China has the largest number of TCM-Immune publications in the world. In the early stage of TCM-Immune research, the United States has the largest number of papers, but since 2009. China has always maintained the number of the first, which is related to the history of China and the scientific research conditions at that time. After China, the United States, South Korea, India, and Japan, which also have more research on the TCM-Immune, are sending more papers. The quantity of TCM-Immune is the first in China, but the frequency of citation is the second, which is related to the policy of the evaluation system of Chinese scientific research , thus the quantity increases, but the quality is not very high .
Compared with the research and development (R&D) of TCM, there are some problems in R&D of chemical medi- cine. First, the process of chemical drug discovery is long and arduous that it begins from the search of a poten- tial candidate to the development of a marketable drug. The course could be as long as more than a decade . Second, the R&D cost for a new drug can be, in average, more than 800 million USD in the United States (US) . Third, the development of new chemical drugs remains very a low rate of success. Among thousands chemical compounds only a few candidates could reach their first markets as new drugs in recent years. Finally, synthetic chemical drugs are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of thera- peutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive, safety issues, and undesired side effects, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China . TCM has a long history of use, with extensive litera- ture and clinical applications covering thousands of years. Such as berberine, an active ingredient from Coptis chin- ensis Franch, is widely used for the treatment of infectious diseases in China . As TCM has the advantages of treatment of special diseases safety, and so on, there are many countries and regions begin to study it. At present, more than 150 countries and regions  have established natural botanical institutions, and pharmaceutical com- panies are increasingly focusing on research and develop- ment of botanicals, paying attention to the construction of traditional botanical studies and development teams, and focusing on the search for effective natural medicines to replace chemical treatments. Furthermore, there are over 1300 medicinal plants used in Europe . As safe and healthy treatments are associated with a return to nature, TCM can make up for the shortcomings of West- ern medicine in many areas. We can find the solutions to different kinds of diseases that are hard to cure by using the innovations and developments of TCM. TCM displays a distinctive curative effect for different diseases that are hard to cure and for technological difficulties that are rec- ognized worldwide, such as tumours , chronic liver disease  and chronic kidney disease .
In the last century, more than 40 major drug disasters happened in the world. Such incidents alerted people of all levels about the importance of drug safety. For exam- ple, the “thalidomide” event that occurred in the 1960s of the last century might be the most tragic and dramatic drug disaster. Thalidomide was used to treat ailments of pregnant women. Teratogenicity of thalidomide was not considered important. The result was 8000 to 10,000 babies were born with congenital malformations [1-3]. Such disas- ters caused by chemical drugs made clinicians and authori- ties realize the importance of drug safety before promo- tion. In the situations of traditionalChinesemedicine, although the history has been over 3000 years, and has been generally considered safe; the safety data derived from scientific tests remain very limited. We do not have es- sential data of many commonly used traditionalChinese medications such as maximum safe dose and duration of treatment that is considered safe.
TCMeSH thesaurus is China's first specialized controlled vocabulary of TCM. Since 1987, the TCMeSH thesaurus has been published and revised continually by the Institute of Information on TCM, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences . This vocabulary was developed specifically to enable indexing, cataloguing, and searching for TCM interventions. The third version of the TCMeSH thesaurus contains a total of 13 905 items, including 8307 headings and 5598 entry terms. 7 Each heading has a definition, code, English translation, annotation (labelling, history, searching), and entry terms. The latest online fourth version has been available since December 2015. 8
The World has seen during the centuries the rise of many types of alternative medicines, which are now called traditional complementary and alternative medicines (TCAM). In the East, the most notorious are traditionalChinesemedicine (TCM), Unani, traditional Japanese medicine (TJM), Ayurveda, etc. On the other hand, Western Constitutional Medicine (WCM) is the one tradition that stands out for its use across the millennia. Also called Greek-Roman medicine, this was the foundation of Western medicine and has concepts that are still today the basis of all non-Western (Eastern) medicines: biotypology. But these distinct traditions are actually very similar among themselves, each with its own history and tradition. While much has been divulged about Eastern medicines, very little is acknowledged regarding WCM as, in the last 80 years, it has been almost completely forgotten. Herewith is an attempt to show the manifest similarities between these two major traditions of ancient medicine. Their resemblances (the concept of constitution and its use) highlight specific diagnostic and treatment modalities which are in common, although with peculiarities. The healing interventions heralded by these systems are based on nutritional (i.e., what they should tendentially eat and drink) and physical therapies depending on their constitution with the use of natural and herbal products.
Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction (XFZYD) is a famous TCM formula for treating cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with a history of several centuries. 21 The formulation of XFZYD consists of eleven plants material. The therapeutic effects of this XFZYD were validated, especially atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. 22 Recently, Gao also reported that this decoction can induce endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis and hasten tube formation, especially in capillary vessels. Jie- Jen Lee reported for the first time that oral treatment with XFZYD suppressed thromboembolic stroke, and it also potentiated rt-PA mediated neuroprotection in rats. In the past, many different animal stroke models were described in the literature such as photochemically induced MCAO, surgical occlusion, and vessel occlusion by electrical cauterization or the thread occlusion model which only simulated the aspect of vessel occlusion Krueger of thrombolytic agents. In the present study, the thromboembolic stroke model mimics human strokes more closely than do other models of cerebral ischemia. 23 Furthermore, animal thromboembolic strokes induced by blood clots facilitate the investigation of the effects of thrombolytic therapy, which is currently the only available stroke treatment in humans. Cerebral ischemia restricted to the distribution of the thromboembolic occlusion gives rise to focal metabolic disturbances that result in infarction, neuronal necrosis, and brainedema. 24 Thromboembolic occlusion reperfusion injury induces HIF-1, iNOS, TNF, and active caspase-3 expressions, which may represent the response of neurons suffering from ischemic insult.
medicine. Despite the fact that, “Ebers Papyrus” is the best-recognized record dating from 1500 BCE, enrolling more than 700 drugs, often derived from plant sources . The Chinesetraditionalmedicine has been extensively known throughout the centuries , with the record from around 2000 years back (1100 BCE; Wu Shi Er Bing Fang; containing 52 medicines), tailed by the herbal Shennong (100 BCE; 365 medicines) and the herbal Tang (659 CE; 850 medicines). However, the records of the Indian traditionalmedicine dates from before 5000 years (Charaka and Sushruta Samhitas hold with 341 and 395 herbal medicines separately 1000 BCE ago) . On the other hand, the Romans and Greeks also added extensively to the coherent development of the use of traditionalmedicine in the ancient Western world (Dioscorides, a Greek physician ~100 CE), documented the collection, storage, and proper use of traditionalmedicine in the then “known world.” NPs that are sold as herbal and/or food supplements for medications covers half of the main 50 drugs sold in European pharmacies. Furthermore, modern pharmacopeia contains not <25% drugs, resulting from numerous plants and many synthetic analogs that are manufactured based on the archetype or else derivatives from NPs . The World Health Organization (WHO) also defined traditionalmedicine as: The whole of the information, abilities, and practices in light of the hypotheses, convictions, and experiences of indigenous to different cultures, whether logical or not, utilizes as a part of the support of health-care service and in addition in the prevention, identification, improvement, or treatment of physical and psychological instability . Numerous traditional systems of medicine are practiced around the world with numerous related beliefs and social causes, of which the most ancient practice is traditional Indian medicine . Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine remains the most earliest, with sound philosophical root.
DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2019.82004 46 Chinese Studies come into consciousness while the active self does not participate in this process, which illustrates the acceptability of consciousness. What has been precipitated in consciousness awaked by association, which will be added to the construction of the meaning of the reality consciousness, takes part in the meaning giving of the current perception. As an illustration, passer-by will be perceived as “a per- son like one of my friends”, all my impression of whom as “something expected “ like appearance, behavior, personality, will also be involved in the further im- age construction of the passer-by.
such as the balance of Qi-blood, the regulation of body constitution and the mixture of herbs and food, have been part of Chinese culture and life style. Other ancient cul- tures in the world have similar experiences with their tra- ditional medicine [40-42]. In addition, Chinese people believe that Western medicine may react faster to the tar- get but also causes more adverse side effects, while TCM reacts slowly but is subtle and safe [16,43,44]. Further- more, the insurance coverage for TCM visits might also play a significant role . Lee et al. reported that TCM outpatient use rate increased 1.75-fold from 1983 to 1988 because of the opening of labour insurance coverage in Taiwan . These factors might all account for the high utilization of TCM.
