It is perhaps fitting that a thesis which takes collaboration as its focus has only come to fruition through the help and support of so many other people. There are almost too many people to name here, but, unlike the British colonists who feature in the following pages, I think it is important to try. I am especially grateful for the feedback and stimulating debate provided by members of the worldhistory community at Cambridge, in seminars, workshops, and reading groups. I would particularly like to thank Naomi Parkinson, who helped me to think through my jumbled and often contradictory ideas on our many train journeys to and from London. Steph Mawson’s last-minute proof-reading was incredibly valuable and she has also provided so many interesting contributions over the years – not least in opening up my mind to the broader story of the Chinese in southeast Asia. The reading group and, in particular, Tom Smith, Callie Wilkinson, James Poskett, Tom Simpson, Lachlan Fleetwood, Hatiçe Yildiz, and Alix Chartrand, helped me to develop my knowledge of parts of the world that I would never have thought could have had such an impact on the places that I was writing about. They have also been supportive and understanding friends. I am likewise grateful to the conveners of the graduate worldhistory workshop, with whom I worked for several years, whose endlessly fascinating ideas about how we might encourage the exploration of worldhistory (not least through our conference!) helped me to broaden my thinking about our subject.
In a review in this very forum in 2009 Clare Anderson praised a shift in IndianOcean studies. By looking not from land to sea but from ocean to coast, scholars are better able to immerse themselves in the variegated transactions, linkages and nodal points of this peripatetic maritime world, especially in the period before the region was more greatly territorialised by European empire in the latter 19th century. But Anderson also highlighted the pressing need for more ‘rigorous incorporation of Africa’ and littoral African communities into IndianOcean Studies (1) as part of what Markus Vink terms the latest wave of ‘new thalassology’ in IndianOcean historiography – the need to ‘disentangle the complex strand of spatial categorizations and explore the permeable inner and outer boundaries of the IndianOceanworld(s)’.(2) Anderson’s own work, like that of Ned Alpers, Gwyn Campbell, Michael Pearson, Sugata Bose and a new generation of scholars such as Thomas McDow, has been influential in this emerging trend.(3) It is the search for a more textured picture of the multivalent economic and cultural interactions that ‘produce histories in rather than of the region’.(4) In this timely book by Pedro Machado of Indiana University, already himself an energetic new IndianOcean thalassologist through a number of journal articles trailing this volume, we have an excellent and focused contribution that incorporates Africa and Africans, as well as better documented western Indian nodes and peoples, into this complex oceanic turn. It will surely be required reading for anyone interested in IndianOcean and global history.
Elbert Hubbard Human beings have arranged a civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology (Carl Sagan, 1996). Technology is the second greatest God’s gift, after the gift of life. It is the mother of civilizations of arts and of sciences (Freeman Dyson). Information Technology (IT) is nothing new; rather it was around us since long, may be since the inception of man on this planet. Generally, the history of IT is segregated in four major ages, but it is only the latest stage (electronic age) which has rigorously transformed the life of human being. Information Technology has made possible information access at gigabit speeds. It has made marvelous impact on the lives of millions of people who are deprived, poor, marginalized and living in rural and remote geographies. Internet has made revolutionary changes with possibilities of e-government measures like e-health, e-education, e-agriculture, etc. From the transfer of funds overseas, filing of Income Tax returns, applying for passports online or railway e-ticketing, everything is possible only by few clicks of the mouse. India’s IT potential is on a steady march towards global competitiveness, improving defense capabilities and meeting up energy and environmental challenges amongst others. Infor- mation technology (IT) industry in India is playing a key role in putting India on the global map. This sector has proved to be one of the most significant growth contributors for the Indian economy. The industry has played a significant role in transforming India’s image from a slow moving bureaucratic economy to a land of innovative entrepreneurs and a global player in providing world class technology solutions and business services. The industry has helped India transform from a rural and agriculture-based economy to a knowledge based economy.
through better model physical representations and, in the short term, develop new empirical methods for predicting MJO initiation based on DYNAMO data.
