basic principles of hygiene such as keeping away from patients with contagious diseases, using private tooth brush and towel, clipping nails, combing, removing superfluous hair from the body, using clean dress, washing away excess perspiration, avoiding gluttony, having meals on time, keeping a Iplanced physiological pattern, dividing hours of the day for working, wor shipping, and sleeping, and many other instructions that are among the miracles of Islam. Today after fourteen centuries these instructions that were brought up by an unlettered man from among nomad desert people are still weighty and will hold valid. There is no easier way to make human beings observe hygiene. Furthermore, the respect paid by Messenger of Islam (PBUH) and the holy Imams for physicians and medic al instructions set a pattern for the faithful. Art of friendship and encouragement of education in general, and attaching importance to medicine in particular, led to the development of the Islamic medicine as one of the most outstanding branches of the Islamic science and civilization. Physicians and researchers of the Islamic world began to collect and translate the books and medical articles of other nations into Arabic language. In fact, it may also be said that the Islamic medicine is a mixture of Hippocratic and Galenic traditions and Greek medicine, as well as the theories and practical aspects of the Iranian and Indian medi cine_
It is necessary to acknowledge that according to Islam, the root and origin of all social and political institutions, including the state and government are derived from religion. Leonard Binder stated, “the point is that Islamic theology cannot accept the idea of tension between religion and politics, Islam at once is religion and a nation.” 33 The strong link between religion and politics in Islam can be seen more clearly if we look at the history of the Muslim community in Madinah. The Muslim community of Madinah selected events that carried political values as moments to mark history. An example of this is the determination of the Islamic new year (Islamic calendar) which is not based on the Prophet’s birthday, or on the year that hr received the revelation (waḥy), instead the Islamic calendar is based on the migration (ḥijrah) of the Prophet (PBUH) from Makkah to Madinah. 34 This migration was very important to the Muslim community of Madinah, as through this event the Muslims obtained the freedom to spread the teachings of Islam and enabled them to unite in their efforts to create a ‘Muslim community’ (an ummah) which can be regarded as the basis for the building of a sovereign state, namely the Islamic state of Madinah which was regarded as the first Islamic state. In the classical period of Islam Muslim jurists (al-fuqaha’) were the only category of scholars qualified to derive laws from Islamic sources to regulate the life of the community within the state. According to them, the existence of proper laws in any state is a prerequisite for political stability and the existence of political stability is a
HIST 331, 332 History of Christianity I, II 3, 3 hours A study of the rise and impact of Christianity in the Roman world and western culture. Attention is given to theological and social movements, the influence of Islam, the crusades, expansionism, and religious adaptation to modern life. The second semester traces develop- ment from the Reformation through the growth of American religion. This course meets the upper division writing component for senior year English. (Spring) (Also taught as RLGN 331, 332).
The analysis of the dimensions of the ongoing Western campaign against Islam leads us to trace the causes. It did not arise in a vacuum, but there are strategic, political, economic, and cultural motives and reasons. As Hippler and Loige (1996) stated that the motives of hostility to Islam stem from different reasons which are not unanimously agreed upon by Westerners. Sometimes they take the form of a Western fear from a spiritual religious anti-Western threat to Christian civilization and at other times the fear from the emergence of Islamic radicalism that might stop exporting oil to the West, or from the cultural invasion carried out by immigrants from Turkey or North Africa. It may lie in the Islamic atomic bomb, terrorism leak to some cities in Europe as well as the prevalence of the other culture accusation of unbelief which began to prevail in the Muslim World by some extremist Islamic parties which started establishing a presence in the Muslim street by raising slogans in which naive people find it a battle of Islam against Christianity or against the infidels. There are such perceptions of these concerns in Europe and the United States, sometimes alongside and sometimes separately 3 . That is why the idea of the Islamic threat to the security of
The history of singular science I shall present will of course be a selective one, re- ﬂ ecting the limits of my own knowledge. But I hope it will illuminate some aspects of the changing concepts of science and its history in the last two centuries. Positivism was not the only source of the aspiration to unify the sciences during this period, but a focus on the positivist movement will allow me to connect that aspiration to a speciﬁ c historical consciousness that ﬂ ourished in the same era. The positivist outlook in- cluded a place for historical studies, albeit a limited one. History was assigned a role that subordinated it to the sciences themselves, a role dictated by the vision of their eventual uniﬁ cation. As the inﬂ uence of positivism has diminished in recent decades, history has assumed a more critical function. Historical and other studies have em- phasized the differences between the disciplines, calling into question the purported singularity of the scientiﬁ c enterprise and its tendency toward unity. At the same time, the rise to prominence of the biological and information sciences has undermined positivist assumptions about the hierarchy of the disciplines. This has coincided with important social and technological changes that have signiﬁ cantly altered the char- acter of the scientiﬁ c community and the perceived relationship between knowledge and technical practices. And the same period has also witnessed the diminished inﬂ u- ence of European powers in global affairs, with consequent criticism of the idea that science has been uniquely a feature of Western civilization. All of these factors have undermined the traditional concept of singular science.
