History of Puerto Rico

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Late Holocene fire history and charcoal decay in subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico

Late Holocene fire history and charcoal decay in subtropical dry forests of Puerto Rico

residence time of soil pyrogenic carbon appeared to vary regionally (Ohlson et al. 2009). The average lifespan of charcoal in the subtropical dry forest soils of Puerto Rico is longer than in boreal forest soils (652 yr; Ohlson et al. 2009) and in Russian steppe soils (182 to 541 yr; Hammes et al. 2008), but shorter than in Australian savannah soils (1300 to 2600 yr; Lehmann et al. 2008). We employed a novel approach to estimate charcoal decay rate by using maximum charcoal size in each age class over time, based on the negative exponential decay function typically found in microbial activity with the as- sumption that the initial maximum size of charcoal from each age class is relatively invariant over time. Our ap- proach is more rational than Frégeau et al.’s (2015) method of estimating charcoal decay rate using charcoal abundance in each age class over time, which assumed that the numbers of initial charcoal fragments originat- ing from fires were the same for each 200 yr age class. It is well understood that charcoal abundance differs among age classes, not only because charcoal decays, but also due to the fact that fire frequency and intensity vary over time as climate conditions change (Frégeau et al. 2015). Variation of fire frequency and intensity was exactly the purpose of various studies reconstructing paleoclimate and documenting human disturbance (Caffrey and Horn 2014). Our data suggest that charcoal
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Make Puerto Rico Great Again? An Analysis of Hurricane Maria Relief Aid in the Context of United States – Puerto Rico Relations

Make Puerto Rico Great Again? An Analysis of Hurricane Maria Relief Aid in the Context of United States – Puerto Rico Relations

Next to political and economic domination, the United States also exerted its hegemony over Puerto Rico through culture and science. 146 The United States believed it necessary to culturally assimilate Puerto Ricans to American principles and traditions in preparation of self- government. Therefore, it initiated an Americanization campaign to uproot the Puerto Rican culture. English replaced Spanish as the official language and American traditions, customs and celebrations were introduced through the educational system. This became the principle means of Americanization. 147 The system was based on an assumed racial and cultural superiority and followed the ideology of psychologist and educator Granville Stanley Hall, the first president of the American Psychological Association. 148 He believed that “pre-adolescent children were nonreasoning and should be treated as savages in need of charismatic authority.” 149 Through schools, ideas about American spirit and national identity could be instilled into the hearts and minds of Puerto Rican children. 150 They were, for instance, ordered by the Commissioner of Education to start the school day with singing The Star-Spangled Banner, saluting the American flag, and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. 151 The campaign also promoted admiration for American history, symbols and holidays like 4 th of July and Thanksgiving. 152 The educational effort was furthermore driven by economic motives, because improvements in education would
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Patch dynamics and Permeability of Fragmented Habitat in Southwestern Puerto Rico.

Patch dynamics and Permeability of Fragmented Habitat in Southwestern Puerto Rico.

Our findings indicated that occupancy was consistently higher in the forest reserves and forested matrix than in the urban and agricultural matrices. This pattern was also consistent with the forest affinities of most of our focal species (e.g., Antillean Euphonia, Puerto Rican Bullfinch, Puerto Rican Vireo, Puerto Rican Woodpecker). We interpret the lower occupancy rates in urban and agricultural matrices of these species as an indicator of species’ sensitivity to human-modified landscapes. This provides a stark contrast to the Black-faced Grassquit, which is adept at using open habitats (Raffaele et al. 1998). The grassquit’s occupancy rates were high across all matrices. Occupancy of Shiny Cowbirds, a brood parasite, did not exhibit a strong tendency towards in any particular matrix type. We were only able to incorporate one habitat quality covariate into our models, but it did not have a strong influence on extinction rates. We speculate that these results may reflect the species’ life history trait of searching and tracking potential hosts (Cruz et al. 1985), rather than engaging in habitat selection. Moreover, the cowbird is adept at exploiting human modified landscapes (e.g., pastures, edges, fragmented forests; Cruz et al. 1985; Lugo et al. 2012).
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NIBS ACCREDITATION VISIT: INTER AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, METROPOLITAN CAMPUS, SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

NIBS ACCREDITATION VISIT: INTER AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO, METROPOLITAN CAMPUS, SAN JUAN, PUERTO RICO

In recognition that Puerto Rico might not be familiar to “outsiders”, an orientation session was arranged for the Panel specifically to provide some background to the island and this included very informative and entertaining lectures from Professors Acevedo and Freyre from the University on the history, politics and economy of Puerto Rico that put into context the role of the University both domestically and regionally.

