M1995 E-Governance （2/0）: This course introduces the history, challenges, cases, and trends of e- governance. Several topics will be covered: 1） Taiwan’s current e-government initiatives; 2 ） Program evaluation methods of e-government; 3） Online service delivery systems; 4） e-democracy; and 5） The digital divide. The main purpose of this course is to provide the concepts and methods for public managers to succeed in using ICTs to improve public service quality.
Professor F.F. Ridley groups these societal influences together forming what he calls the 'external influences' which make up a "generalised model of the influences on a bureaucratic system". "The constitutional order, national history, the structure of social power and the educational system, prevailing economic * factors (and) the impact of current politics" make up the external influences, whereas internal influences include "organisational forms, formal rules and policy procedures". Though this chapter will not rely on such a simple dichotomy to classify the various influences on the bureaucratic culture in Mann, it is a useful distinction to make because it illustrates that pressures are exerted from many angles. The problem of this approach is that the arbitrariness of a simple dichotomy between internal and external factors can distort the analysis as many factors can come under either heading.
Local culture affects history, state and therefore governance (Bratsis, 2006). Most European nations therefore attained their current structural, cultural and overall governance state through fighting and struggle, predominantly aiming at liberty and independence. Greece and UK are just another two examples of the above. Arguably, the former has struggled for very prolonged periods and it is currently in a developing stage whereas the latter has been long developed, a development mostly associated with the industrial revolution. The above mentioned stages of development are also mirrored in the affairs and governance of their respective public sectors. In that respect one of the strategies utilised within the European Union is to appropriately position the public sector to create the suitable structural, legislative, cultural, and economical infrastructures to provide better services and to link citizens in the member states and with the rest of the world (Polychronakis et al, 2008). In real terms this is particularly complicated and increasingly difficult (Schutter et al, 2001). One can only speculate how easy would that become in “Virtuality” i.e. in a virtual public sector environment where citizens could use home internet facilities to “walk” in to a tax office, “talk” to a virtual public servant and other fellow citizens and receive services at 2 o’ clock in the morning, if they so wish?
As more programs are operated by nonprofit organizations, public managers must under- stand the “third sector.” This course provides an overview of the history, structure, and role of the nonprofit sector, including how nonprofit agencies differ from public and for-profit entities in mission, governance, funding, and staffing, and will consider cur- rent issues facing the nonprofit sector.
Examines current issues and problems in public sector human re- sources management. Draws from an agenda that includes: civil service systems and alternatives, equal employment opportunity, af- firmative action, public employee organizations, comparable-worth and other job analyses, pensions and fringe-benefits, career-ladders, mentoring, the validity of performance evaluation and entrance ex- aminations. Permits an in-depth examination of selected issues in- troduced in the required Human Resources Management course. Prerequisite: PAD 702
The governance courses familiarise students with traditional and current concepts in policymaking. They address the challenges of working across sectors and borders, between institutions in one sector and within organisa- tions themselves. Students gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of national insti- tutions as they coordinate with international networks, like the EU. How do they constrain or enable enterprises, social groups, and state actors? Students learn about decision-making rationality, the interplay between principals and agents, institutional design and capac- ity, public-private partnerships and regulatory regimes.
All county health departments provide certain core public health services. These basic services include assessing the health of the community, disease control and prevention, family health services and health education. Only 37 local health departments provide environmental health services while 21 local health departments rely on the NYS Department of Health (NYSDOH) to provide those services in their counties.
The process of agreeing the work objectives has much wider meaning as it indicates a gradual change from the classic hierarchical relationship between a civil servant and his/her line manager towards a modern management model, where implementation of tasks is seen as one’s contribution to the fulfilment of the agreed objective, and not merely as implementation of line manager’s orders. In that sense, the entire concept of publicadministration is changed from a traditional hierarchical model towards the model of a modern organisation, which is managed by applying the management by objectives based on a co-operative management model. These changes require a different profile of managers and more responsible behaviour of all levels of management in the civil service and the change of the overall performance appraisal process. Practically, setting of work objectives requires the knowledge of the job description for a given position and of the organisational annual and six-monthly work plan of the civil service body. This means that, based on the act defining the internal organisation and systematisation of work positions, the job description which is of general nature is to be concretised through the work objectives to be achieved by the person working on a given position during the performance appraisal period, in relation to the previously adopted work plan of a civil service body. In that sense, the evaluator has to analyse each individual work position in relation to the established objectives of the civil service body (i.e. its organisational units), and identify the key activities and behaviour that will, to the greatest degree, contribute to the fulfilment of the objectives of a certain work position and the civil service body as a whole. In addition, the evaluator should take into account all other factors which influence the fulfilment of the objective: are the objectives realistically achievable, are the factors of influence beyond the control of a person who has to fulfil the objectives, what circumstances could affect good or bad results, etc.
