History of Science in Islam (History)

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Teaching Resources on Islam in World History/ Cultures and Geography courses for Elementary, Middle and High School

Teaching Resources on Islam in World History/ Cultures and Geography courses for Elementary, Middle and High School

The Council on Islamic Education (CIE), Fountain Valley, California, founded in 1990, is a national, non-profit research and resource organization comprised of Muslim academic scholars of religion, history, political science, cultural studies, communications, and education, with a professional staff whose expertise relates to education, politics, media, and civic as well as faith communities in American society. CIE’s mission is to support and strengthen American public education as the foundation for a vibrant democracy, a healthy civil society, and a nationally and globally literate citizenry. CIE has worked with mainstream publishers and educational
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

Ophthalmology developed considerably in Egypt where eye diseases were epidemic. The impact of this development in this branch of medical science reached the countries of the West. Before the emergence of Islam, Egyptian ophthalmologists, such as Andalus and Demolstenis Philalets, well-known figures. After Islam, ophthalmology was also important in Egypt. The first important literature on this branch of medi­ cine, Tazkar al-Kahalin, was written by Ali Ibn-Eisa Baghdadi. Soon, Abolqassem Emar-Ebn Ali Mossala, the court physician of Alhakim, a Fatimid caliph, wrote Almontakhab fi Allaj al-Ein (Handbook of Eye Treat­ ment).
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Siyāsah al sharʿiyyah (islamic political science) as a discipline of knowledge in Islam

Siyāsah al sharʿiyyah (islamic political science) as a discipline of knowledge in Islam

The Makkan period can be regarded as the initial stage for the moral cultivation of individuals in order to form a distinct religious association around the Prophet Muḥammad (PBUH). The Qur’ān reflects this gradual change in the life of the Muslim community in stating, “and verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore, fear me and no other.” 8 By the end of the Makkan period and during the early stages of the Madinah period, the term ummah assumed yet another meaning. For the first time, the term refered to a sizable group of people united by common bonds of religion, shared experiences, and common aspirations as well as geographical and institutional arrangements. The ummah becomes a nation. The Holy Qur’ān refers to this development when it describes the Islamic community as the best community given to mankind; an integrated and balanced community. God proclaimed: “Ye are the best of peoples evolved for mankind.” 9 In another chapter, God said: “Thus have we made of you an Ummah (nation) justly balanced, that you might be witnesses over the nations and the Apostle a witness over yourselves.” 10 The first Muslim community grew with time and became the nucleus of the Madinah state which was also regarded as the first Islamic state in the history of Islam. The moment any community
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History, Social Science, & Criminal Justice

History, Social Science, & Criminal Justice

HIST 331, 332 History of Christianity I, II 3, 3 hours A study of the rise and impact of Christianity in the Roman world and western culture. Attention is given to theological and social movements, the influence of Islam, the crusades, expansionism, and religious adaptation to modern life. The second semester traces develop- ment from the Reformation through the growth of American religion. This course meets the upper division writing component for senior year English. (Spring) (Also taught as RLGN 331, 332).

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Towards a methodology for integrated history and philosophy of science

Towards a methodology for integrated history and philosophy of science

A serious historical investigation of philosophical questions still promises to teach us much about how scientists conceive of new hypotheses, and more broadly about what strategies they employ for solving empirical problems. We will be able to study in greater depth how actual scientific communities have debated different types of empirical evidence (not just rhetorically, but epistemologically) and how they have adjusted their judgments in accordance with it. We will learn whether individual scientific disciplines grow essentially cumulatively or by sharp disconti- nuities – which remains, in many ways, as open a question as it was when Kuhn put it on the scene in the 1960s. Similarly, history will guide us beyond the traditional philosophical focus on individual scientists and the relationship between their theo- ries and their data. Instead, it will enable us to study how shared epistemic goals are reached (or not) by collaboration and competition both within and between multiple research groups. For the most part, historically deep and philosophically informative historical studies of these and similar issues remain to be written.
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The stuff of science fiction : an experiment in literary history

