History of Philosophy of Science

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Integrating History and Philosophy of Science

Integrating History and Philosophy of Science

From these figures alone one might conclude that the call for work that would integrate the history and philosophy of science in a meaningful way has gone, if not unheard, at least only faintly heard, since Feigl called for a change in attitude almost forty years ago. But there is one further place to look. 1996 saw the first meeting of a new international grouping, HOPOS, whose concern is with the history of the philosophy of science. Its growth since that first meeting at Virginia Tech has been truly meteoric. Meeting every two years, alternately in North America and Europe, it appears to have built up an academic constituency faster than its founders could ever have thought possible. At its last meeting, held in Paris in 2006, there were 68 sessions spread over five days, five sessions in parallel in most of the time periods. In all, a stunning 257 papers were presented. Though the US was well represented, as one would expect, what was most significant about this meeting was that the majority of the papers were presented by European scholars. It is clear that the historical dimension of the philosophy-of-science enterprise evokes an impressive degree of scholarly interest on both sides of the Atlantic. Its future in the academy seems secure. Learning philosophy through study of the history of philosophy has always been a favored route. It is all the more appropriate a way to proceed when one takes into account the historical nature of the sciences themselves and thus of the philosophical reflections that they have inspired over the ages. In at least one of the HPS doctoral programs in the US, a two-semester sequence in the history of the philosophy of science is a required part of the graduate program. HOPOS is well on its way.
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University of Cincinnati Blue Ash College History, Philosophy, and Political Science Department Course Guide,

University of Cincinnati Blue Ash College History, Philosophy, and Political Science Department Course Guide,

Greetings from the History, Philosophy, and Political Science Department at the University of Cincinnati Blue Ash College. We are excited to be offering a variety of classes during the 2012- 13 academic year. For the first time you can take a course in Latin American history, as well as courses in environmental, women’s and Civil War history, and an interdisciplinary seminar in European studies. Inside you will find basic information as well as a short description for all of our courses. Please be advised that changes to the schedule will sometimes occur, and that detailed information on course meeting times and classrooms can be found on UC’s Onestop website (onestop.uc.edu). If you have any questions, please contact me or one of the listed instructors.
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Traditional Knowledge as a Tool for Discussing History and Philosophy of Science in Teacher Education

Traditional Knowledge as a Tool for Discussing History and Philosophy of Science in Teacher Education

In this particular case, involvement in an action-research task that sought not to dichotomize reflections from action may have been a determining factor for appearance of indicators about the nature of comprehension of science. Brandt (2007) proposed that through identifying the common ground that exists, edu- cators can make attempts to work across any perceived differences, thus break- ing down the divides and reconstructing the relationship between science and cultural knowledge. Given that scientific knowledge takes on an indispensable role in science classrooms, the dialogue between scientific and traditional know- ledge seems to be an interesting pathway towards learning some elements within the history and philosophy of science.
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The Decisive Role Played by Leibniz in the History of Both Science and Philosophy of Knowledge

The Decisive Role Played by Leibniz in the History of Both Science and Philosophy of Knowledge

The crucial problem of Western philosophy of knowledge was to recognize its foundations. By comparing past mathematical and physical theories I have ob- tained a new conception of the foundations of science. In the above a dichotomy regarding the two main kinds of logic was exemplified in a crucial case-study of the history of philosophy. In addition, in Mathematics some decades ago a long and obscure work achieved a new formalization of calculus and more in general of the whole of Mathematics; this constructive mathematics is new to the extent that it avoids (almost all) idealistic notions (Markov, 1962; Bishop, 1967). At present, although its premises are incompatible with those of classical mathe- matics, it is considered by mathematicians to be on a par with classical mathe- matics. I conclude that the foundations of science include two basic dichotomies, one in mathematics and the other in logic (Drago, 1987; Drago, 1996).
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Towards a Mutually Beneficial Integration of History and Philosophy of Science: The Case of Jean Perrin

Towards a Mutually Beneficial Integration of History and Philosophy of Science: The Case of Jean Perrin

