History of Thought

Top PDF History of Thought:

Work = work ! work: In defence of play

Work = work ! work: In defence of play

This approach requires us to take a step back and engage with philosophical concepts of work, mainly Hegelian and Marxian, which are inherently paradoxical. Working implies a contradictory relation of causality. In Hegelese: The moment a working subject experiences its powers of self-assertion and freedom, it is confronted with its dependency and limits. In Marxian parlance, the emancipatory character of work already entails the foundation of its estrangement. In the history of thought, the paradoxical dichotomisation of work as function and as meaning in itself (and the attempts to ‘hide’ the paradox by prioritising one side over the other) can be traced up to the current debate on so-called social and artistic critiques of capitalism, to echo Boltanski and Chiapello’s influential distinction in The New Spirit of Capitalism (2005). It is here that we situate the diagnosis of play’s corruption into capitalist development. Play’s ‘dysfunctionality’ or ‘inoperability’ has been conceived as paradigmatic for artistic practice, the potential of the aesthetic and political emancipation (Marcuse, 1980; Schiller, 2004; Rancière, 2009b; Strouhal, 2010). The fiction – the as if – of play is disinterested in the profane reality of everyday life, enabling its transgression (Pfaller, 2010). But if playful activity merges with professional activity, then the potential of artistic critique becomes a function of work and new forms of exploitation (Boltanski and Chiapello, 2005). Is ‘aesthetic play’ therefore easily subsumed under the logic of late capitalism? Through the paradoxical lens, we engage with and challenge this critique of artistic critique as a forceful, albeit melancholic, line of argument. Boltanski and Chiapello’s claim hinges on and perpetuates the assumption of a non-contradictory constitution of work, whereby playful activity is translated into an instrumental postulate of work as meaning in itself. Offering a more complex notion of work, we contend that the insolubility of paradox and the paradoxical constitution of work reopen rather than foreclose the question of play and thus the possibilities and capacities of artistic critique (Beyes and Steyaert, 2011).
Show more

16 Read more

The History Of Muhammadiyahs Thought And Movement, Study On Personality And Idea Of The Founding Figure (KH. Ahmad Dahlan)

The History Of Muhammadiyahs Thought And Movement, Study On Personality And Idea Of The Founding Figure (KH. Ahmad Dahlan)

No doubt Muhammadiyah is one of the pioneers of religious renewal in Indonesia. As a religious reformist, Muhammadiyah has contributed greatly in the development of the majority of Indonesia's people are Muslims. Thanks to Muhammadiyah's pioneering movement, many schools from kindergarten to higher education, hospitals, orphanages and Islamic institutions have grown up in the community, Islam has become a symbol of nationality. When Muhammadiyah was founded by KH. Ahmad Dahlan in 1912, Muslims are in a very bad condition. Together with the entire Indonesian nation, they are backward, with very low levels of education, severe economic prosperity and a powerless political capacity. Even more concerning, Islamic identity is one of the negative points of people's life. Islam was synonymous with the profile of the “santri” who merely take care of the afterlife, while ignorant and do not want to know with the times. While religious institutions or organizations are still struggling in matters that are not much in contact with the dynamics of social reality, let alone trying to advance. Islamic teachings seem to be the shackles that increasingly immerse his people to situations that are worthless and helpless. On the other hand, educated community groups become allergic to Islam and Muslims, because they are regarded as a source of people's backwardness, and can not be a way to build a better future. As reflected in the profile of its establishment, Muhammadiyah was present as a breaker. Inspired by the Islamic renewal movement in the international world that Jamaluddin Al- Afdhani, Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida and others, Muhammadiyah moves to explore the true and universal values of Islam as a guide for life. Thus, reviewing the history of thought and development of the Muhammadiyah movement in Indonesia, is inseparable from the background of KH. Ahmad Dahlan personality and ideas.
Show more

5 Read more

The inheritance of heterodox economic thought: An examination of history of economic thought textbooks

The inheritance of heterodox economic thought: An examination of history of economic thought textbooks