The stuff of science fiction : an experiment in literary history

understandings of the history of SF. However, as we gathered and began to visualize data from the collection, we started to think through the differing perspectives of the diverse audiences the tool might reach and we began to ask more clearly articulated questions. Some questions directly responded to the early visualization, such as: 1) What are the relationships or points of contrast between two particular symbols? or 2) How could we better represent the interaction between Gibson’s classifications and those of Bleiler through the visualization?. Such questions led to changes to the visualization itself through both our radial tree diagram and our tag cloud. Other questions were suggested by our interactions with the visualization as we attempted to decipher the Gibson symbols. These include, for example: 1) Are certain Gibson symbols more commonly associated with certain source magazines and/or with certain authors and/or time periods? 2) Do Gibson’s symbols and/or Bleiler’s motifs suggest specific hybrid or sub-genres of SF that are specific to particular decades and/or periodicals? 3) Is there a difference between the kinds of topics treated by male or female writers? Such questions emerged from the ease with which the visualization provides simultaneous information on multiple variables and led us to incorporate more targeted filters mentioned above. As our questions narrow, we are also considering whether we should maintain a tool that tries to address both public and academic
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Islam Nusantara and The Esense of Islam

Islam Nusantara and The Esense of Islam

The practice of early Islam in the archipelago was more or less influenced by the teachings of Sufism and Javanese spiritual schools that had existed before. Some traditions, such as respecting the authority of the kyai, respecting Islamic figures such as Wali Songo, also became part of the Islamic traditions such as the grave pilgrimage, tahlilan, and commemorating the Prophet's birthday, including celebrations sekaten, obediently carried out by traditional Indonesian Muslims. However, after the arrival of Islam modernist Salafi followed by the coming of teachings Wahhabi from Arabia, this scripturalist puritanical Islam rejects all forms of tradition and denounces them as acts of shirk or heresy, denigrated as a form of syncretism which damages the sanctity of Islam. This condition has caused religious tension, uneasy togetherness, and spiritual competition between the traditional Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah the modernist and puritan.
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History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

The task is difficult, and solutions are like hopes, and one must admit in the conclusion that there are three factors that made the understanding of Arabs and Islam even in the simplest possible image an issue saturated with high-pitched political significance. The first factor is the history of the common intolerance in the West against Arabs and Islam, which is directly manifested in the history of orientalism. The second factor is the conflict between the Arabs and Zionism and Israel, and the third factor is the almost total absence of any cultural position which allows an individual to sympathize with the Arabs or Islam or discuss any of them is an emotional debate. However, there is a positive factor in the dark tunnel represented in the East-West relations which no longer spins in the religious sphere. Hence, highlighting the non-religious and specifically cultural factors, the separation between them and religion, will bridge the gap between the two sides; especially if that effect is supported by the media to reproduce the image, not as imagined or inherited, but as posed diverse reality. A last word: these hopes and ideas are carried out not by individuals but by institutions, studies and research centers and huge efforts, so as to have the desired effect, on multiple levels.
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‘Living History’ – an opportunity for Living Science

‘Living History’ – an opportunity for Living Science

One aim within the current National Curriculum for Science in England is to ‘develop understanding of the nature, processes and methods of science through different types of science enquiries that help them to answer scientific questions about the world around them’. Wimpole Hall certainly encouraged children to ask many questions and, when back in school, to look for answers based on controlled, scientific investigation. Living history or living science?