The Master of PublicAdministration (MPA) degree prepares individuals for a career in public service. WVU’s Department of PublicAdministration offers the only nationally accredited MPA program in West Virginia. The MPA degree prepares individuals to work in government and nonprofit agencies to develop and implement public policies and programs. The MPA program offers flexible class times, full and part-time enrollment, small class settings, and opportunities to work directly with community and government organizations through team-based class projects, the internship experience, professional development activities and community service.
Transcripts: Transcripts with the graduate degree posted are available upon clearance of the degree by the evaluator. However, transcripts showing the degree are not automatically sent to the student upon graduation. Transcript requests can only be done in person or by mail. Coordinators/directors should refer students to the Public Contact Window in Joyal Administration Building or the transcripts Web site <www.csufresno.edu/are/forms/> to print the transcript request form. A fee of $4.00 for the first copy, $2.00 for each additional copy through ten.
However, in regard to legal employment relationship, even after the transition, until the year 1996 in Albania there has been no difference between the public administration’s employee and other working relationships. They were all regulated based to the Labor Code. Civil Service Commission, as a special institution for the civil service’s work- relations, was firstly established by Law 8059 dated 21.03.1996 "On Civil Service in the Republic of Albania”. For the first time this year it was set up the concept of civil servants. Implementation of this law had many problems in practice, because the Civil Service Commission had a conflicting interest task , as it was the selection of candidates to be appointed as civil servants and also the protection of their rights. It was a bias institution, hanging through the appointment of its members by the Council of Ministers. This law was later repealed by Law Nr. 8549, dated 11.11.1999 "On the Status of the Civil Servants". The new law corrects dependence of the Civil Service Commission, turning it into an independent institution, whose
Apart from detecting and indicating corruption in publicadministration a key issue in order for justice to prevail against crime is the detection and bringing to justice its perpetrators. The results of this paper prove that in this regard, despite the results achieved, regarding police and prosecution work were manifested significant stagnations. These stagnations usually were expressed in the investigation of senior public officers (ministers, deputies, judges, prosecutors etc.) “Thus, according to the Kosovo Police data for the period of time 2008-2013 were filed 2467 criminal reports related to the corruption phenomenon in publicadministration. Among the investigated persons, according to the used data, (excluding this year cases which have been discussed above) were included only the names of a deputy prime minister (to whom the investigation was later dismissed) and a former minister, two prosecutors and three judges. 41
Regarding the third research method (the fi eld interview), elite interview in Marx- ist-Leninist states is indispensable as governmental information is neither publicized fully nor in a timely manner. The authors had therefore conducted 720 in-depth inter- views between 1983 and 2017, involving 835 state cadres and academicians in Baotou (Inner Mongolia), Beijing, Chengdu, Dalian, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Hechi (Guangxi), Lanzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Suzhou, Taiyuan, Wuhan, Xi’an, Zhengzhou and Zhuhai, covering most major cities in China. The authors consider that the es- sence of all public administrative phenomena is ‘responsible purposive authority application’ (RPAA) and that RPAA is a function of various forces (i.e., socio-cul- tural, institutional, political, organizational, technological, executive, cognitive, and human, which can be linked up to construct an acronym, ‘SIPOTECH’), which act in concert to generate interactive and confi gurative contextual eﬀ ects on the general, specifi c and peculiar types of RPAA. It is therefore imperative to use interviewing to generate all available data and evidence about the SIPOTECH dynamics of RPAA. Thus, semi-structured interview, lasting from 30 minutes to three hours, was used to collect as much information and insights as possible from the interviewees. Further- more, instead of journalistically focusing on ‘what’ had happened ‘where’, ‘when’ and for ‘what’ reasons, interviewees were asked to refl ect on some critical admin- istrative events to explore the underlying behavioral logics and causal mechanisms of SIPOTECH forces. To ensure that the interviewing fi ndings are valid, the authors had used information and evidence collected from document analysis and fi eld ob- servation to triangulate. When discrepancy was observed, more interviews were then conducted to clarify.