The DYNAMO aircraft component was an essential part of the field program used to collect high spatial resolution measurements over a relatively large region. It served for two main purposes: to address the basic science questions/hypotheses with its unique standalone suite of measurements and to bridge observations from fixed locations on ships and islands. In addition to the existing tail and fuselage Doppler radars and the flight level in situ measurements that were available during TOGA COARE, a scanning wave Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), high-resolution infrared (IR) and visible cameras, air and ocean expandable probes, and improved in situ sensors collectively produced an unprecedented dataset suite that will advance our understanding of the processes involved and subsequently will help improve atmosphere-ocean forecasts.
In Poland there is the tendency to add elements that stem from our history and past experiences. For example, our peasants are proud that they produce not only basic products, necessary for life, but also, that they have played a special role in fighting for freedom. There is a saying on all the flags and banners of the Peasant Party: 'Feed and protect.' Also, the Catholic church is deeply rooted in the rural areas. Our peasants are 99 percent Catholic. One of the famous figures in the history of the Polish church. Cardinal S. Wyszynski wrote several papers about the role of peasants strengthening Poland. In one of several papers about the roles of peasants stressing that the territory of Poland shifted several times, he wrote that where peasants speak Polish the nation is rooted in the soil. The nation is where the peasant is on the soil. This is often presented as a special value of farming and peasants.
When the British came to India and were gradually establishing themselves in Bengal, they met such a system (Ghosh, 1989:2). F. W. Thomas was of the opinion that ―Education is no exotic in India. There is no country where the love of learning had so early an origin or has exercised so lasting and powerful an influence‖ (Thomas, 1891, p. 1).The modern system of education came to be established in India during the British period at the cost of the traditional indigenous system. Before the British established a new system of education in India both the Hindus and the Muslims had their own systems of education. Both the systems went into oblivion gradually and suffered a set –back because of political turmoil and lack of a strong centralised political authority and want of suitable patronage (Purkait, 1992, p.1). Indian education had always been of a classical and spiritual rather of a practical nature. It was communicated through the sacred classical languages of the Hindus and the Muslims, namely Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian (Ghosh, 1989, p.2). The Tols and Madrassas were the highest seminaries of learning meant for the specialists. These institutions were not meant for education of an elementary kind. For primary education, there were in the villages, Patsalas and Maktabs where the Gurus and Maulavis imparted knowledge of the three ―R‖s to the boys of the locality. There was no school for the education of the girls though the Zamindars often had their daughters educated at home (Ghosh, 1989, p.3). The indigenous Indian Education started with the advent of the British. The colonial interests of the British shaped the then educational policies of India. In his book, ‗Education in British India‘ Arthur Howell says. "Education in India under the British Government was first ignored, then violently and successfully opposed, then conducted on a system now universally admitted to be erroneous and finally placed on its present footing" (1872:3).
Seventh Meeting of 2007, again the members stressed the lack of outcomes and suggested concrete proposals for the association’s success, this included the decision to form four- year action plan to guide the secretariat and member states to achieve goals of the association. Countries like Madagascar raised the issue of deviations by natural disaster in the region like Tsunamis in its own regions, floods in Indonesia, Mozambique’s cyclones etc, and drew attention towards the need for more efficient plans for greater advancement of the region. Same disappointment was seen among the members during 2008’s eighth meeting and in the same meeting they approved on an action plan with six priority areas trade, finance and investment, training and technology, fisheries, tourism, natural disasters and information technology. The 2009 Council of Ministers Meeting took place during a period of global economic instability and turbulence. At this time, the rising episodes of piracy in the IndianOcean emphasized the need for a coordinated efforts. Indeed, Oman's representative noted this 'alarming phenomenon' and urged member states 'to intensify collaboration and strengthen their capacity to combat this development'. Sri Lanka also stated that the growing instances of maritime piracy in the region were a matter of grave concern.
2) Create a beautiful Pachisi game for your family from wood, cloth, or specialty paper. Pachisi originated in ancient India. Research the history of the game before you begin your project.
3) Write a play based on the life or an incident in the life of a missionary to Asia. It can be one of the missionaries mentioned in Lesson 129, or another missionary. Your play should be at least seven pages long but can be as long as you like. Recruiting family and/or friends to perform your play might be fun, but is optional.