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Curious In-Laws: the Legal Connections Between Montana and Puerto Rico

Curious In-Laws: the Legal Connections Between Montana and Puerto Rico

In that sense, this Article is both descriptive and normative. As to the descriptive element, Part II of this Article will analyze the different meeting points between Puerto Rican and Montana law. These connections tran- scend mere comparative law techniques. They are organic connections that require each jurisdiction to look to the other as part of the history behind particular legal sources. In other words, ordinary tools of interpretation re- quire this matchup. Regarding the normative argument, Part III argues that, precisely because of the repeating existence of a legal link between both jurisdictions, the use of Puerto Rican law in Montana—and vice-versa— should not be limited to the particular instances of actual relation as a mat- ter of pure hermeneutics. On the contrary, I propose that these multiple connections require a more formal interaction between both jurisdictions, particularly regarding the interpretation and application of legal sources. Each should be the other’s go-to jurisdiction when engaging in comparative law.
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PROMESA, Puerto Rico and the American Empire

PROMESA, Puerto Rico and the American Empire

internationally competitive investment site for U.S. capital. Between 1948 and 1970 the firms that migrated to Puerto Rico were primarily low wage labor intensive manufacturing industries. The period of greatest growth was between 1960 and 1965 (Ruiz 2016). By 1970 labor-intensive manufacturing was no longer viable and policy makers promoted the development of oil refining and petrochemical industries (1970-1975). This risky strategy, which was dependent on cheap petroleum pricing, could not be sustained. The third phase (1976-1996) commenced when Congress enacted Section 936. The law was designed to attract capital-intensive firms (“de alto contenido de capital”) in electronics, scientific instruments and pharmaceuticals (United Nations. Commisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe 2004). The law was enacted after the recession of 1973-1976, in which Puerto Rico “suffered one of the most serious economic setbacks in its modern history”(Ruiz 1976). Twenty years later President Clinton decided to phase out Section 936 by 2006. The impact of Section 936 firms on Puerto Rico’s economy will be discussed below. Here I will discuss the fiscal and budgetary factors underlining the Clinton administration’s decision to terminate Section 936 (General Accounting Office 1993).
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OCCURRENCE AND INCIDENCE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PUERTO RICO

OCCURRENCE AND INCIDENCE OF PAPAYA RINGSPOT VIRUS IN PUERTO RICO

Cultivation of papaya has historically – and to this day – taken place primarily in the South region of Puerto Rico, a coastal area of low elevations (0-200m) (Gobierno de Puerto Rico, Oficina de Gerencia y Presupuesto, n.d.; USDA NASS, 2012). In the late 1970’s, after the decline of the sugar industry, the government of Puerto Rico changed their development model for the island, making agriculture one of the central aspects of the new economy. It acquired agricultural land previously used for sugar plantations, which were spread across the island. Different regions of Puerto Rico were made exclusively for growing a specific type of crop. For the South region, fruits were farmed intensively along with vegetables (Carro-Figueroa, 2002). Papaya was among the fruits that were cultivated in this region. Twenty years earlier to this change in agricultural practices, PRSV had been reported in the South region (Adsuar, 1948; Riollano, 1951) and was spreading to the other parts of the island (Rodríguez, 1978). The intensive farming of papaya in the South created an environment of high disease pressure and inoculum. Intensification in agriculture is a factor, among others, that drive virus emergence by facilitating encounters and host movements (Jones, 2009).
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Puerto Rico Department of Justice Division of External Resources

Puerto Rico Department of Justice Division of External Resources

The increase of drug trafficking activities brings an increase in financial crimes. Smugglers move bulk cash using the same routes they use to move drug loads. In the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, DEA currency seizures increased from $1.5 million in 2012 to $2.9 million in FY2013.Traffickers also launder illicit proceeds to avoid moving large amounts of bulk currency. According to the 2015 Puerto Rico/ Virgin Island HIDTA threat assessment, leaders of high profile money laundering organizations based in Central and South American countries maintain money laundering cells or components in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cells launder the illicit proceeds by multiple methods including the use of financial institutions, money remitters, and shell corporations to structure bank deposits and money order purchases to avoid reporting requirements.
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Sediment loss and its cause in Puerto Rico watersheds