In this chapter, I argued for the necessity of the historicist-hermeneutic approach for achieving a mutually beneficial integration of History of Science and Philosophy of Science. Aspects of the historicist-hermeneutic approach have been supported by various scholars during the last fifty years. I demonstrated how this approach can be applied concretely to solve one of the most problematic case-studies in philosophy of science: the reasoning underlying Jean Perrin’s argument for molecular reality. I argued that Perrin’s was a case of multiple determination. Perrin put forward a no-coincidence argument for the existence of molecules, which was based on the agreement between multiple, independent determinations of Avogadro’s number (and consequently, other molecular magnitudes). The blunt rationale of the argument was the following: it would be a highly improbable coincidence for multiple, independent determinations of molecular magnitudes to achieve concordant results, and yet for there not to be any molecules. The careful application of the historicist-hermeneutic approach, however, shows that there were additional structural elements of Perrin’s argument that were responsible for its exceptional strength and, ultimately, for its success. They were the following:
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Quantum mechanics and Indian philosophies: A contribution to the history and philosophy of science

Quantum mechanics and Indian philosophies: A contribution to the history and philosophy of science

In this paper we have study four quantum experiments that challenge the “common sense” of reality. In fact, in the 20 th century, the emergence of Quantum Mechanics and Transpersonal Psychology have contributed to challenge our “common sense” about the vision of the world. It is true that scientific progress have allowed us an improvement in our day to day life, but the core of the questions that were raised in the Introduction of this paper, still remain to be answered by contemporary society, such as What is the role of the human being in the Universe (the choice of the observer)? How we could explain the exceptional capabilities of the human brain (telepathic communication)?What is the purpose of Life (the perception of Life)?.In this regard, Prigogine (Prigogine and Stengers, 1986). suggested “a new alliance” between science (physics, biology, chemistry) and humanities/social sciences (history, philosophy, psychology) in order to answer the previousquestions in a transdisciplinary and in a deeper way.
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Nature and history : towards a hermeneutic philosophy of historiography of science

Nature and history : towards a hermeneutic philosophy of historiography of science

other. It may be the case that the underlying aim of early modern natural philosophy was the understanding and praise of the Creator, whereas modern scientists qua scientists usually do not have this aim. However, the essential incomparability of scientific goals should not be a postulate of history of science. Goals (and scientists or science need not have had just one goal at any time) may have been stable for some time in some respects: the ancient Greeks have never tried to split the atom, for obvious reasons, so in that sense they were not engaged (as a scientific community) in an intentional activity identical to that of some modern research communities; but on another level of abstraction (‘trying to identify the fundamental elements of physical entities’) they may have been pursuing the same goal. The verdict of progress will differ according to the ways the goal can plausibly be phrased, and according to our measure of technical progress in the realization of those goals. We are never just better at ‘science’ than the Greeks, just like polar bears are not better at ‘fur colors’ than their ancestors; we always need to find a plausible way of interpreting the purpose of what went on, then and now.
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Towards a methodology for integrated history and philosophy of science

Towards a methodology for integrated history and philosophy of science

Abstract We respond to two kinds of skepticism about integrated history and philos- ophy of science: foundational and methodological. Foundational skeptics doubt that the history and the philosophy of science have much to gain from each other in prin- ciple. We therefore discuss some of the unique rewards of work at the intersection of the two disciplines. By contrast, methodological skeptics already believe that the two disciplines should be related to each other, but they doubt that this can be done successfully. Their worries are captured by the so-called dilemma of case studies: On one horn of the dilemma, we begin our integrative enterprise with philosophy and proceed from there to history, in which case we may well be selecting our his- torical cases so as to fit our preconceived philosophical theses. On the other horn, we begin with history and proceed to philosophical reflection, in which case we are prone to unwarranted generalization from particulars. Against worries about selec- tion bias, we argue that we routinely need to make explicit the criteria for choosing particular historical cases to investigate particular philosophical theses. It then be- comes possible to ask whether or not the selection criteria were biased. Against worries about unwarranted generalization, we stress the iterative nature of the pro- cess by which historical data and philosophical concepts are brought into alignment. The skeptics’ doubts are fueled by an outdated model of outright confirmation vs. outright falsification of philosophical concepts. A more appropriate model is one of stepwise and piecemeal improvement.
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Philosophy And History Of Science   Beyond The Kuhnian Paradigm pdf

Philosophy And History Of Science Beyond The Kuhnian Paradigm pdf

Instead, three alternative approaches to the relationship between philosophy and history of science have been sketched: Hacking’s account of styles of reasoning as a history of the prese[r]

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Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8,
2012 on 'How Can the History and Philosophy of Science
Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching?'