A series of very high waves broke over La R´eunion is- land in the IndianOcean on 12 May 2007, when there was an extreme weather event that occurred off southern tip of South Africa in the Atlantic Ocean. The waves did numer- ous damages on property and lives of R´eunion and neigh- bouring islands, and the maximum wave height was 11.3 m and significant wave height 6.4 m. During 14–15 May, the significant wave height was 8.0 m, as measured by wave gauges (http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com). The storm engen- dered swells, which propagated in the IndianOcean at about 1000 km day −1 , arrived at R´eunion, where low winds do not disrupt the swell. Lasting long enough, and with a rather large extension, it was observed by multiple altimeter tracks. This event that took place in May 2007 affected the north IndianOcean wave characteristics as the swell heights were very high of the order of 15.0 m near the generation area. The swells spread their energy as they travelled from the Atlantic Ocean towards the north IndianOcean.
The best-fit functional responses were often those most expected for island processes where the rate of change declines and values approach levels near-equi- librium with time and size (MacArthur & Wilson 1967). However, biomass and numbers of species did display declines with size and age of closures, respectively, resulting in an improved fit for the hump-shaped func- tion represented by the second-order polynomial. There was also a slight increase in herbivores in some of the oldest and largest high-compliance closures. These patterns can result from changing ecological processes such as declining net productivity, competi- tion, and predation and cascading effects (Graham et al. 2003, McClanahan & Graham 2005, McClanahan et al. 2007a, Stockwell et al. 2009), but can also result from a sampling effect of anomalous or idiosyncratic conditions in those specific parks at the extremes of size and age. For example, one of the oldest parks was also one of the smallest (Cousin Island) and 3 of the older parks had been badly damaged by the 1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Cousin Island, Malindi, and Watamu). One of the largest parks, Kisite, had a large amount of its area in sand plain habitat rather than reef, and this may have overestimated the size effect. Consequently, a variety of ecological interac- tions, history, local management, and resource use sit- uations created some of the observed variability and influenced best-fit responses. At the current number of replicate closures and the large number of other poten- tial influences, it is difficult to statistically distinguish among the many possible effects.
The gold stater was lighter in weight than the former electrum staters - a mere 8 grammes. However, this new stater was virtually pure gold, averaging about 98%, which was as pure as possible given the technology of that era. Fractional denominations were struck down to 1/12 of a stater known as the hemihekton. For the first time, silver denominations emerged in the monetary system of the world. The effective ratio of silver to gold as coined under Kroisos was 13 1/3 to 1. The weight of the silver coinage was set as to provide a value ratio of 1/10th that of the gold coins. The silver stater was nearly 11 grammes in actual weight compared to 8
Earth clouds have higher albedo at all seven wavebands than ocean or continents (see first the bottom panel of Figure 4), and most regions of the planet have variable cloud cover (Pall´e et al. 2008). Observations of multi- ple consecutive planetary rotations would yield multiple similar longitudinal maps. If differences between these maps were attributed to changes in cloud cover it would be possible to create maps of average cloud cover at each longitude, as well as maps of cloud variability. It may even be possible to partially “remove” clouds since the lowest albedo at each longitude would correspond to the observation with the least cloud cover. It would be im- possible, however, to strip the clouds from regions that are permanently shrouded (e.g.: tropical rain forests). Insofar as such clouds are permanent features, they can be mapped as terrain features, like oceans and conti- nents.
By the mid-1800s, many Indians felt growing resentment. When Indian soldiers heard rumors that offended their religious feelings, many rebelled. The East India Company needed a year—and British troops—to put it down. The Indians lost because of their own divisions. Muslims and Hindus did not trust each other. After the revolt, the British government took direct control of British India.
