History of the Neurosciences

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Rethinking interdisciplinarity across the social sciences and neurosciences

Rethinking interdisciplinarity across the social sciences and neurosciences

Well, the two of us did, eventually, find a neuroscientist – and we ended up working together on methodological and substantive issues of interest to each of us. And so, maybe the organizer was right in adjudi- cating how best to orient people towards putting together collaborative projects. Still, and albeit only in retrospect, this was an early clue that there was a lot more going on beneath the surface of these interdisci- plinary attempts to bring together neuroscientists, social scientists, and humanities scholars than either of us had imagined. In fact, beneath the frictionless imaginary of equably co-labouring humanities scholars, scientists, and social scientists – each with her own, dedicated tasks to perform – heterogeneous organizations, individuals, and technologies were creating a very specific, and surprisingly powerful, intellectual space. This space, moreover, for all the talk about its openness and creativity, had some sharp edges – as well as what we increasingly came to identify as surprisingly conservative inheritances. Over the years that followed that workshop, we continued to work across the social sciences and neurosciences, separately and together, and usually with others too. This was not, at least initially, because we were interested in ‘interdisci- plinarity’ in its own right. Rather, we were convinced, as many others have been before us (e.g. Rose 2013), that one could no longer talk about human social life, in all its complexity, contest, history, and nuance, as if that life were not also threaded through the biological propensities of an assemblage of human animals (as well as non-human animals, and indeed non-humans in general). And vice versa: that new, sophisticated, and nuanced tools for taking – and analysing – biological measures (it was measures of brain function that especially captured our attention) needed to be situated within thicker, more capacious attention to the ‘social’ than was then on offer.
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An examination of lotka’s law of authorship productivity in the field of neurosciences

An examination of lotka’s law of authorship productivity in the field of neurosciences

personal names in the 1907 -1916 Decennial Index of Chemical Abstracts against which there appeared 1, 2, 3, etc. entries, covering only the letters A and B of the alphabet. He also applied a similar process to the name index in Felix stafeln der Physic (Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1910), which dealt with the entire range of the history of physics through 1900 by using the latter source, Lotka’s hoped to take into account not only the volume of production but also only the outstanding contribution in physics. In making these counts Lotka’s credited only the senior author in joint publications, on the basis of this data, Lotka’s derived what he termed as Inverse Square Law According to which of 60% of authors produce one paper, 25% of authors produce two papers, 11% produce three papers and 6.3% produce four papers etc.
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Rethinking Interdisciplinarity across the social and neurosciences

Rethinking Interdisciplinarity across the social and neurosciences

Well, the two of us did, eventually, find a neuroscientist – and we ended up working together on methodological and substantive issues of interest to each of us. And so, maybe the organizer was right in adjudi- cating how best to orient people towards putting together collaborative projects. Still, and albeit only in retrospect, this was an early clue that there was a lot more going on beneath the surface of these interdisci- plinary attempts to bring together neuroscientists, social scientists, and humanities scholars than either of us had imagined. In fact, beneath the frictionless imaginary of equably co-labouring humanities scholars, scientists, and social scientists – each with her own, dedicated tasks to perform – heterogeneous organizations, individuals, and technologies were creating a very specific, and surprisingly powerful, intellectual space. This space, moreover, for all the talk about its openness and creativity, had some sharp edges – as well as what we increasingly came to identify as surprisingly conservative inheritances. Over the years that followed that workshop, we continued to work across the social sciences and neurosciences, separately and together, and usually with others too. This was not, at least initially, because we were interested in ‘interdisci- plinarity’ in its own right. Rather, we were convinced, as many others have been before us (e.g. Rose 2013), that one could no longer talk about human social life, in all its complexity, contest, history, and nuance, as if that life were not also threaded through the biological propensities of an assemblage of human animals (as well as non-human animals, and indeed non-humans in general). And vice versa: that new, sophisticated, and nuanced tools for taking – and analysing – biological measures (it was measures of brain function that especially captured our attention) needed to be situated within thicker, more capacious attention to the ‘social’ than was then on offer.
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Evaluation of a multicomponent pathway to address inpatient delirium on a neurosciences ward

Evaluation of a multicomponent pathway to address inpatient delirium on a neurosciences ward

