking since Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The noticeable effort to further the learning and teaching of ‘living with disaster’ is addressed. Through achieving these purposes, it is hoped to contribute to the further understanding of the post- war development of DE in Japan, and also more broadly, to the discussion of current challenges that the field of DE is facing.
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The Japanese Consumer: an Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan

The Japanese Consumer: an Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan

The study of Japanese food culture also experienced tremendous growth during the last decade. The very first monograph in English related to Japanese food was Ohnuki-Tierney’s Rice as Self: Japanese Identities through Time, and the second one – The Essence of Japanese Cuisine, co-authored by Ashkenazi and Jacob – followed only five years later.(19) After the turn of the twenty-first century, however, a genuine boost took place, with Ishige’s The History and Culture of Japanese Food, Bestor’s Tsukiji: the Fish Market at the Center of the World, Cwiertka’s Modern Japanese Cuisine, Rath’s Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Japan , Rath and Assmann’s edited volume Japanese Foodways Past and Present, and a number of forthcoming publications.(20)
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The burden of insomnia in Japan

The burden of insomnia in Japan

ses controlled for a wider array of confounding variables (eg, CCI, health behaviors, etc) to provide further evidence of this effect. Despite the treatment they are receiving, clinical insomniacs still experience significant and clinically relevant decrements in hrQOL variables. These decrements are observed even after controlling for health history and comorbidity variables, reinforcing the effect insomnia has on patient functioning. This may, in part, be due to a lack of treatment benefit with respect to hrQOL. However, it is likely to be more than just a lack of effectiveness that is causing this gap. Certain sleep medications can be associated with dependency and residual effects, which could reduce levels of hrQOL. 28 Further, although we controlled for both physical
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The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

The cost of schizophrenia in Japan

proposed components such as absenteeism, presenteeism, unemployment, premature death, treatment-related time off work, unwanted job changes, loss of opportunities for pro- motion and education, and loss of unpaid production while ill as potential production losses (ie, morbidity and mortal- ity costs). However, no reliable data in Japan are available with regard to absenteeism, presenteeism, treatment-related time off work, unwanted job changes, loss of opportunities for promotion and education, and loss of unpaid production while ill, so these costs were omitted from the analysis and only the unemployment costs were reflected in the morbidity costs. Although the components we were able to include in the morbidity costs were limited, we note this problem has con- fronted other authors, and previous studies 10,26 have included
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