Report on a Boston University Conference December 7-8, 2012 on 'How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching?'

This is an editorial report on the outcomes of an international conference spon- sored by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) (REESE-1205273) to the School of Education at Boston University and the Center for Philosophy and His- tory of Science at Boston University for a conference titled: How Can the History and Philosophy of Science Contribute to Contemporary U.S. Science Teaching? The presentations of the conference speakers and the reports of the working groups are reviewed. Multiple themes emerged for K-16 education from the perspective of the history and philosophy of science. Key ones were that: students need to understand that central to science is argumentation, criticism, and analysis; students should be educated to appreciate science as part of our culture; students should be educated to be science literate; what is meant by the nature of science as discussed in much of the science education literature must be broadened to accommodate a science literacy that includes preparation for socioscientific issues; teaching for science literacy requires the development of new assessment tools; and, it is difficult to change what science teach- ers do in their classrooms. The principal conclusions drawn by the editors are that: to prepare students to be citizens in a participatory democracy, science education must be embedded in a liberal arts education; science teachers alone cannot be expected to pre- pare students to be scientifically literate; and, to educate students for scientific literacy will require a new curriculum that is coordinated across the humanities, history/social studies, and science classrooms.
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State, Science and Education (3) as a Reflection Anti / Spirit Hegel's Philosophy of History Development

State, Science and Education (3) as a Reflection Anti / Spirit Hegel's Philosophy of History Development

~ 312 ~ education in the Hegelian sense as training for an independent and responsible opinion and thus the progress of an individual in relation to life reality, life itself, in relation to the other and especially in relation to nature. With today's distance, Nietzsche's principle of education would have become the education of a negligible number of people and their anchoring in the field of philosophy, and of the far-reaching, in the field of literature and art. In the book "Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison", Michel Foucault considers the functions of key social institutions, among which the school stands and closes and talks about the similarities between them. From his research insights follows the interpretation that school system knowledge is least important as the school system is primarily constructed as an instrument of conducting the heroic government through expression of respect for authority and fear of punishment. "I had the impression that in Western societies, in parallel with capitalism, I developed a whole series of procedures to monitor and control the behavior of individuals, their attitude, their way of acting, their attitude, their living space, their abilities, but the essential function of these mechanisms was not They banned and punished them, of course, but the essential purpose of these forms of power - what seemed to be their effectiveness and perseverance - was to force individuals to increase their efficiency, their strength, the ability, in short, to duplicate all that which was necessary in the production apparatus of the society: to put people, to put them where they are most useful, to train them to acquire this or that skill. " (Fuko 2007: 237-260).
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School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations. Political Science and International Relations Programme CRN 17036

School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations. Political Science and International Relations Programme CRN 17036

Readings: Chapter 11 Castles and Miller Cornelius et al Controlling Immigration, Chapters 5 & 11 (including commentaries) Will Kymlicka, ‘Immigration, Citizenship, Multiculturali[r]

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History and Philosophy of Science: A Phylogenetic Approach

History and Philosophy of Science: A Phylogenetic Approach

As one traces back through the history of a current theory, one finds various alternatives. This historical research opens up a space of theoretical possibilities that were earlier rejected, or not considered, but in the light of current problems, may seem interesting and suggestive. Stephen J. Gould often mines the history of science in search of alternatives to neo-Darwinism, for example. His claims about ‘the hardening of the Neo-darwinian synthesis’ are claims that a variety of theoretical options available for exploration in the early work of people like Sewall Wright and George G. Simpson were simply not pursued. Why weren’t they? Should they have been? Would those options help us with some of the foundational problems in evolutionary biology today? These are historical questions with philosophical pay-offs.
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History and Philosophy of Science : An Analysis

History and Philosophy of Science : An Analysis

The environmental implications of simple living are significantly favorable. These implications occur through two channels. The first channel operates through the reduced i[r]