The only semantic break from the general consensus occurs within the text by Spiegel who describes the work of what other authors call Post Keynesian as “neo-Keynesian,” for instance, as that work which attempts to dislodge the entrenched mainstream theory of distribution based on marginal productivity founded upon the early neoclassical work Joan Robinson (Spiegel, 1991, 669). Other disagreement with respect to the Post Keynesian group revolves around whether they are most closely aligned with the modern Austrian (Rima, 2001, 553, 561) or Radical group (Spiegel, 1991, 669; Hunt, 2002, 477-8). These discrepancies are minor and the textbook authors’ description of Post Keynesianism, when presented, consistent. Thus, the concern with respect to the adoption of different history of thought textbooks centers specifically on the historical context of the group’s development and in the semantics of its name.
Show more

26 Read more

Schumpeter and the History of Economic Thought

Schumpeter and the History of Economic Thought

It seems reasonable that the statistics, that is, the number or series of numbers relevant to statistics-economic studies. This has been recognized in practice since at least the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a period in which much of the work was to gather political figures and interpret statistics. This pointed to a respectable English, French and Italian tradition. In economics statistics are needed not only to explain things, but also to rigorously adjust the precision required to explain. However, we must add some similar observations which were previously made on history. It is impossible to understand curves, figures or statistics, if trends do not know where the information or understand that information once the specialists formulated without understanding the methods by which specialists achieve these results, or better without understanding the epistemological foundations that give sustenance to the figures. So the domain of statistics related to the economy is a necessary, but not sufficient to prevent the economist argues nonsense, although the arguments may have value in another context; our dependence on related scientific disciplines is therefore important in the formation of the economist. For analytical resources as correlations or variances, the economist must be able to recognize issues related to other fields of knowledge.
Show more

15 Read more

Context and social criticism: The problem of context in the history of political thought and political theory

Context and social criticism: The problem of context in the history of political thought and political theory

11 Marx summarises his conception of history as follows: 'This conception of history thus relies on expounding the real process of production - starting from the material production of life itself - and comprehending the form of intercourse connected with and created by this mode of production, i.e., civil society in its various stages, as the basis of all history; describing it in its action as the state, and also explaining how all the different theoretical products and forms of consciousness, religion, philosophy, morality, etc., etc., arise from it and tracing the process of their formation from that basis; thus the whole thing can, of course be depicted in its totality (and therefore, too, the reciprocal action of these various sides on one another). It has not, like the idealist view of history, to look for a category in every period, but remains constantly on the real ground of history ; it does not explain practice from the idea but explains the formation of idea from material practice, and accordingly it comes to the conclusion that all forms and products of consciousness cannot be dissolved by mental criticism, by resolution into 'self-consciousness' or transformation into 'apparitions', 'spectres', 'whimsies', etc. but only by the practical overthrow of the actual social relations which give rise to this idealistic humbug; that not criticism but revolution is the driving force of history, also of religion, of philosophy and all other kinds of theory.' Marx, German Ideology. Collected Works Vol. 5 (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1976), p.53-4.
Show more

320 Read more

Contributions of Muslim Scholars to the History of Economic Thought and Analysis upto 15th Century

Contributions of Muslim Scholars to the History of Economic Thought and Analysis upto 15th Century

During those days economic discussions formed the part of ethical and philosophical discourses, so the Muslim scholars’ economic ideas were also translated and transmitted along with their philosophical works and translations. For example, most of Aristotle’s views of economic interest are found in Politics and in the Nicomachean Ethics. Translation of Ibn Rushd’s commentary on these two works became very popular in the West. To quote Grice-Hutchinson (1978, p. 73) again, “Harman’s translation of Averroes’s commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics enjoyed great success and was never superseded. It has been used in all the editions of Aristotle that are accompanied by Averroes’s commentaries, and has remained, almost into modern times one of the main sources of Aristotelian economics”. Charles Burnett (1994, p. 1050) considers it a mark of Ibn Rushd’s success that “a far greater number of his commentaries survived in Latin than in the original Arabic”. It may be noted that the transmission of Muslim scholars’ thought was not confined to translation work. A number of European students traveled to the Islamic seats of learning in Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Andalusia where they learnt various sciences from their Muslim teachers and on return to their countries they spread their ideas through their own writings or teaching work. (Sezgin, 1984, p. 128).
Show more

