Drawing on the newest and most sophisticated historical research and scholarship in the field, Modern SouthAsia provides a challenging insight for those with an intellectual curiosity about the region. After sketching the pre-modern history of the subcontinent, the book concentrates on the last three centuries. Jointly authored by two leading Indian and Pakistani historians, it offers a rare depth of historical understanding of the politics, cultures, and economies that shape the lives of more than a fifth of humanity.
Smith (1991: 82) has argued that we will never know what precisely led to Pabuji’s deification: “It is tempting to wish that more sources were available on Pābūjī and his contemporaries, but even if they were it is not likely that they would prove to be of any great assistance: like the sources we have used, they would consist of an indistinguishable mixture of facts and fictions. Traditional history is not concerned with facts as such; it is concerned not with the right story but with the best story”. From the point of view of literary history, one may ask whether it is at all possible to write a “right” history based solely on facts uncoloured by the interpretations of traditional or modern historians. It seems to me that the production of historically “right stories” is most often based on the conscious or unconscious piecing together of “best stories”. The following literary-historical examination of medieval poetry sources that are part of the Pabuji tradition is intended to throw some light on the way in which Pabuji’s devotees, priests and poets constructed several to their mind “right” and “best” versions of his history. This I aim to do with a study of the historical background against which the Pabuji tradition took shape, with special reference to the history of socio-religious and martial identities of medieval Marwari Rajput, Bhil and Charan communities. By studying the regional martial traditions of the aforementioned communities as part of the medieval martial or military labour market of Marwar, I try to see whether the poetic concerns reflected by the poets of the Pabuji tradition represent themes typical of medieval history, in particular the history of the archetypal early-medieval Rajput warrior, the geographically and socially mobile young man who travelled Hindustan and, as I hope to show, the north-western desert regions, in search of livelihood and employment (cf. Kolff 1990: passim). This part of my study also draws upon Harald Tambs-Lyche’s (1996, 1997, 2004a-d) analysis of Rajput-Charan relations in Kathiawar (Gujarat).
last fifteen years, have come from the ethnology of oral literatures, from education sciences or from cultural history, with a few recent additions from social and religious anthropology (Centlivres et al. 1998, Centlivres 2001, Mayeur-Jaouen 2002). These studies generally focus on folklore characters or national heroes, and on the behavioural changes that these inspiring figures can bring about in teenagers, particularly through history textbooks (e.g. Amalvi 1998). Political scientists and sociologists have shown less concern for the subject in the past thirty years. Not surprisingly, most of the political science and sociology works on this issue were conducted between 1945 and 1970, at the height of the Cold War, when the war between the liberal and the communist camps was also being fought via heroes in popular culture (see for example Mary Sheridan’s (1968) article on heroes and the political engineering of exemplarity in Maoist China). From the 1970s to the 1990s, only a few authors strove to understand the politics of exemplarity. Since then, the end of the Cold War, the advent of global consumption and communication and a triumphant neo-liberal agenda coexisting with ethnic, religious and local dissent have shed a new light on exemplarity as a vehicle for ideology and politics. This issue of SAMAJ wishes to address this multifaceted phenomenon by using a variety of approaches and disciplines ranging from political science to sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, with a great emphasis on fieldwork and on the constructions and representations of exemplarity.
Similarly in Pakistan, there is widespread discrimination in labour force participation (14% females, 49.3% males) with women mostly employed in the informal sector and low paid menial jobs (Faisal and Rizavi, 2011). There is a high prevalence of poverty for men and women in rural areas, a high maternal mortality rate including high female mortality rate leading to a negative sex ratio (Mumtaz, 2006) and low access to educational programs (Ahmed and Bukhari ,2012). Also, while 40-50 percent of rural households borrow regularly under programs such as zakat (charitable donations) bait-ul-maal and microcredit, these programs fail to reach the women in communities that need it the most with studies finding that both government and NGO programs fail to reach the poorest (Mumtaz, 2006: xiv). Similar to India and Bangladesh, patriarchal household norms mean women have little or no say in decision making at community level or personally by surrendering to authority (Khilji, 2004). Women are disempowered through these arrangements although more recently the government has introduced affirmative action programs reserving seats for women across all tiers of governance (Mumtaz, 2006: xiv). Nonetheless, trade liberalisation has caused dramatic falls in gender inequality from the period 1973 to 2005 due to its effects on the labour market (Ahmed and Bukhari, 2012). Also within organisations, there is a clash between traditional and modern values. While values remain rooted in tradition with limited employee autonomy from top to bottom with employee involvement largely frowned upon, employees work-related values reflect the expectations of a modern market economy (Khilji, 2004). Largely however, the Pakistan government is viewed as in disarray, partly due to the country’s long history in civil and military regimes that work to preserve the status quo in order to maintain some stability (Faisal and Rizavi, 2011). In a study of 24 public sector organisations involving 300 educated women in Pakistan, Faisal and Rizavi found that public sector organisations seem enthusiastic towards the welfare of female personnel as long as women are not demanding changes in the status quo (2011: 366). Their study suggests that the public education system in Pakistan needs to be overhauled before the struggles for women can be unravelled.
