Financial decisions are among the most important life-shaping decisions that people make. We review facts about ﬁnancial decisions and what cognitive and neural processes in ﬂuence them. Because of cognitive constraints and a low average level of ﬁnancial literacy, many household decisions violate sound ﬁnancial principles. Households typically have underdiversi ﬁed stock holdings and low retirement savings rates. Investors overextrapolate from past returns and trade too often. Even top corporate managers, who are typically highly educated, make decisions that are affected by overcon ﬁdence and personal history. Many of these behaviors can be explained by well-known principles from cognitive science. A boom in high-quality accumulated evidence –espe- cially how practical, low-cost ‘nudges’ can improve ﬁnancial decisions–is already giving clear guidance for balanced government regulation.
students, especially those who are seeking to improve their likelihood of admission to increasingly competitive PhD programs in psychology. The addition of a certificate in psychological assessment and growth of our neuroscience area will enhance this appeal. Our program offers an opportunity for these students to make themselves better candidates for doctoral study in psychology and other health and human services areas. In 2012, 90 posters were made and distributed to psychology departments in states surrounding Connecticut, as well as in NJ and PA. The opportunity for the School of Graduate Studies to continue this marketing and recruitment should be exploited, which will require a marketing campaign with updated materials, billboards, email blasts, and social media.
Angell’s definition of state personhood is “the assumption that the political delimitation coincides with the economic and moral delimitation, that in short a State is the embodiment of ‘the whole people’s conception of what is true, etc.’” (207). He is right in arguing that a state embodies not a homogeneous, but always a heterogeneous and highly diverse, if not contradictory, set of ‘conceptions’. Since 1945 and particularly following the global wave of decolonization, highly developed nation-states have encountered new challenges to their composition posed by large-scale migration and increasing diversity (Castles 1995). In the celebratory spirit of the ‘end of history’ pervasive in the early 1990s, some regarded the rise of globalization, in-country diversity and international networks as foreboding the decline of the nation-state as the primary form of international organization (Taylor 1996; Lash & Urry 1994). Although Mann (1997), identifying global capitalism, environmental danger, identity politics, and post-nuclear geopolitics as the main issues of concern to the nation-state, found that the expansion of global and migrant networks comes at the expense of weakening local rather than national interaction networks, the high internal diversity of states, whether surface-level (demographic) or deep-level (attitudinal) (Harrison et al. 1998) cannot be ignored when assessing state personhood.
originated in response to modern advances in brain measurements. While the substantive overlap between neuroscience and cognitive psychology is obvious, their methodology and techniques of measurement, not to mention history and overall orientation, can be profoundly different. 8 The creation of cognitive neuroscience was intended to gain strength from such variations, but it too is not without its detractors. 9 This symposium’s authors do a good job of avoiding the mire of potential interdisciplinary conflict as well as recognizing the limits of applying any brain science to law.
Another obvious reason for the preceding challenges involves the historic shortage of faculty with graduate education in I-O psychology. Very few peo- ple until now have obtained a PhD in I-O either in Greece or abroad. How- ever, this is slowly changing. It should also be noted that a small number of I-O psychologists are based in business schools, where they teach I-O psy- chology, organizational behavior, and human resources management. Almost all undergraduate business-related studies entail courses in HRM and/or orga- nizational behavior, and a few years ago the first and so far the only master’s in HRM was established at the Athens University of Economics and Busi- ness. Contrary to the departments of psychology, Greek business schools have realized the necessity of recruiting I-O faculty members in order to teach and conduct research in the field. As a result, I-O is now a core area of research and study in most large Greek business schools.
Second, applied sport psychology emerged thanks to the noteworthy work of Bruce Ogilvie and Tom Tutko, two clinical psychologists of San Jose University (Williams & Straub, 1998). After conducting extensive research on athletes’ personalities, Ogilvie and Tutko wrote the book Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them (1966) to guide coaches on how to help their players succeed. In addition, in 1969 they created the first sport-specific psychological test to measure athlete motivations and predict athletic success, which they called Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) (Williams & Straub, 1998). This test was created to asses elite athletes in particular and consisted of 190 multiple-choice items addressing eleven different personality characteristics. Half of the items addressed what Ogilvie and Tutko labeled as desire factors, including drive, leadership, determination, aggression, and organization; while the other half addressed emotional factors including trust, coach-ability, emotionality, self-confidence, mental toughness, and conscience development. The Athletic Motivation Inventory (AMI) has become the most widely referenced inventory in the history of sport psychology and it is still used currently (Warren, 1893). Finally, Ogilvie and Tutko worked as consultants for several college and professional teams such as Los Angeles Lakers and Dallas Cowboys. For all his extensive work, Ogilvie is considered the father of applied sport psychology in North America (Williams & Straub, 1998).