131 Read more

History, law and land : the languages of native policy in New Zealand's general assemby, 1858 62 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

History, law and land : the languages of native policy in New Zealand's general assemby, 1858 62 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

recapitulation is useful here. As John Pocock points out in his recent work on the contexts of Gibbon’s Decline and Fall, this was not history in the standard sense of a narrative concerning the past; rather it was a theoretical construct devised by legal or moral philosophers such as Adam Smith, John Millar and Adam Ferguson, to account for the development or appearance of civil society in history, namely in Europe. These were systems of natural jurisprudence that endeavoured to explain the history of mankind apart from older theological schemes. 13 Fundamental to these ‘conjectural’ schemes was an explanation of the development of the human mind and capacities based on the material environment. This was the genesis of the ‘four stages theory’: savage peoples were hunter-gatherers; barbarian peoples were animal herders; semi-barbarian or semi-civilized peoples were agriculturalists; and civilized peoples were settled trading communities. In essence, changes in the material environment or mode of subsistence were the basis for the development of ‘society’ and ‘civility’. In particular, the contrast was between those peoples who had appropriated property in land (and perhaps animals, as in Smith’s version) 14 and those who had not. Once property had been appropriated or claimed (by individuals), law developed to protect those property claims. Following that, money and letters (i.e., writing) developed to better facilitate commercial transactions. 15 In the savage state of wandering vagrants, there was supposed to be little if any division of labour, whereas commercial society was characterised by a settled community with various occupations or professions that, working together, enhanced productivity and the accumulation of resources. 16
Show more

148 Read more

Economic policy caliph Umar ibn Khattab

Economic policy caliph Umar ibn Khattab

2 study of economic policy Umar can browse through the history of economic thought in Islam (2015) 4 of Aan Gilani in it explains that Khalid bin al-Walid suggest the use of an institution diwan (office or register). He said to 'Umar, that he had seen the Syrian authorities use the model diwan. It accepted the idea of Khalid. It is also informed that the proposed 'Umar to introduce it's diwan al-Hurmuzan. Tithing ( 'ushr) and land tax (kharaj) is the main source of income. Levy system inherited from the ruler of the Persian form of land tax (misahah) adopted by the second caliph, Omar bin al-Khattab after assessing the situation and examining the soil and productivity (Abu Yusuf, 1392: 40).
Show more

9 Read more

The economics curriculum in Australian Universities 1980 to 2011

The economics curriculum in Australian Universities 1980 to 2011

The next five categories (Development Economics, Comparative Economic Systems, History of Economic Thought, Economic History and Heterodox Economics) are grouped under the meta-category of economics as a social science. The key feature of this meta-category is the ontology of a complex, rather than complicated system. Agents are rule followers, structure and agency co-evolve in path-dependent historical time. It is not a case of change within a given system, but the system is itself evolving (Potts: 2000, Beinhocker: 2006, Foster: 2005). Whilst each of the five categories has some distinct strands that still share the complicated ontology of neoclassical economics (history of economic thought being the most obvious), all five categories share the tendency towards a complex systems ontology that is at the heart of the social sciences.
Show more

18 Read more

Varieties of Seventeenth  and Early Eighteenth Century English Radicalism in Context

Varieties of Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century English Radicalism in Context

These two trends dominated historiography at least until the 1970s, and the Marxist current, with historians such as Christopher Hill, Rodney Hilton, A. L. Morton and E. P. Thompson, who tried to give greater attention to ‘history from below’, was particularly influential in the rethinking of the English Revolution in the 20th century. Nevertheless, the substantive approach presents two significant shortcomings: first of all, it implies an ideological and teleological consideration of the past; moreover, it fails to integrate traditions of religious dissent within an organic conception of radicalism.
Show more