Although studies of prehistoric human migration now run into the hundreds, a single, chronological narrative of the peopling of the planet has not yet been presented, Most studies have been produced by specialists of a region. The need for a specific migration narrative—highlighting a primary migration route—is desirable for a coherent big-history understanding of how prehistoric Homo sapiens peopled the planet. Assembling the existing research, we follow the primary migration route from South Africa to Patagonia—a coastal trek up the coast of Africa, along the shores of the Indian Ocean followed by a circum-oceanic trek around the entire Pacific Ocean., the whole journey, with settlements established along the way, occurring over a period of 60,000 up to 115,000 years. From South Africa, now recognized as the refuge of early Homo sapiens, migration can be traced through human fossils, cave occupations, camp and work sites, shell middens, animal remains, and tool remnants. To these, genetics has added the identification of genetic markers for more accurate route determination. This coastal migration route incorporates recent archeological reassessments that have confirmed (1) the “Southern Dispersal” route out of Africa to coastal SouthAsia; (2) a 10,000 to 15,000 thousand year “Beringian Standstill” during the last glacial maximum; and (3) a primary “Coastal Route” down the west coast of the Americas. From this primary coastal migration route, hundreds of rivers provide resource-rich entrances into continental interiors while ocean reaches beckoned to the adventurous, thus clarifying the earliest stages of the peopling of the Earth.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Mohammed Ali Jinnah were not personally as culpable as many like to believe. The evil that many locate in them resided, at least partly, in the political ideas that dominated the world. Savarkar and Jinnah were, like most first-generation builders of South Asian states, faithful and obedient pupils of the Bismarckian state and post-medieval European republicanism, both vital parts of the dominant culture of commonsense in their times. Once they accepted that culture, they could not but try to duplicate Europe’s history in SouthAsia, whatever the cost. Not surprisingly, neither of the two ever mourned seriously, in public, the unnecessary death of more than a million people in the bloodbath that came with the division of British India. 28 For both, human
developed parts of the world: lack of competitive markets (due to, for example, prohibition of women’s employment), absence of wage work, high fixed cost of labor supply, and low marginal productivity to farm work can ensure low rates of female economic participation. Using Freedom House (FH) Freedom rating, Fish (2002) finds evidence to support the hypothesis that Islamic nations are politically authoritative and more oppressive towards women than non Islamic nations. In a similar note, Donno & Russett (2004) also find evidence to show that Islamic nations tend to be more autocratic and are more likely to suppress women’s rights. Clark et al. (1991) explore the impact of culture on female labor force participation in 135 countries for 1980. They use a combination of religion, political ideology, and world region variables to find evidence supporting the importance of culture in explaining women’s labor force participation. Women in Islamic countries and in the largely Catholic Latin American countries were found to have the lowest labor force participation rates. Their conclusion is that strong Islamic separation of male and female work sphere and traditional exclusion of women from paid participation in Latin America explain the lower participation rates in these countries. Papps (1992) discusses the mixed evidence of the direct impact of religiosity on women’s economic participation in the context of Islam dominated Middle East. Salway et al. (2005) mention “unaccompanied mobility” as a key element of women’s empowerment in SouthAsia. Dyson & Moore (1983) contend that traditional norms such as exogamous marriage, and male kinship patterns lead to low status and less autonomy of women in Northern India. Rahman & Rao (2004) contend that restrictions on women’s physical mobility leads to lower labor force participation rates in Northern India, while Goyal (2007) argues that development alone will not solve gender
Most studies investigating the genetic diversity of P. vivax have focused on samples in a particular geographic region [6, 7, 12, 18]. Only a few studies were implemented to com- pare samples from different regions. In this study, P. vivax malaria samples from infections in different countries/re- gions (including Africa, SouthAsia, Southeast Asia, West Asia and partial regions of China) were collected in the Zhejiang province, aiming to investigate the genetic diver- sity of the PvMSP-1 gene icb5-6 fragment and provide more genetic polymorphism data for further study on population structure and for tracking the origin of clinical cases.