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Philosophy of Science in Italy

Philosophy of Science in Italy

philosophical. It was an ideology of materialistic, anti-spitualistic and anti-clericalistic kind, with evident socialistic nuances. It was an instrument of political propaganda, both of the liberals then in power, who cherished the idea that science was the effective ruler of the states, and of the anti- clerical socialists hostile to spiritualistic metaphysics. And it was ideologically functional to those emergent social productive groups that at that turn of history gave rise to the so-called “Italian first industrial revolution”. Italian positivism was a useful opening towards German physiology, cellulism and Darwinism. It has been of use for the growth – on a European level – of Italian biomedical science. As a matter of fact, the doctrines that benefited the new materialistic atmosphere that was breathed in post-unity Italy were medicine, biology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy – a discipline that found in Italy nourishment and unique importance in the western world –, but very little physics and no mathematical physics. Above all, Italian positivism has resulted in a project of “civilization”, a bearer of naive progressivism, defective of theoretic elaboration. Apart from a few exceptions, the positivist philosophy of science, in Italy, is a mess where, together with a timid comparison with neo-Kantism and pragmatism (Giovanni Vailati) and with a few references – in general scarcely orthodox – to Ernst Mach, we find some ambiguous mingling with Naturphilosophie and Romantic science. In addition, we frequently observe in it an odium antiphilosophicum (hatred against philosophy) which Enrico Morselli himself, the positivist psychologist-psychiatrist, director of the “Rivista di filosofia scientifica”, notices and condemns as a “real strait-jacket of scientific outlook”. In the end, philosophy is entrusted only with unifying and preventing scientific knowledge from dispersing and breaking up. No wonder, then, if in the course of a few years the Italian philosophical tradition – the one that, from Pythagoras to St.Augustine, and afterwards to Vico and Rosmini, had rejected materialism as a foreign body – prevails again.
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TEXTBOOKS, FOUNDATIONS, HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

TEXTBOOKS, FOUNDATIONS, HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

many european education centres and history of science institutions like the symposia presented in European Society for the History of Science congresses, and the Inter–Divisional Teaching Commission of the Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science (dlmps) and the International Union for History and Philosophy of Science (iuhps) are reflecting brilliantly upon higher scientific education and its improvements in secondary level. it is unthinkable to learn and understand the scientific sense of a subject without deepening its intellectual and cultural background, e.g. history and its foundations: how is it possible to keep on teaching sciences being unaware of their origins, cultural reasons and eventual conflicts and values? And how is it possible teaching and remarking the contents and certainties of physics and mathematics as sciences not having first introduced the sensible doubt about the inadequacy and fluidity of such sciences in particular contexts?
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SCIENCE, SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

SCIENCE, SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE

the most distinguished mathematicians of the time taught to students and drew up treaties. and Joseph–Louis Lagrange (1736–1813) and Gaspard Monge (1746–1818) were among the first professors of mathematics at École Polytechnique (1794), a military school for the training of engineers. In 1794 the École Normal of Paris was also born, in 1808, the École normale supérieure Paris was founded, a school that had as its goal the training of teachers of both science and humanities. On this model, with a Napoleonic decree of 1813, it was established the first foundation of the Scuola Normale in Pisa. The attention of the French mathematicians toward applications was therefore, at least in part, due to the need of educational institutions to train technicians for the new state. Such an attitude is not found in Germany, the country that in the nineteenth century was with France at the forefront of European mathematics. On the one hand, great importance was attributed to purely theoretical disciplines, such as number theory and abstract algebra, on the other hand the natural philosophy aim to frame in the same theory at all the physical disciplines. In Germany a great engineering school eventually developed which become dominant in Europe. But interaction between scientists and engineers has exist- ed since ancient times: e.g., for the study of prototypes and machines for the society. Questions might be: when, why and how the tension between mathematics, physics, astronomy, gave rise to a new scientific discipline, the modern engineering? What is the conceptual bridge between sciences researches and the organization of technological researches in the development of the industry? Generally speaking a discussion concerning history of science and technique/ technology within society and its civilization is presented such as a discipline within the his- tory of science for understanding eventual relationship between science and the development of art crafts produced by non–recognized scientists in a certain historical time. The relationship between science and science & society and consequent civilizing by science is centred on the possibility that the society effetely developed a fundamental organization in capacity to absorb science and produce technologies (i.e., water and electrical supply, transportation systems etc.) of course and technically that lacked in the past. Subsequently, a development civilization was necessary parallel to development of the science within society? Is effetely happened that? Did scientific works develop as a response to the needs of society?
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Locke, Berkeley and philosophy of science