School of Science and Engineering, Promotion and Tenure Committee (2013 – Present) Department of Psychology, Ph.D. Admissions Committee, Chair (2012 – Present) Department of Psychology, Graduate Training Committee, Member (2007 – Present) Neuroscience Program, Doctoral Program Steering Committee, Member (2009 – Present) Neuroscience Program, Master’s Program Admissions Committee, Member (2007 - Present)
recombine ideas to create “emergence”, with a leader’s role being both to create top-down control and also to create environments that allow for instability and allow emergence to thrive (Marion and Uhl-Bien: 2012, p. 150). The ELDP programs incorporate activities including strategy sessions looking at economic and social futures, stakeholder and social network analysis and understanding how relationships and organisational culture, along with organisational systems and structures contribute to effective strategy in complexity. Positive organisational psychology has also been influential in the ELDP programs in supporting shifts in perspective, language and engagement of stakeholders.
2000-2004 Organizer, Wyeth-Ayerst Distinguished Lecture Series 1994-2002 Undergraduate Honors Committee, Dept. of Psychology 1997-2001 Biomedical Research Advisory Committee, Rutgers University 1998-2000 Undergraduate Advising Committee, Dept. of Psychology 1997-2000 University Committee on Student Judicial Affairs
Ad hoc Manuscript Refereeing: Acta Psychologica; Addiction Biology; Behavioral and Brain Sciences; Behavioural Brain Research; Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews; Brain and Cognition; Brain Research; Cerebral Cortex; Cognition, Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience; Cognitive Psychology; Cognitive Science; Cortex; Current Directions in Psychological Science, Experimental Brain Research; Frontiers in Neuroscience; Frontiers in Psychology; Human Brain Mapping; Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition; Learning and Memory; Journal of Neuroscience; Journal of
domain being largely unhelpful to the theories and findings of the other. I will demonstrate that such a view is false, and is not supported by empirical research. There is strong empirical evidence that as we develop more detailed psychological theories and models, it puts essential constraints on what the neural mechanisms of the system are, and how they operate. Likewise, the more we know about the underlying neurological architecture of a system, the more it constrains the sorts of psychological generalizations we can make about it. As such, while psychology and neuroscience will not converge towards a single unifying account, neither can they stand apart from each other. This is not a problem that must be overcome,
Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities There is also a growing need for collaborations between neuroscience, psychology and education that embrace insights and understanding from each perspective, and that involve educators and scientists working together at each stage. Such collaborations are not straightforward, since the philosophies of education and natural science are very different – with various forms of psychology, in a sense, bridging the two. Educational research, with its roots in social science, places strong emphasis upon the importance of social context and the interpretation of meaning. Natural science, on the other hand, is more concerned with controlled experimental testing of hypotheses and the development of generalisable cause-effect mechanisms. This suggests that collaborative research projects may need to extend the cognitive neuroscience model of brain->mind->behaviour illustrated on page 17, to incorporate processes of social construction pertinent to learning. Although challenging, such interdisciplinary projects may be the most effective way to co-construct and communicate concepts involving neuroscience, psychology and education that are both scientifically sound and educationally relevant.
Although the event was far from perfect, on the whole it felt like a success. Participant feedback was positive and over a third of the group returned for the following year’s event. Many of the sessions were valuable, and all were filmed to become educational resources for later use. This summit facilitated my own education since I was forced to study and learn about new areas of neuroscience. Overall, I had achieved my goal of gathering an assortment of neuroscientists. Still, I had generated fewer interesting connections than I had expected, as some of the participating scientists tended to be a bit intellectually insular. In summary, the main outcomes from the first Summit were that I increased my ability to understand and explain neuroscience, I accessed new research and insights and I was forced to organize the ideas into a coherent model.
There is a wide variety of staining techniques. In neuroscience, perhaps the most familiar is Golgi staining. For reasons still unknown, this technique stains only a few cell bodies in the tissue in their entirety, thereby allowing a detailed visualization of individual neurons (note a Golgi stain can take several months to complete!). Other techniques include myelin stains for visualizing fiber bundles, degenerating-axon stain which specifically stains dying axons, and several techniques for cell body (Nissl) staining. In this lab we will be using cresyl violet, a Nissl stain that colors cell bodies a brilliant violet. Nissl is a term used by classical cytologists for the endoplasmic reticulum. Since all cells contain ER, cresyl violet will stain both neurons and glia. An outline of the procedure consists of three steps:
In recent years the interest level of how neurosci- ence can improve design has increased. This research first gained ground in 2003 when the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture was formed. This group includes architects, neuroscientists, behavioral psychol- ogists, and various members of academics that wish to pursue connections between architecture and the human brain. At a recent ANFA convention, topics such as “how to improve the design of therapy rooms for people with post-traumatic stress disorder to how virtual reality can be used to affect mood, and to how the brain’s spatial mapping may have influenced the orthogonal design of city layouts”(Berg).