IV. C LIMATE C HANGE S TUDIES I N S OUTH -E AST A SIA Recognizing the critical concern of global warming in southAsia, various studies have been conducted in the region to analyze trends in hydro-meteorological variables at regional and basin level (Hingane et al., 1985; Sinha et al., 1997; Arora et al. 2005; Singh et al., 2008), Bangladesh (Ahmad and Warrick, 1996), and Nepal (Shrestha et al., 1999)). Hingane et al. (1985) analyzed long-term mean annual temperature records from 1901 to 1982 over India and detected an increasing trend in mean surface air temperatures. It was observed that about 0.4°C warming has taken place over India during the last eight decades mainly due to rise in maximum temperatures. Sinha et al. (1997), however, showed that the changes in mean annual temperatures are partly due to the rise in the minimum temperature caused by rapid urbanization. Pant and Kumar (1997) have reported an increase in mean annual temperatures in India at the rate of 0.57°C per 100 years. Arora et al. (2005) investigated temperature trend all over India using Mann-Kendall non parametric technique and linear regression method. The results showed that mean temperature has increased by 0.94°C per 100 years for the post monsoon season and 1.1°C per 100 years for the winter season.
chosen to study space and everyday life as an entry into the world of migrants (see Rigg 2007 for a broader approach in the global South). My endeavour is to understand how the labour camp can be seen as a ‘space of exception’ (Agamben 1998) where exclusion is the norm. The labour camp will be considered as the main locus of life where structural forces and individual agency give way to the creation of spaces that need to be qualified. In such a constrained setting as the legal regime governing migrants and the camp as a place to live, how do migrants build and appropriate these spaces? How are we to qualify these new places for living? The globalization of labour flows does not lead to the homogenization of places (Appadurai 2005): the local, or translocal, which is linked to global dynamics at every level, becomes the main site where places are built. Migrants do not make places out of nothing but are inserted into a system of places over which they have no control. When meanings and values are attributed to space, the latter become a place (Creswell 2008). Place-making is thus at the heart of an individual's tactics to make life bearable. Places are built through spatial strategies involving intentional actions or the non-intentional repetition of mundane actions (de Certeau 1980). Places can thus be regarded as part of a process that results from the interaction of commoners’ everyday practices with the space designed by the elite (Lefebvre 1974).
" Globalization, Change and Learning in South Asia EDITED BY E KHILJI AND CHRIS ROWLEY SHAISTA CP CHAND05 PUBLISHING ~"9I ~ Oxford Cambridge New Delhi Chandos Publishing Hexagon House Avenue 4 Station[.]
academic degree, gender, age, work experience, visa status and country of residence was collected from the students. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each item in the survey. Nationality has been classified based on the major region classification. For the purpose of this research, nationalities were classified as Australia, East Asia, SouthAsia and other countries. Countries such as Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh and Nepal were classified as SouthAsia. Countries such as Hong Kong, the Philippines, China, Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam and Myanmar were classified as East Asia. All other countries include South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Italy, Colombia, Poland, Lebanon and the Czech Republic. Differences among the attitudes of Australian, South Asian, East Asian and students from other countries were evaluated using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and MANOVA (multivariate Analysis of Variance).