6 Read more

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

contributors. Thomas C. Jones’ wide-ranging survey of French republicanism between 1848 and the fall of the Second Empire captures a worldview with imposing authority; it is neatly complemented by Anne- Sophie Chambost’s piece on French socialist ideas about direct democracy over the same period. Georgios Varouxakis critiques the idea that mid-century British commentators understood the revolutions through the prism of the idea of ‘nationality’, focusing mainly on prominent liberal commentators. Samuel Hayat’s chapter is unique within the book in focusing not on the educated, articulate middle and upper classes, but instead on socialist ideas among the ‘working classes’, which is to say among organised workers. Stedman Jones’ closing chapter interprets the place of ‘class’ language in mid-century Britain and France: it is a fascinating essay, but it operates at such a high level that the ‘language’ element sometimes gets lost. Finally here there is Jonathan Parry’s superb chapter on mid-century British Christian Socialist thought, which tracks the mechanisms by which a particular set of ideas, shaped partly in response to 1848, came to inform the politics of a group of British Liberal politicians between the 1850s and the 1870s.
Show more

5 Read more

Winning wars without battles : hybrid warfare and other 'indirect' approaches in the history of strategic thought

Winning wars without battles : hybrid warfare and other 'indirect' approaches in the history of strategic thought

‘Hybrid warfare’ is but one conceptual construct in the history of military-strategic thought that promises a quick way to military success. However, as the history of presumed war-winning approaches shows, no concept in the past has turned out to be a panacea. The idea that any one op- erational approach can lead to military victory is an ‘astrategic’ view on warfare that does not take into account that context always matters. Russia’s ‘hybrid approach’ in Crimea worked because of the circumstances of this particular case and not because it found a ‘new way of war’ that can simply be repeated. The use of non-military instruments in warfare is neither new, nor specific to Russia. Moreover, as very little actual military force was used in Crimea, this particular operation allows for very limited conclusions with regards to improvements in Russia’s military achieved in recent years. The development of ‘hybrid warfare’ capabilities does not encapsulate the objectives of Russian mili- tary modernisation, which continues to pursue the aim of developing full-spectrum capabilities and, ultimately, a conventional deterrent against the West. The portrayal of ‘hybrid warfare’ as a new Rus- sian way of war also obscures the fact that the strength of any country’s military capabilities is not universal, but needs to be assessed in the context of specific opponents. In other words, the Crimea operation showed that Russia’s military is far superior to that of Ukraine, but says little about Rus- sian military capabilities compared to other states.
Show more

65 Read more

RELIGION 265: Contemporary American Religious History

RELIGION 265: Contemporary American Religious History

A survey of the texts of Hinduism, setting texts in historical contexts. The course is designed around the forthcoming Norton Anthology of Hinduism, supplemented by a history of the Hindus. The readings will focus closely on texts in Sanskrit and vernacular literatures, from different historical periods. It will situate each major idea in the context of the historical events to which it responded: the Rig Veda in the Indo-European migrations, the Upanishads in the social crisis of the first great cities on the Ganges, and so forth, up to the present day BJP revisionist tactics. And it will emphasize the alternative traditions of women and the lower classes. A 15 page paper will be due at the end of the course.
Show more

9 Read more

Rhetoric and gender in Sidney's 'Arcadias'

Rhetoric and gender in Sidney's 'Arcadias'

The Seventeenth Century: Studies in the History of English Thought and Literature from Bacon to Pope, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951, p... Rhetoric and Reception.[r]

321 Read more

P.L. Lavrov's thought as 'humanist' thought.

P.L. Lavrov's thought as 'humanist' thought.

In the course of the 1860s, Lavrov found that Russian society presented only limited possibilities for personal development, and that the state's initiatives were not improving the situation. Efforts by private individuals were unsatisfactory due to the small scope of their results. Lavrov became increasingly interested in the development and pursuit of ideals at the social rather than the individual level. At this point, his thought became 'humanist' in new respects. He adopted a notion of culture which was similar to that of humanists because it stressed the importance of inherited values and customs in determining personal development, but also demanded continuous change and development according to contemporary needs and ideals. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, he put forward a theory of a federal state which he valued because it promoted free personal development and encouraged the expression and realization of personal ideals, while still allowing people to live in communities that are united by shared beliefs. This, again, is an attitude which one associates with humanism. Finally, in a fashion analogous to humanists, Lavrov was inspired by the ancient Greeks, whose state and society, he claimed, embodied his own ideals.
Show more

125 Read more

The dichotomization of the christological paradox in the history of Christian thought  and critical biblical scholarship

The dichotomization of the christological paradox in the history of Christian thought and critical biblical scholarship

The dichotomization of the christological paradox in the history of Christian thought and critical biblical scholarship Herman C Waetjen l San Francisco Theological Seminary, USA Research Associate De[.]