The integration of biomedicine and traditional medicines has become a health system goal in many countries (World Health Organization, 2008). In Singapore, biomedicine is institutionalized as the orthodox medical practice in healthcare and medical education systems (Lee, 2006; Quah, 2003). Concurrently, the use of traditional modalities such as Ayurveda, traditionalChinesemedicine (TCM), and Malay medicine is common among ordinary people, given the country’s cultural and racial diversity (Lim, Sadarangani, Chan, & Heng, 2005). Among the various traditional healing modalities, TCM appeals to the majority Chinese population and is perceived as important in Chinese heritage in Singapore (Ministry of Health Singapore, 2010). Empirical data indicate that the majority of Chinese Singaporeans have sought TCM treatments for themselves or their family members (Koh, Ng, & Teo, 2004; Lim et al., 2005). The cultural context of Singapore provides a venue for medical pluralism but also identifies a need to examine whether the pursuit of integrative medicine offers fair recognition of different healing knowledges.
25. C. M. Chang; Chu, H. T.; Wei, Y. H.; Chen, F. P.; Wang, S.; Wu, P. C.; Yen, H. R.; Chen, T. J.; Chang, H. H. The Core Pattern Analysis on Chinese Herbal Medicine for Sjogren's syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. Sci Rep 2015, 5, 9541, doi:10.1038/srep09541.
Stemonae Radix is a traditionalChinesemedicine (TCM) used as an antitussive and insecticidal remedy, which is derived from Stemona tuberosa Lour, S. japonica and and S. sessilifolia . It has been widely used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in China for thousands of years. Earlier studies have shown that Stemonae Radix can release coughs , remove phlegm  and has antihelminthic, antibacterial, antituberculous and antifungal activity [14, 15]. Alkaloids are the major effective ingredients in Radix Stemonae, which includes stemoninine, stemoninoa- mide, bisdehydrostemoninine, neotuberostemonine, neoste- nine, tuberostemonine and tuberostemonine H. Liao et al.  found in an in vitro experiment on guinea pigs that the extract of Stemona radix had a relaxation effect on airway smooth muscle and the relaxation effect is realized by inter- acting with musearinic receptors and dihydropyridine bind- ing point. Besides, the pharmacokinetics study of multiple components absorbed in rat plasma after oral administra- tion of Stemonae radix showed that croomine and tuberos- temonine would be potential bioactive components for the treatment of chronic or acute cough in rat model [17, 18].
It is well established that TM plays a crucial role in health care for a large part of the population living in developing countries. In fact, for centuries, TM was the only health care system available to the prevention and treatment of diseases in different cultures. The interfaces among public health, TM and biodiversity conservation encompass a number of relevant and contemporary issues which are becoming increasingly apparent, as exemplified by WHO's goal in medicines: "to help save lives and improve health by ensuring the quality, efficacy, safety and rational use of medicines, including traditional medicines, and by promoting equitable and sustainable access to essential medicines, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged". The formal recognition and respect that major traditional medicinal systems around the world are gaining , allied to the extensive practice of traditionalmedicine in developing countries and the rapidly growing demand for alternative and basic therapeutic means (also in industri- alized countries) constitute the international relevancy of research and development in the field of traditional drugs . Moreover, there is a growing recognition that knowl- edge of TM is important not only because of its potential to discover new treatments, but also because of its socioe- conomic, conservationist and cultural components. As pointed out by Bodeker and Kronenberg , public health researchers must lead the development of a research agenda that considers social, cultural, political and economic contexts, to maximize the potential contri- bution of TM to healthcare systems globally.