This method of chart review to detect delirium has been previously validated with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 83% when compared to interviewer-based methods [12]. Chart reviews were performed by one in- vestigator (E.G.B.). A subset of charts was reviewed by the senior investigator (V.C.D.) to internally validate the methodology. Charts where the delirium diagnosis was uncertain were adjudicated by the investigators. Blinding to the care epoch was not possible because the medical record could not be reviewed with the dates removed. All physician and nursing notes were reviewed for the presence of absence of delirium, the start and end dates, the subtype (hyperactive versus hypoactive), who diag- nosed the delirium, and any potential cause if identified. To assess the accuracy of the chart review method, delir- ium diagnosis by chart review was compared to the CAM assessment of bedside nurses. We also reviewed the past medical history available in the notes and prob- lem list to calculate a Charlson comorbidity index [13], and made special note of a history of psychiatric disease or epilepsy. If the family or admitting physician noted a history of long-term difficulty with thinking, or if there was a formal diagnosis of dementia in the problem list, then the subject was recorded as having prior cognitive impairment. While delirium may be a particularly detri- mental complication in patients with dementia and iden- tifying this subgroup is particularly important [6], the level of detail available in the chart did not allow for the distinction from those patients with mild cognitive im- pairment. We also collected demographic information, dates of admission, transfers, and discharge, hospital ser- vice at admission, 30-day readmission rates to our med- ical center, presence and duration of restraint or sitter use, and discharge disposition. The results of the AWOL
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The history of creation and study of vitamin D medicines in the Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the NAS of Ukraine for 1990-2015

The history of creation and study of vitamin D medicines in the Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of the NAS of Ukraine for 1990-2015

Дослідження, проведені в лабораторії медичної біохімії в цьому напрямі, завершилися розроб - кою вітамінно-мінерального комплексу для лікування захворювань кісткової тканини[r]

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POSTER : SURGICAL SECTION

POSTER : SURGICAL SECTION

A 19-years old Malay man, a non contact lens user with a previous good vision, presented with a history of non traumatic painful reduced vision with redness of the right eye for two weeks duration. He noted a cornea opacity one week after the onset of the sympoms. He was initially treated by a general practitioner without improvement and sought further treatment at Hospital USM. Ocular examination showed paracentral ulcer, with minimal epithelial defect which showed a clearly demarcated stromal infiltration, surrounded by microabscess at the ulcer edge. Topical gentamicin was commenced empirically and showed rapid clinical response. Cornea scrapping was sent for culture and sensitivity and isolated Nocardia species, The patient’s condition improved remarkably and the ulcer healed with cornea opacity the visual axis.
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Phenomenological psychopathology and the neurosciences

Phenomenological psychopathology and the neurosciences

Phenomenology and neuroscience share an explicit interest in the “mind”, with interest growing as to the inter-relationship be- tween the two disciplines and their object of study. In fact, both aim to explain characteristics of mental life and mental illness. For phenomenology there is often a prioritisation of subjective experience, whereas the neurosciences are primarily interested in brain structure and functioning, but aspire to give a bottom-up account of conscious experience. However, for some authors in the two fields, these disciplines show elements of complementa- rity. This complex union between the biological and philosophi- cal was already evident in the work of Jaspers and his General Psychopathology, Brentano, and the debate on psychologism that inaugurates Husserl’s work. Jaspers conveys a pluralistic vi- sion of science, and contrasted this complementary approach with one of biological exclusivity in explaining mental phenom- ena. His thought contains elements of topical relevance such as the difficulty of proving the biological substrate of psychic events and the spatial location of mental events in network sys- tems rather than discrete areas. Phenomenologically-speaking, he constantly re-oriented the focus of the discussion to subjec- tive experience as a means to understand mental illness, along- side somatic accounts. In recent years, the scientific community has experienced a long period in which biological psychiatry
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Management of Epilepsy in Resource-Limited Areas: Establishing an Epilepsy Surgery Program in Iran

Management of Epilepsy in Resource-Limited Areas: Establishing an Epilepsy Surgery Program in Iran

Corresponding author MD., Associate Professor of Epileptology, Neurosciences Research Center, Department of Neurology, Shiraz Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shira[r]

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Epithelial mesenchymal interactions: a fundamental Developmental Biology mechanism

Epithelial mesenchymal interactions: a fundamental Developmental Biology mechanism

Epithelial mesenchymal interactions a fundamental Developmental Biology mechanism DOMENICO RIBATTI* and MARCELLO SANTOIEMMA Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Univ[.]

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The role of a parental history of Balkan endemic nephropathy in the occurrence of BEN: a prospective study

The role of a parental history of Balkan endemic nephropathy in the occurrence of BEN: a prospective study

was not mediated by clinical markers. Those offspring with a biparental BEN status were 71.5 times more likely to develop BEN than those without a PHB (OR = exponential of 4.27, Figure 3). Participants with a maternal history of BEN were 52.3 times more likely to develop BEN, while those with a paternal history of BEN were 50.1 times more likely to develop the disease than those without a PHB (OR = exponential of 3.91). A reduction of kidney cortex width of 1 mm increased the risk of having BEN (OR = 0.75; exponential of − 0.28). Also, an increase in CCr was associated with lower occur- rence of BEN (OR = 0.94; exponential of − 0.059). No direct associations between CRP, kidney length, or β 2 -microglobulin and new cases of BEN were detected.
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A low energy dense diet in the context of a weight management program improves appetite control in overweight and obese women

A low energy dense diet in the context of a weight management program improves appetite control in overweight and obese women

The Journal of Nutrition Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences A Low Energy–Dense Diet in the Context of a Weight-Management Program Affects Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Women[r]

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Education Research: Variation in priorities for neurocritical care education expressed across role groups