The macroeconomics performance is the indication of how a country or an economy or a region effectively executes their policies to reach the goals. The above Table 1 presents the current macroeconomic scenario of SouthAsia and South East Asia. 6,500 billon people live in South East Asia and it is one of the fastest growing regions in the world. Now it faces several hindrances to the growth in 2018. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) report proposes that Southeast Asia could not imagine descending correction will bring slight improvement in its success, the estimates which will remain at 4.8 percent in 2019 and 4.9 percent in 2020. Although Southeast Asian economies have stayed flexible despite facing economic difficulties, the region needs to remain cautious on the off chance that needs to work effectively with the association of trade and value circle. In all, fortifying residential interest will offset more vulnerable fare development and solid utilization prodded by rising salaries, repressed expansion, and hearty settlements should help economic movement in Southeast Asia (The ASEAN, 2019).
The use of a hand-held battery device thermal cautery for vas occlusion may be feasible in Asia. Timing for introducing cautery/FI would be right as training or retraining of vasectomy providers on combined use of FI and LE is currently needed in most Asian countries. Pro- viders showed great interest in the use of the technique, but taking into account the fact that most were experi- enced trainers this may not necessarily reflect the views of the majority of providers. Pilot assessment on a small scale showed that the technique can be safely and effec- tively performed by Asian providers with human and material resources currently available.
Throughout South and Southeast Asia, detailed and systematic surveys will likely reveal numerous species new to science, including trace element hyperaccumu- lators. Recent research conducted in Sabah, Malaysia by van der Ent et al. (2014, 2015a, f ) which led to the discovery of 24 new hyperaccumulator species, is a case in point. Detailed floristic surveys should be under- taken across the region and species showing unusual physiological behavior (such as trace element accu- mulation) or exhibiting distinct morphological traits relative to populations on non-ultramafic soils may be further studied under laboratory and greenhouse con- ditions. Additionally, species showing intraspecific variation between ultramafic and non-ultramafic popu- lations may be evaluated via population genetic stud- ies to determine whether ultramafic populations are genetically distinct from those found on non-ultramafic soils. For those species showing intraspecific variation with respect to morphological or physiological features, including flowering times between ultramafic and non- ultramafic populations, common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments can be undertaken to examine whether populations are locally adapted to their sub- strate. Such types of experimental studies are currently lacking entirely from the region.
in terms of price competition, technical standard, capacity of the existing firms, etc. Given the fact that there is lack of these types of data in almost all South Asian countries, this study takes into consideration the best available data to construct the Balassa’s Index of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) for the services sectors in South Asian countries. 2 Table 9 reports the results of such an exercise for Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The exercise suggest that in 2010, RCAs greater than 1 were observed in communication services, other business services and government services for Bangladesh, in transportation, travel and insurance services for Bhutan, in computer and information services for India, in travel services for Maldives, in transportation, communication and government services for Pakistan and in transportation, communications services, insurance services and computer and information services for Sri Lanka. The striking feature is that in 2000, India had RCAs greater than 1 in sectors like travel, communications services, construction services, insurance services and government services which by 2010 declined to less than 1 indicating India's deterioration in comparative advantage in these sectors.
Countries of SouthAsia (i.e., Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) are the scope of analysis for this study. So we have data for pool analysis for ten years from 2005 to 2014 which is latest available data. Pooled estima- tion techniques used to get the cross sections fixed effects; in this way each estimation of pooled least square has 80 observations (i.e., eight countries and ten years). We are comparing growth with governance and human development by modifying the method- ology introduced by Kaufmann (2004); Quibria (2006) respectively. In order to find the state of governance (i.e., “Governance deficit” or “Governance Surplus” as estimated by Kaufmann (2004); Quibria (2006) for the Latin American and developing Asian countries respectively. This study find governance and development gap by comparing the cross section fixed effects with regional estimates.
affordable healthy food in schools, including healthy beverages, fresh fruits and vegetables, a supportive and safe environment for physical activity, specialized health educational curriculum, and restricting access to tobacco and alcohol products near school premises can be effective in promoting healthy diets and physical activity (Branca et al., 2007, Cecchini et al., 2010, World Health Organization, 2008). Consumer-friendly nutrition labelling along with health messages has the potential to change the food consumption pattern and can help prevent diabetes(Cecchini et al., 2010, World Health Organization, 2014). Effective consumer awareness of food labelling can be achieved through sustained media and educational campaigns. However, understanding food labels also relies on consumers’ general education levels and low literacy rates are still a serious problem in large parts of rural SouthAsia.