Recent Development – As indicated earlier, Chinese doctors believe that all of the organs within a healthy subject should reach the so- called global dynamic balance or harmony among organs to maintain healthy. Once the global balance is broken at certain sites such as heart, liver or kidney, some signs and symptoms will then appear to reflect the imbalance at these sites. An experienced Chinese doctor usually assess the causes of global imbalance before a TCM with flexible doses is prescribed to fix the problem. This approach is sometimes referred to as a personalized (or individualized) medicine approach. In practice, TCM consider inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and pulse taking and palpation as the primary diagnostic procedure. The scientific validity of these subjective and experience-based diagnostic procedures have been criticized due to (1) lack of reference standards and (2) anticipated large doctor-to-doctor variability. Cheng and Chow (2015) proposed a unified approach for developing a composite health index for diagnosis of illness based on a number of indices collected from a given subject under the concept of global dynamic balance among organs. Dynamic balance among organs can be defined as follows. Following the concept of testing bioequivalence or biosimilarity, if the 95% confidence of a given index is totally within some balance limits, e.g., ( ), we conclude that there is dynamic balance among organs of the subject. If we fail to reject the null hypothesis, we conclude that there is a signal of illness. In practice, these signals of illness can be grouped to diagnose specific diseases based on some pre-specified reference standards for diseases status of specific diseases which are developed based on indices related to specific organs (or diseases)
Curing can be defined as working on the surface level of the body and treating only the symptoms. On the other hand, healing is defined as treating the body as a whole, including the four aspects mentioned above. It is no surprise that the typical Western medical doctor turns their head away when one mentions emotional, mental and spiritual bodies and their relation to healing. And they practically start running if they hear serious discussion of Prana, which is the life energy described in Ayurveda, or Qi, which is its equal in traditionalChinesemedicine. With new technologies scientists are able to measure this elusive life energy, and Western medicine is increasingly using complimentary medicines (Puchalski 2008).
Chinese herbal medicine is both Chinese wealth and world’s treasure. Through constant exploration, Chinese people accumulate the wisdom of Chinesemedicine in the long process of practice. A lot of effective chemicals from Chinese herbal medicine have been confirmed to treat diabetes, such as alka- loids, flavonoids, polysaccharides and saponins. Chinese herbal medicine exerts almost none, if any side effects in patients, therefore attracting more and more attentions (X.-L. Tong et al., 2012). In this review, we provide a relatively comprehensive discussion on Chinese herbal medicine regard- ing their main active components and functional mechanisms in the treatment of diabetes nephrop- athy. The search was done in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases a 15-year period between 2004 to 2019 with keywords search of medicinal plant, plant extract, diabetic nephropathy, TraditionalChinesemedicine. Attempts have been done to make the best knowledge of their mechanisms and effects. The medicinal herbs are grouped by different part of plants such as Root, Entire Plant with roots, Rhizome, Sporocap, Fruits and Leaves.
Measurements and morphological character assessments of the putative new species were undertaken using herborised and living specimens observed in the field or cultivated at the Botanical Garden of Anhui College of TraditionalChineseMedicine. All available specimens of Clematis, stored in the following herbaria (acronyms according to Thiers 2017+): IBK, IBSC, N, MO, P, PE, SYS, US and some local herbaria were examined. Images of type specimens were obtained from Tropicos.org (http://www.tropicos.org) and JSTOR Global Plants (http://plants.jstor.org). All morphological characters were studied using a dissecting microscope (SZX16, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Characters were described, using the terminology presented by Wang and Bartholomew (2001).
According to WHO, Herbal medicine is defined as plant derived material or preparation which contains raw or ingredients from one or more plants with therapeutic values. These drugs of plant origin are used to treat diseases and to attain or maintain a condition of improved health Recent trend in the usage of biologic natural plants is seen because of the cytotoxic reactions, allergic potential, toxicity, unacceptable taste, etc. of the most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and irrigants used and their inability to eliminate tra et al., 2009). In dentistry, herbal medicine has been used as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative agents, astringents, edema- reducing, soothing and healing accelerating agents (Badole et