Locke, Berkeley and philosophy of science

In all the uses of "Analogy" Locke mentions, i.e. IV.iii.29, IV.viii.9 and IV.xvi.12, "Observation and Analogy may assist our Judgments in guessing" or help us "probably conjecture" (my emphasis) Locke is careful to associate these reasoning from observed to unobserved cases with "guessing" and "conjecture", and doesn't fail to use these words. This is significant because Locke was also careful to outline what assent such judgements would enjoy. In the Chapter "Degrees of Assent" Locke lists a descending scale of probability we should attach to statements that do not amount to demonstrative knowledge. He starts at the "highest degree of Probability ... when the general consent of all Men, in all Ages, as far as it can be known, concurs with a Man's constant and never- failing Experience in like cases ... [this is] Assurance." (IV.xvi.8) Next is "Confidence" and the next is indifferent assent to a proposition: "Thus far the matter goes easie enough." Problems arise though "when Testimonies contradict common Experience, and the reports of History and Witnesses clash with the ordinary course of Nature." (IV.xvi.9) In these cases, "this only may be said in general, That as the arguments and Proofs, pro and con, upon due Examination, nicely weighing every particular Circumstance, should to anyone appear, upon the whole matter, in a greater or less degree, to preponderate on either side, so they are fitted to produce in the Mind such different Entertainment as we call Belief, Conjecture, Guess, Doubt, Wavering, Distrust, Disbelief etc." (Ibid)
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Science in history

Science in history

whilst university funding is cut. For those of us teaching the history of science, the critiques popular in the 1980s and 1990s don’t seem to hold the same weight with students. What good is it telling an undergraduate, born in the twenty-first century, that we should be suspicious of scientific truth. They live in a world in which the President of the United States thinks the same thing, albeit for very different reasons. How then can we write the history of science in a post- communist and post-truth world? It would be a mistake, for sure, to abandon critique. Whilst some are tempted to return to the old model of history as a cheerleader for science, what we actually need is more politics, not less. My view is that the history of science needs to reengage with political thought. The cultural history of the 1990s, whilst it produced a range of important contributions, many of which I rely on in my own work, was nonetheless of its time. It also had the effect of shifting the emphasis away from political philosophy. That isn’t to say that the cultural history of science was apolitical. Far from it. The cultural history of science was wrapped up in a range of political endeavours, particularly feminism and postcolonialism. However, in placing an emphasis on culture over society and economics, the cultural history of science ended up privileging individual identities over collective experience. Much of the history of science written today, including my own, is microhistory. How to reconcile the close study of individual experience with a wider appeal to the ‘big picture’ is one of the great challenges facing historians of science. 126
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The Need for a Revolution in the Philosophy of Science

The Need for a Revolution in the Philosophy of Science

Great steps of unification by annihilation from the history of theoretical physics include: the discovery that the millions of different substances that exist are made up of different chemical combinations of under one hundred different elements; the discovery that these distinct elements are made up of atoms in turn made up of just three kinds of particle: the electron, proton and neutron; the discovery that gravitation is nothing more than the curvature of space-time; the discovery that the dozens of different hadronic particles revealed in the 1950's and 1960's are nothing more than relatively few different kinds of quarks interacting by means of the gluons associated with the strong force. Great steps of unification by synthesis include: the partial unification of space and time achieved by Einstein's special theory of relativity; the partial unification of energy and matter achieved, again, by special relativity, and enshrined in the most famous equation of modern physics: E = mc 2 ; the partial unification of the electromagnetic and so-called weak force achieved by Weinberg's and Salam's theory of quantum electroweak theory; the unification of the eight gluons of the strong force achieved by quantum chromodynamics. 17
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