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Translation as Method: Implications for History of Science

Translation as Method: Implications for History of Science

the qualities of Newtonian and Einsteinian masses. But note that this is exactly the ‘problem’ when we translate mass to m. What is the meaning associated with ‘m’ – which kind of mass is it referring to? This question does not arise in this case since we have not decided the semantic space of ‘m’. In the same way, translation of mass into a Malayalam word should be seen as a step in the formation of new meanings for mass in that language. However, the irony is that in almost all scientific contexts, including school science textbooks, mass is not translated into Malayalam but only transliterated. A counter argument to my position would be to point to the use of Sanskrit words in Malayalam. These words have often been transliterated and have become part of the vocabulary of Malayalam (and many other Indian languages also). But there are two important points of difference in absorbing Sanskrit words as against technical scientific words: one is that the languages themselves have high usage of Sanskrit words and significant portions of the languages are derived from Sanskrit. This is different from transliteration of words from English, Latin or other European languages. Second, the transliterated technical words have cultural currency too – for example, the word dravyam (from Sanskrit but now part of Malayalam, standing for ‘matter’) has many other connotations in the cultural space and is not restricted to the science textbooks alone. This makes transliterated words from a language like Sanskrit part of a larger process of meaning-making.
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The history of the teaching of science in Scottish schools

The history of the teaching of science in Scottish schools

Youths come to the Scottish Universities ignorant and are there taught." As science became a subject of instruction in burgh schools and academies, of which at least one was established [r]

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Unit 1: The History of Marine Science

Unit 1: The History of Marine Science

– Currently researching ocean and climate, coastal science, hazards to the ocean, ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, ocean life, ocean resources and policy, polar research, pollution[r]

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THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

At the present it seems that the teaching of mathematics and of physics has been going on the ground of a strict criticism according to which, at the secondary high school, it is necessary to teach mainly mathematics and physics by means of experiments and principles, neglecting the possibility that a student could follow just the way round in his learning process of scientific knowledge; that is, he could realize that not everything can be built up according to what the for- mulation of principles reads. This way of conceiving teaching seems to be the heritage of the old, extremely positivist conception of science in general; a kind of science only based upon experi- mentation and proved facts, or upon self-standing laws, aloof from the cultural context, often even isolated from the teaching plan itself. Such a model of teaching, in a past not too far, has already strongly contributed to a kind of learning too mechanist, based upon strange mnemonic abilities and simple functions; learning strategies coming along with lots of exercises; as if eating 1000 cakes could make me good at cooking just one! In addition to all this, a fully reassuring model of mathematics, bringing lots of incontrovertible certainties, clashes a model of reality very often full of uncertainties and contradictions.
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Can Learning about History of Science and Nature of Science in a Student Centred Classroom Change Science Students’ Conception of Science?

Can Learning about History of Science and Nature of Science in a Student Centred Classroom Change Science Students’ Conception of Science?

“I think scientists are researchers who strive to understand nature. They are unbiased and that they are willing to contemplate different theories in order to find the “truth”. A reading of student B’s writings made on the last days of the course indicates that this student views became clearer as she found out about different philosophers of science. Yet she didn’t inevitably change his views but they became more expert like. In one of the discussions she stated that we never fully understand a concept; we make correlations between observation and what we already know which a Baconian perspective towards the NOS. She also criti- cized the Kuhnian and the Popperian point of view and felt that these ap- proaches cannot fully define a scientific theory: “While I cannot say that Popper has solved the problem of induction simply through noticing that it exists, I do believe that his criteria for what is and isn’t a scientific theory will aid in clearing up this problem. As the saying goes, “the first step to fixing a problem is finding it”.
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What is Islam? and How to Convert to Islam

What is Islam? and How to Convert to Islam

Finally, it must be pointed out the differences between the pillars of faith and the pillars of Islam. The six pillars of faith are required forever to be believed by every Muslim while he is in ill or healthy, travel or residence and rich or poor condition. They are a grade higher than pillars of Islam. The pillars of Islam; however, are compulsory but with flexibility under specific conditions depending on circumstances.