India has long had ambitions to be the dominant power in the IndianOcean. Though few might publicly admit it, many in New Delhi believe that the IndianOcean must be, and must be seen to be, ‘India’s Ocean’ (Scott, 2006). As one US analyst commented, ‘New Delhi regards the IndianOcean as its backyard and deems it both natural and desirable that India function as, eventually, the leader and the predominant influence in this region—the world's only region and ocean named after a single state’ (Berlin, 2006). This aspiration brings together several strands of Indian strategic thinking: some argue that India must establish a defence perimeter in the IndianOcean to preclude the possibility of extra-regional intervention in the subcontinent; some draw a connection between India’s maritime ambitions and its aspirations to become a great power. Indeed influential strategists such as K.Subrahmanyam have argued that leadership of the IndianOcean is part of India’s ‘manifest destiny’ (Holmes, Winner and Yoshihara, 2009, p.38). 1 Not least is also a dose of nominative determinism. As Indian Ambassador to the United States, Ronan Sen, told President George Bush in 2005, ‘There are good reasons why it is called the IndianOcean ... it has always been in the Indian sphere of influence’ (Rajghatta, 2005). These aspirations to strategic
Recent results by Morioka et al. (2010) revealed that IOD acts as a major climate mode in the SWIO. Thus, the IOD has been included (B`egue et al., 2010) using the Dipole Mode Index (Behera and Yamagata, 2003) defined as the differ- ence in SST between the western and eastern tropical IndianOcean. Since the MJO is the dominant intra-seasonal mode of variability in the tropics (Zhang, 2005), this forcing has also been added in Trend-Run. We used the index of Wheeler and Hendon (2004) which is based on the first two empiri- cal orthogonal functions of combined fields of 850 hPa zonal wind, 200 hPa zonal wind and outgoing longwave radiation (near the equator and averaged). In its final form, Trend-Run decomposes a geophysical signal Y (t ) as follows:
The Sino-Indian relationship in the IndianOcean Region is a unique relationship characterized by the elements of complex security. These two nations not only have to manage their age old rivalry, but also pursue cooperation. Over the last couple of years, both China and India have emerged as major economies and potential global powers and are together the topic of much academic focus and media coverage. The underlying elements of mistrust, tensions and disputes still remain deep rooted. However the regional shifts in the balance of power and changing dynamics in the international milieu have resulted in the two states striving to engage with each other, while simultaneously reviving the process of confidence building and also competing for greater global power and influence. The study is focusing on cooperation and competition between Sino-Indian relations with the help of Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT) by Barry Buzan and Ole Waever. The paper analysed the importance of the IndianOcean Region in India‟s strategic thinking. Both are fast emerging as major maritime powers in the IndianOcean Region as part of long-term shifts in the regional balance of power. As their interests, power expands and wealth, the two countries are also increasingly coming into contact with each other in the maritime domain. How India and China get along in the shared Indo-Pacific cooperation in the trade, coexistence, competition, or confrontation may be one of the key strategic challenges of the 21st century. The Sino-Indian relationship is a difficult one because the security relations remain relatively complicated and volatile is by numerous unresolved issues. India perceives China as attempting to restructure the strategic environment in its kindness, with by establishing positions with neighboring countries that could be used against India.
One of the primary reasons for allowing foreign banks to enter in a country is to improve the quality and the efficiency of banking services and to bring more efficiency and transparency in the financial sector. Across the world, the entry of foreign banks in a country has usually been found to benefit the end consumers as it has led to increased credit availability, more efficient banking and a higher rate of economic growth. The entry of foreign banks has especially benefited developing countries where the foreign entrants are more efficient than the local banks and raise the overall level of competition. However, the implications of foreign bank entry on the stability of the domestic banking sector have been widely debated. This is especially the case for developing countries where the financial sector is still not very robust and economic crisis have occurred in the past. Foreign banks are considered detrimental to the stability of the economy because they expedite capital flight during troubled times and worsen economic crisis scenarios. During the South East Asian crisis, these banks were the first to withdraw from the market. They are also accused of “cherry picking” or choosing only the more attractive clients for doing business with, leaving the domestic banks to deal with the more risky ones [Victor Murinde , 2002]. The examples of some countries is discussed in the following sub-sections
China may use its maritime territorial disputes with East & South East Asian countries. it has always been the view of strategists that Asian security is provided excellent service by China which is a continental power where as the US is dominant over the seas but this is altering now because China's naval power is growing day by day. If we talk about Indo - China naval rivalry then we can argue that Indian and China can not prevail over East Asian and Indianocean waters. Keeping all these concerns said, the US will keep dominating maritime power in the region as it