Sediment loss and its cause in Puerto Rico watersheds

Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threat- ened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient load, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies (Haycock and Muscutt, 1995; Verho- even et al., 2006). Puerto Rico (PR) faces considerable chal- lenges regarding sustainable land use and current land use effects on adjacent coastal ecosystems and their services. Previous studies in PR have shown that sediment contami- nants have increased 5- to 10-fold since pre-colonial levels, with a 2- to 3-fold increase in the last 40–50 years (Sturm et al., 2012). The increased sediment contamination could orig- inate from anthropogenic activities such as agriculture and urban development, or from natural erosion (Tong and Chen, 2002; Gellis, 1993, 2013). The primary concern regarding increased sediment load to reservoirs is that sediment depo-
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CÁMARA DE COMERCIO DE PUERTO RICO. Rosa M. Rodríguez Executive Director-Tax Department Ernst & Young Puerto Rico LLC

CÁMARA DE COMERCIO DE PUERTO RICO. Rosa M. Rodríguez Executive Director-Tax Department Ernst & Young Puerto Rico LLC

• Ernst & Young refers to the global organization of member firms of Ernst &.. Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity.[r]

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Religious Fanaticism in Puerto Rico:                         An Interdenominational Pilot Study

Religious Fanaticism in Puerto Rico: An Interdenominational Pilot Study

The literature points out that there is a relationship between depression and religious practice, although it has been little studied in the general world so far [13]. Therefore, the exploration of the possible role of religion in the mediation of depressive symptomatology is supremely important as an alternative for the psychological treatment of prevention of this disease [13]. In 2005 Perez et al, conducted a study that found a significant negative correlation between the level of depression and actively belonging to a religious or spiritual group, both in the sample of men and women [13]. In addition, they found that the level of depression in women is significantly higher than men, and that religious practice as a form of social support is also significantly more used by women. However, Camacho, Gonzalez, Buelna, Emory, Talavera, Castañeda, & Issasi performed a multinomial logistic regression analysis that showed a significant difference in the class of anxious depression present in the Hispanic/Latino background groups after controlling age, gender, language of preference education and income. In this study, it was found that individuals of Puerto Rican origin had greater prevalence of anxious-depressive symptomatology compared to individuals from Mexico [14].
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SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT For CITIBUILDER 401(k) PLAN FOR PUERTO RICO This is a summary of the annual report for Citibuilder 401(k) Plan for Puerto Rico,

SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT For CITIBUILDER 401(k) PLAN FOR PUERTO RICO This is a summary of the annual report for Citibuilder 401(k) Plan for Puerto Rico,

• insurance information, including sales commissions paid by insurance carriers; To obtain a copy of the full annual report, or any part thereof, write or call the plan administrator [r]

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Gold MasterCard (only for Puerto Rico) Guide to Benefits

Gold MasterCard (only for Puerto Rico) Guide to Benefits

Benefits to you: These benefits apply only to MasterCard cardholders whose cards are issued by U.S. financial institutions. The United States is defined as the fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. No person or entity other than the Gold MasterCard cardholder shall have any legal or equitable right, remedy, or claim for benefits, insurance proceeds and damages under or arising out of these programs. These benefits do not apply if your card privileges have been cancelled. However, insurance benefits will still apply for any benefit you were eligible for prior to the date that your account is suspended or cancelled, subject to the terms and conditions of coverage.
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PUERTO RICO S GROWTH AND MACROECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

PUERTO RICO S GROWTH AND MACROECONOMIC SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

institutional reforms, and debt restructuring. While there can be choices as to precisely which taxes or expenditures to raise or cut, there can be little or no choice as to the magnitude of the needed changes. Likewise, structural measures will need to be sufficiently far reaching to put business on notice that a business-friendly Puerto Rico is open for business. And institutional reforms, to enforce budgetary discipline, to provide good and timely

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Puerto Rico Criminal Justice System Strategic Plan

Puerto Rico Criminal Justice System Strategic Plan

One area where efforts are currently focused is the development of information systems and technology resources. The State Prosecutors Office, the State Minors Prosecutors Office, the Courts and the P.R. Police are among the criminal justice system agencies engaged in the development of new systems and technologies. Other agencies are aware of the need to develop or update their systems so as to be more efficient and effective and will be working toward that goal in the next few years. One of these agencies is the Department of Correction and Rehabilitation which must develop new technologies to provide a secure environment in its institutions. The Puerto Rico Criminal Justice Information System is giving support to all agencies in this effort.
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ABO Hemolytic Disease in Puerto Rico and North Carolina

ABO Hemolytic Disease in Puerto Rico and North Carolina

A prospective study was carried out at the University of Puerto Rico Hospital (UPRH) and at the North Carolina Baptist Hospital (NCBH) in order to establish the incidence of ABO hemolyti[r]