43 Read more

Labour's First Century

Labour's First Century

Ideas are a living part of political history, and cannot be treated as reflections of politics - they have a chronology and consistency of their own. The dynamic of Labour thinking is controlled by the history of a political party seeking power and (usually) willing to compromise ideas in order to obtain it. It is not a question of giving Labour thought an artificial coherence; the coherence is provided by the dynamic - the 'drama' - of Labour's history as a party seeking power, and of various political and economic interest groups fighting within that party for internal power. Within that struggle, there is a great deal of interaction of different ideologies and theories, but it is an interaction which mainly depends on the play of power rather than on any philosophical coherence. Labour thought is thus given an external coherence by Labour's history, and that allows us to explore the intellectual frontiers of different ideologies to mark out their differences as much as their similarities.
Show more

7 Read more

Towards an understanding of the endogenous nature of identity in games

Towards an understanding of the endogenous nature of identity in games

In our experiment we placed the subjects into groups which did not exist prior to the experiment and for which membership was based on a trivial criterion: the last digit of their student identi…cation number. In the psychology literature, this experimental technique is often used because it is thought that observing identity motivated behavior in groups unconta- minated by history and based on trivial criteria indicates that identi…cation with a social group is a fundamental human trait and that categorization alone can imply ingroup favoritism and outgroup discrimination. 4 Such social groups are referred to as "minimal groups", although the term has a somewhat more speci…c meaning in the psychology literature. 5 However, the
Show more

23 Read more

Imagined Destinies: Aboriginal Australians and the doomed race theory, 1880-1939

Imagined Destinies: Aboriginal Australians and the doomed race theory, 1880-1939

'Imagined Destinies is a major contribution to the history of both thought and action, in an area of surpassing interest and importance' Michael Roe, Emeritus Professor of History, Unive[r]

8 Read more

History, method, and pluralism: A re interpretation of Isaiah Berlin's political thought

History, method, and pluralism: A re interpretation of Isaiah Berlin's political thought

nature: given that this Herzenian conception o f value takes de facto human experience to be the point o f departure for theorising value, Berlin’s doctrine of value-pluralism grounded on it could not have been a metaphysical theory o f values or the good as Michael Lessnoff, among others, has understood.17 And that means any attribution o f a liberal politics based on such a ‘pluralist metaphysics’ to Berlin is bound to distort what he intends to argue as well as to bring into his value-pluralism a number of theoretical difficulties which in fact are alien to his system o f thought. For instance, as well be argued in next chapter, Berlin is not faced by difficulties concerning how values come into existence in the first place, nor does he have to give an account o f how de facto values pursued by moral agents relate to the ultimate reality o f the good which is supposed to be universal and abstract. As a matter o f fact, Berlin’s Herzenian conception o f value does not carry the metaphysical luggage that presupposes the identity o f the true and the good. In fact, one may even say that in a sense it is meant to do away with just that, for on this account the question concerning whether the good is (identical to) the true is inapplicable here, for there is no ‘intrinsic’ quality to be found - what Kant and his followers have sought for long - in a human-created value or in an agent’s chosen ends o f life. In defining ‘value’ as ‘ends men strive for,’ that is to say, Berlin has not only transformed the philosophical issue o f the ontology of values from a metaphysical question into an empirical one - and accordingly the question ‘What is a value?’ from a normative philosophical issue into a descriptive or even anthropological one - but also switched our perspective from the external to the internal, that is to say, from the third-person to the first-person. This shift in point o f view in effect affirms once again our capacity to reflect upon ourselves and to see others as our own equals - i.e. what makes empathy as analogous understanding a real possibility, as discussed in last chapter. For this reason, this Herzenian conception o f value can be said to be premised on our self-knowledge by way o f reflection as a moral agent. What is more, since it involves seeing others as moral and creative agents equal to oneself, this conception of value in fact implies a respect for others as
Show more

251 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...