Education Research: Variation in priorities for neurocritical care education expressed across role groups

A total of 268 providers from 30 institutions participated: 74 (27.6%) neurology residents (RES), 31 (11.6%) NCC fellows (FEL), 46 (17.2%) attending physicians (PHY), 60 (22.4%) directors of a fellowship or neurosciences intensive care unit (DIR), 32 (11.9%) critical care nurses (NUR), 13 (4.9%) nurse practitioners or physician assistants, and 12 (4.5%) others. Among respondents, 96.5% were from academic medical cen- ters, 93.3% were from institutions with a neurosciences intensive care unit (ICU), and 77.4% were from an institution with an NCC fellowship training program. Of the 211 physicians, 38.9% were certified in NCC through the UCNS practice or fellowship track and 88.2% had trained in a neurology residency. The re- mainder of physician respondents trained in internal medicine (4.7%), emergency medicine (2.4%), anesthesiology (1.9%), surgical critical care (1.0%), and medicine–psychiatry (1.0%) residencies.
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Biological insights from 108.pdf

Biological insights from 108.pdf

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.. Nati[r]

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An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines

An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines

during the week and at the weekend in five ICUs in the Thames Valley region of England (John Radcliffe Hospi- tal, Oxford, Adult ICU and Neurosciences ICU; Church- ill Hospital, Oxford, Adult ICU; Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Adult ICU; and Wycombe General Hospital, High Wycombe, Adult ICU). These units were chosen for both their proximity and their heterogeneity because they are examples of different physical ward lay- outs, patient populations and building designs. This exercise did not involve patient recruitment or the use of any identifiable information. Our local ethics policy states that studies based on fully anonymised data which the study team cannot trace back to individuals does not constitute ‘research involving human participants’, and therefore this study was not subject to ethical review. The lead physician at each unit gave written per- mission for the sound levels to be measured, and staff members working on the units were aware of the monitoring.
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Affective disorders, psychosis and dementia in a community sample of older men with and without Parkinson's disease

Affective disorders, psychosis and dementia in a community sample of older men with and without Parkinson's disease

We completed a series of additional analyses to investigate the association between recency of the diagnosis of PD and the onset of mental health symptoms. Fourteen men had an affective episode recorded within 1 year of the diagnosis of PD (rate = 178/1000 person-years compared with 6/1000 person-years for men without PD), with PD being associated with an age-adjusted HR of an affective episode of 22.7 (95%CI = 13.4, 38.4) relative to men without PD. In contrast, the rate of depression among men with history of PD > 1 year was 34/1000 person-years (n = 122), and the age-adjusted HR of an affective episode compared with men without PD was 4.6 (95%CI = 3.8, 5.5). As previous reports have suggested that depression could precede the diagnosis of PD by about 2 years [16], we used logistic regression to investigate this possible association. The age-adjusted odds ratio of depression occurring in the 2 years preceding the diagnosis of PD was 1.03 (95%CI = 0.82, 1.29).
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How Neurosciences Effects on Decision Making and Leadership

How Neurosciences Effects on Decision Making and Leadership

Pedler et al., (1991) identified attributes required for leaders are fundamental skills, technical skills, interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, decision making skills, time management skills, relevant professional knowledge, Emotional buoyancy, pro-active, creativity, Mental alertness. The research paper explores the effect of neuroscience on leadership from past studies. This review is organized into two parts. First we try to find the relationship of neuroscience, decision making and leadership. Second we will discuss the limitations faced the researchers to conduct intra disciplinary studies. Finally we conclude the discussion the potential applications of neurosciences applications.
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A multicenter comparison of MOG-IgG cell-based assays

A multicenter comparison of MOG-IgG cell-based assays

From the Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group (P.J.W., M.W., S.R.I.), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UK; Institute for Experimental Immunology (L.K., S.L.), Affiliated to Eu[r]

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An Infinite Light and Infinite Frequency in Cosmology and Neurosciences

An Infinite Light and Infinite Frequency in Cosmology and Neurosciences

We can frankly infer three things here: 1 at zero time but presence of unknown or infinite too big dimension could this be a single and yet infinite-light?, and the energy concept for “p[r]

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Malaysian Society of Neurosciences (MSN) – Asian and Oceanian Myology Centre (AOMC) Annual Scientific Meeting 2018

Malaysian Society of Neurosciences (MSN) – Asian and Oceanian Myology Centre (AOMC) Annual Scientific Meeting 2018

With the increasing interest in neurosciences and the rapid development of this field in Malaysia and worldwide, MSN membership has been growing over the years, with over 700 members to date. We hope to attract new members in a continuous wave that seeks

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A History of Islam among the Fakkawa of Zuru Emirate, 1910-2015

A History of Islam among the Fakkawa of Zuru Emirate, 1910-2015

Subsequently, other scholars engaged in itinerant preaching throughout Fakai, District particularly the head of the movement, Mallam Aliyu Damana and others who included Mallam[r]

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