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COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO

COMMONWEALTH OF PUERTO RICO

The fiscal stability of the Commonwealth’s health insurance program is one of the most significant budgetary challenges facing the Commonwealth, especially if neither the availability of ACA funds is renewed nor the CAP imposed on Medicaid matching funds is removed. In view of the current funding disparity between the Commonwealth with respect to the states, the Commonwealth is intensifying its efforts to promote Congress to renew ACA funding. The Resident Commissioner is also involved in these efforts and recently members of the private and public sector formed the Puerto Rico Healthcare Crisis Coalition. However, it is not possible to predict the likelihood that such efforts will succeed. Thus, the Commonwealth will continue evaluating the fiscal structure of the program taking into consideration the current federal funding depletion estimates. To the extent these efforts are unsuccessful; it is unlikely that the Commonwealth would be able to assume a significantly higher portion of the cost of the health insurance program. If the Commonwealth is unable to reduce these costs, it may be required to adopt some of the emergency measures described above in “RISK FACTORS - The Commonwealth may need to implement administrative and emergency measures in fiscal year 2016 and thereafter, which could include a moratorium on the payment of debt service or debt adjustment.”
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Fruit neighborhoods and interactions between birds and plants in Puerto Rico

Fruit neighborhoods and interactions between birds and plants in Puerto Rico

In addition to the ten species observed consuming fruits at focal trees, a number of other species visited but were not observed to consume fruits. Some of these, including Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola), Northern Parula (Parula americana), Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina), Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens), and Black-cowled Oriole (Icterus dominicensis), visited infructescences but consumed arthropods or other small food items rather than fruit. D. tigrina was observed consuming S. morototoni fruits during plot-level foraging observations. Thus, this species, and perhaps others on this list, at least occasionally consumed S. morototoni fruits. Other species visited focal trees but were not observed feeding at infructescences. These included: Puerto Rican Emerald (Chlorostilbon maugaeus), Green Mango (Anthracothorax viridis), Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexicanus), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), Antillean Euphonia (Euphonia musica), Puerto Rican Bullfinch (Loxigilla portoricensis), and Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor). Here again, the plot-level observations showed that at least E. musica and L. portoricensis occasionally consume S. morototoni fruits, although these species clearly play, at best, a relatively minor role in this dispersal system.
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Environmental and Economic Impact of Forest Fires in Puerto Rico 2013 2014

Environmental and Economic Impact of Forest Fires in Puerto Rico 2013 2014

dimensions of the island are small (approximately 8897 km 2 ), so we selected a weather station for each of the firefighter zones and analyzed the precipitation and temperature during the analysis period. In terms of the rela- tive humidity factor, which is of utmost importance for the generation of forest fires, a data series exists for the climate of the island; however, we obtained data from two stations of the Western Regional Climate Center, at Guánica and Camp Santiago. Both stations belong to the Department of Ponce FZ (South Puerto Rico), the re- gion most impacted by fires. The available data were insufficient to analyze relative humidity for the whole isl- and, but the island’s value for this parameter normally exceeds 40%.
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The Motivations and Experiences of Young Women in a Microbicide Trial in the USA and Puerto Rico

The Motivations and Experiences of Young Women in a Microbicide Trial in the USA and Puerto Rico

Young women are an important target group in microbicide research, yet little is known about why they participate and stay in microbicide trials. Our study examined motivations for participating in a Phase I microbicide trial among 61 women ages 18 - 24 years in the continental USA and Puerto Rico. We also examined their perspectives on study parti- cipation. Participants underwent a semi-structured in-depth interview in which they were asked about factors that moti- vated enrollment and their experiences while participating. They also completed a Web-based Computer Assisted Self Interview in which they were asked to rate study burden (1 = low to 4 = high). Factors that motivated enrollment were altruism (29%), compensation (17%), a combination of altruism and compensation (37%) and free medical exams (17%). Factors that encouraged participants to stay in the study were study staff (95%), confirmation of good health (41%), and the opportunity to learn about their bodies (17%). Mean ratings of study burden ranged from 1.83 (having to travel to site) to 2.41 (colposcopy), indicating that participants were not highly bothered by visits or procedures. Al- though Phase I trials require invasive procedures, participants were not highly bothered by them and recognized them as necessary. Good relationships with staff and clear information about how procedures contribute to study goals may en- courage participants to remain in trials. Young women may be motivated to enter microbicide trials by stressing the role they will play in discovering better HIV-prevention methods and highlighting the comprehensive preventive exams they will receive.
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