creation of Taxpayers Education offices since the beginning of TAK work, information of taxpayers about the procedures of application of VAT became easier as well as for final customers as the last load carriers of VAT. Reason for mobilizing staff and all legal infrastructure, is the nature of VAT, which as a tax does not endure slow, unprofessional administration. Tax payers and the general public is informed in time with the reasons of Value Added Tax implementation, the tax advantages compared with taxes it has replaced, such as the sales tax. Important is the experience of Great Britain and Germany, with the best experts in this field who are practically involved in various international organizations, fortunately providing professional and technical support for Kosovo, too. This expert help is being also used by the Customs, which is also one of the main actors in collecting VAT at the border. It is characteristic that the Kosovo Customs Department has moved forward, regarding organization, operation and administration of VAT. It should be noted that in terms of the generated expenses about education, for VAT implementation lead countries like Korea, and with regard to the longer term of the intensive campaign to make VAT functional is Great Britain. In Sweden, VAT implementation costs were enormous, more than 3% of the revenues collected from VAT, which exceeds the cost of any other countries in Europe, whereas in other states this percentage goes up to 2%. There are no such parameters for Kosovo as this tax was applied from the initial phase of TAK establishment in parallel with other taxes, but one thing is sure that there was an immediate need for staff growth to administer and manage the tax, according to estimates TAK today employs 757 workers at all levels, which means that each year about 63 new employees have been recruited. VAT administration costs in Kosovo are considered not too large, due to the high threshold of revenues in VAT (€ 50,000), while in many European countries the threshold is 10,000 € and above. In the increased costs influence the application of reduced rates, which in Kosovo is only 16% standard rate with some exemptions for certain goods. In European countries apart from the standard and zero rates, two other reduced rates are applied, not less than 5% and no higher than 8%, depending on which items the country gives priority to. The Value Added Tax (VAT) was applied on 1 July 2001, being used and applicable in almost all the countries of Europe and beyond.
Signalons que l’intégrité est une qualité attribuée à des personnes dépourvues de préjugés et qui ne manifestent pas de préférence aveugle pour une partie. Elle permet à toute société d’éviter la déliquescence morale. Et c’est ce qu’affirme J. Rawls  dans le propos suivant : « (...) en période de doute envers la société et de perte de confiance dans les valeurs traditionnelles, il y a une tendance à revenir aux vertus de l'intégrité ». Car, poursuit-il, « les vertus de l'intégrité sont des vertus qui font partie des qualités propres à des personnes libres ». Dans la même perspective, A. Piraux affirme : « Tout processus d’examen d’un service public requiert une analyse de ses valeurs essentielles, traduction des choix relatifs à la manière dont le service public et ses employés doivent fonctionner » . La justice conduit donc à poser des limites que nulle finalité individuelle ne pourrait franchir, ce qui permet à la coopération sociale de se faire à l’avantage de chacun (le principe d’égalité des chances) et de protéger les plus vulnérables (principe de différence).