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Islam

Islam

community market, city bazaar and shah amanot shah market, which are in the figurec, d, e, and f are also proved that these market situated near or around an specific area, that’s why[r]

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08- History–Social Science Content Standards.pdfView Download

08- History–Social Science Content Standards.pdfView Download

8.12 Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolu- tion3. Tra[r]

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The history and science of Chongkukjang, a Korean fermented soybean product

The history and science of Chongkukjang, a Korean fermented soybean product

Accordingly, the fact that so many old Korean docu- ments were written in Chinese characters (an ideo- graphic script) leads to many errors because it is almost impossible to convey meaning and sound accurately. This is why caution is required when speaking about Ko- rean history as seen through Chinese character records. Focusing purely on analyzing Chinese character records while ignoring what was actually happening and speak- ing in Korea will naturally lead to a lot of errors in old literature written in Chinese character. This means the circumstances surrounding such records need to be taken into account to obtain an accurate picture of Ko- rean food culture. However, since Korea was liberated from Japan, a number of scholars including Lee Seong- woo have adopted this approach without a complete un- derstanding about the nature of foods; Korea ’ s food cul- ture and history have severely distorted Lee Seong-woo [32, 57]. They claim that the Chinese characters cheong- kukjang are used to refer to Chongkukjang. This is why they trace the history of Chongkukjang by examining re- cords of cheongkukjang ( 淸國醬 ) or similar Chinese characters, instead of focusing on records about si ( 豉 ) .In short, the Korean ethnic foods known as jyeonkuk, chyeonkuk, or chyeongkuk were referred to as si ( 豉 ) in written records prior to the advent of Korean script, while a number of different characters including 煎豉醬 , 戰國醬 , 靑局醬 , and 靑麴醬 were written after the introduction of Korean script because a new Chinese character expression was required to match the phonetic sound of Chongkukjang. This is why Lee’s claim that Chongkukjang did not exist in Korea until these character-based words appeared in documents is false, and this also explains why the history of foods such as red chili peppers, kimchi, and Chongkukjang have been misinterpreted. These theories have led to a lot of misin- formation about Chongkukjang, distorting the food’s his- tory. Lee insists that red chili peppers were introduced to Korea through the sixteenth century Japanese inva- sions, and fabricated the claim that kimchi and red chili peppers did not exist in Korea prior to Chinese charac- ter records of these foods in order to justify his theory [31, 32]. This is a classic example of a mistake that dis- torts Korean food history and culture. He skips over the fact that everything in Korea had existed for hundreds or thousands of years before writing was even invented.
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Vestiges of the history of popular science [Essay Review]

Vestiges of the history of popular science [Essay Review]

The title of Robert Chambers' anonymous evolutionary work, Vestiges of the natural history of creation, has long been familiar to even the most casual readers of the history of evolutionary theorising. From as early as 1861—when Charles Darwin first appended his 'historical sketch of the recent progress of opinion on the origin of species' to the third edition of his own more famous work on the subject—down to the present time, no history of what Loren Eiseley called 'evolution and the men who discovered it' has been complete without a discussion of this book. Yet as Eiseley's rather unfortunate phrase makes particularly clear, such histories of evolution are historiographically problematic. Indeed, it has become increasingly common over recent years to question altogether the value of 'evolution' as an object of historical study for any period before the middle of the nineteenth century, when the word began to acquire its familiar modern sense (viz., the origin of animal and plant species by a process of development from other forms). The great danger of evolution historiography is that it can unwittingly lead to teleological, present-centred history—more subtly so, perhaps, than in Eiseley's case, but nonetheless carrying the implication that Darwin's theory of natural selection (if not the modern evolutionary synthesis) was always out there, waiting to be 'discovered'.
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History of science for its own sake?

History of science for its own sake?

For at least the past quarter century, professional historians of science of my generation have found a diplomatic solution to the problem raised here. They have simply evacuated the concept of science of any univocal meaning. Their modus operandi is traceable to Foucault’s (1970) archaeology of knowledge. In Foucault’s wake, historians have acquired a sense of ‘objectivity’ that involves treating everything as remnants of societies long past to which they themselves do not belong. The historiographical significance of the object in this context is that, above all, an object is something that has clear boundaries – both spatial and temporal. Foucault himself turned this point to great effect in writing about ‘man’ as an object on the intellectual horizon that was formally launched at the end of the 18 th century but was gradually disappearing at the end of the 20 th century.
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