General histories of mathematics often begin with or contain a chapter on “Babylonian mathematics”, or perhaps a chapter mixing up Babylonian matters with early literate mathematics in broader generality. I shall discuss only two examples, both of them much appreciated and more serious than many others: Uta Merzbach’s A History of mathematics from , a revised version of [Boyer 1968], and Victor Katz’ A History of mathematics: An Introduction, the second edition of which appeared in  (I have not seen the third edition from 2009 but do not expect it to be fundamentally different from its predecessor in this respect). Merzbach’s changes of Boyer’s original text about Mesopotamia are modest – most of the chapter is taken over verbatim, including outdated interpretations, gross historical blunders, and fantasies. Some pertinent publications from recent decades are listed in the bibliography, but they seem not to have been consulted. In the preface to the new edition (p. xiv) the late Wilbur Knorr is praised for “refusing to accept the notion that ancient authors had been studied definitively by others. Setting aside the ‘magister dixit,’ he showed us the wealth of knowledge that emerges from seeking out the texts”; but in spite of that Merzbach seems to have thought that regarding Mesopotamia there was nothing to add to or correct in the words of the master who wrote the prototype of the book.
included information about names and lives of scientists in relation to sciencehistory. The same examples related to sciencehistory are repeated over and over in popular books and textbooks, and sciencehistory is taught based on these examples (Metz, Klassen, McMillan, Clough, & Olson, 2007). It may be natural for the prospective teachers to give examples from lives, works, and inventions of scientists. On the other hand, the number of examples about how to use sciencehistory in courses was observed to be higher. The reason behind the high number of examples was that some codes in Table 10 (such as writing letters, showing movies or videos, preparing posters and puzzles, telling stories or anecdotes) were used by the prospective teachers for their presentations. This might have caused an increase in their knowledge about how to use sciencehistory in courses. This may be accepted as a positive development. However, the frequency of examples was not so high. This might indicate low awareness or limited knowledge about how to use sciencehistory in courses. It was noted in the literature that teachers (Lacin Simsek, 2011) and prospective teachers (Hacieminoglu et al., 2012) had limited knowledge about sciencehistory. Therefore, teaching prospective teachers how to use sciencehistory in courses may positively influence and improve their views about science and sciencehistory. Recommendations based on the results of this study are presented below:
Not unsurprisingly the trips to Wimpole Hall were invaluable for developing knowledge of history. They also though acted as a great stimulus for scientific investigation when back in school. The focus for investigations varied each year, dependent upon the children, but certain facts always provided excellent starting points.
A few words on the background for this paper: In December 2005, the author started organiz- ing a collection of old computers at the Department of Computer and Information Science at NTNU. The goal is to make the collection into a computer museum, and collect historical sources in connection with these machines. The collection is fairly extensive, counting ap- proximately 1000 pieces of hardware, along with a good deal of software and documentation. The most notable objects are two Danish GIER computers (from 1962-1963), two Norwegian NORD-1 computers (from 1969-1970) and one PDP-8 (from 1965). While researching the history of the objects, the work gradually developed into a book project. This article presents some of the themes of this book, which will be due for release some time in 2009. I’m thank- ful to a number of people for kindly sharing their knowledge on the NTNU Computer history [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27].
Glen M. Cooper, HISTORY 240, FALL 2012, Page 5
Learning will be derived from the assigned readings, as well as from the writing assignments. You will have in-class opportunities (and I hope outside of class as well) to try out your ideas with fellow students in discussion. I will use periodic assessments to keep you on track with your reading. Please Note: Access to Blackboard and an email account is essential for this course. Please be sure that your email address or other contact information is current there.
So with our current scientific theories--the modifications and revisions they constantly undergo are highly constrained by their historical baggage. But that history was not aiming toward the current version of the theory (thus this historiographic approach avoids the label, ‘Whig’), and it is not linear. Like evolutionary phylogenies, in the branching network of science there are likely to have been a variety of developments going off in different directions from any particular node, many of which became dead ends, some of which did not, and perhaps one of which comes to be the ‘dominant’ or ‘received’ theoretical approach (as with the Neo-darwinian synthesis in the 1940s and 50s).
The Biomedical Scientist includes features on education, training, laboratory practice, safety, scientific and technological
developments along with Institute activities.
Since the first national conference, held in 1924, the professional body has used its conferences as a platform for communication, education and developing contacts for its members and the pathology community at large. National conferences also reached out to educate and inform the general public. The 2011 Biomedical Science Congress lecture programme offered biomedical scientists the opportunity to hear about the latest professional developments, scientific techniques and technical innovations. Over 3000 delegates attended this three‐day meeting, making it one of the world’s largest biomedical science events.