Education system was an important area in Ancient Rome for the publicadministration. Governmental employees were one of the first groups to get the most education focus. However, the goal of education did not start as relevant to the public policy, but, as a way to unite the empire and move away from tradition practices. Citizens of Rome recognized this fact and continued to educate their children at home. “The purpose of education in ancient Rome was the perseverance of the established pattern of Roman life. Being practically minded, the Romans had no use for pure philosophy and were suspicious of it, believing it could be used as a method of dissolving tradition. The opposite was true of ethical and political theorizing. They were deeply concerned with human happiness and knowledge was to them the means to such happiness"(Dicicco, 13) There were two kinds of learning that a government official could participate: one was to provide general education, writing and reading for upper grade office workers, and the other, was more simplified and was for lower office personal. “Books and public libraries were also by-products of the new development in educational beliefs. However, the most significant change from the Republic to the Empire was Rome's recognition of the need for a well- trained civil service which required an educated populace. By the second century CE, the ratio of illiterates in the population was at an all-time low despite the tremendous population growth of the Roman Empire and this growth required a literate public service to maintain the city's operation. Further, the increasing number of civil servants supported the continuous expansion of the Empire. Civil servants social mobility and educational attainments valued as a means of advancement. The Roman civil service included doctors and architects and the upper division included the magistrates.”(Deciccio, 25) To get a job in the publicadministration became more and more
governance structure for which new models and concepts need to be developed. Sabel and Zeitlin (2008) in their discussion of experimentalist governance which sheds light on the deliberative aspects of EU governance argue that it is not as distinct as perceived and that similarities can be found both above (e.g. WTO) and below (e.g. the US) the EU level. This observation reinforces our argument that theoretical frameworks from domestic and EU public policy and administration can be adapted and applied to global and transnational dynamics. Three theoretical paths have been developed at the EU level that can be explored. First, multi-level governance as well as networked governance and experimentalist governance attempt to explain the way a non-hierarchical system which is by large based on consensus between various decision-making bodies (i.e. European Council and European Parliament) and with diverse levels of implementation (i.e. national, regional or local) functions (e.g. Bache 2008, Sabel and Zeitlin 2008). Second, the four neo institutionalisms (historical, rational, sociological and discursive) have been central in the Europeanization literature which discusses the way institutions, policies and norms are first developed at the EU level and then transferred at the domestic level (e.g. Radaelli 2003, Knill 2001). The uploading and downloading of policies from the national to the EU level and back to the national is a useful heuristic to use outside the EU (Boerzel 2002). Third, network analysis, including ACF and epistemic communities, has been popular in EU studies, in an attempt to map and to understand the multiplicity different resources and interests of the actors (NGOs, interest groups, lobby organisations) that participate in policy processes (e.g. Richardson 2006, Rozbicka 2013). While EU studies are distinct from studies on global policy making and transnational administration, they offer an insight on how we can explore power in non- hierarchical systems and the role of diverse actors and levels in policy implementation. The bureaucratization of EU policy making processes can provide lessons of what not to do at transnational administration while the frequent achievement of consensus between member- states, EU institutions and interest groups can be seen as an example of successfully managing a complex governance system.
and regional districts for the management of certain services of the state . Assuming that the development and strengthening of local democracy ensures the stability of the democratic regime within a State, the responsible public authorities, with regulating duties, have built a legislative framework to allow the emergence of institutions and local public authorities, have regulated the relations between them and other organizational structures at county and central level, have provided, at local administrative level, material and financial resources, and also human resources for the effective exercise of their work and for provision of public services to citizens. However, given that local authorities operate within the administrative-territorial units of the unitary state, there have also been imposed a number of rules that have established a control of the state over the activity of autonomous local authorities, which is exercised solely under the conditions and limitations imposed by law. As highlighted in the literature , “strengthening local powers must not jeopardize national unity, its intangible nature...”. It is certain that this framework is not a perfect one, but it has ensured, despite some of its flaws - revealed by the administrative practice, the emergence and development of local publicadministration, whose guiding light is the principle of local autonomy. With the development of the legislative framework, this principle has seen a multiplication and diversification of its meanings . Certainly, a genuine local democracy, according to citizens’ legitimate rights and freedoms, would not be possible without the existence of two basic principles, the principle of local autonomy and the principle of decentralization , the latter allowing the territorial decentralization of public power without affecting the unitary character of the state. 
According to Dangana and Dongs (2011) „Pay is the value of the job according to the level of responsibility and its degree of difficulty. Pay then can be said to be combination of value of the basic wages or salaries plus the fringe benefits. It is important therefore to note that wages and salaries alone do not constitute pay. Some of the fringe benefits as applicable to public sector and institutions of higher learning are classified in two categories. Category A is general fringe benefit while Category B is basically for the teaching staff of institutions of higher learning.