History of Veterinary Medicine

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Communication identity in veterinary medicine: a grounded theory approach

Communication identity in veterinary medicine: a grounded theory approach

The ‘value of communication on behalf of the veterinary profession’ is an important factor. In all interviews, the majority of people agreed that communication is one of the most important skills in all areas of veterinary medi- cine. ‘Not all veterinarians are in practice, and communica- tion skills are also important in other areas of the facet of this profession. Without communication, nothing works’ (VR 2). Communication plays a central role for veterinarians working in private practice, especially in taking history and giving information after diagnostic examinations. ‘I consider it absolutely essential for a correct diagnosis or even for a proper history-taking’ (GS 2). Interestingly, the commu- nication with clients was evaluated more seriously than the examination of the animals. ‘We can take care of the animals and examine animals, but we have to talk to the people that belong to it (animal) otherwise we will not achieve anything’ (FAP 1).
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What's in a Name? Classification of Diabetes Mellitus in Veterinary Medicine and Why It Matters

What's in a Name? Classification of Diabetes Mellitus in Veterinary Medicine and Why It Matters

Diabetes mellitus in dogs is commonly characterized by permanent hypoinsulinemia, no increase in c-peptide in response to insulin secretagogues, and an absolute requirement for exogenous insulin administration to avoid ketoacidosis. 22 This presentation is consistent with T1DM, but can also occur with most other types of DM, depending on the stage of disease and severity of glucotoxicity. Glucotoxicity refers to structural and functional damage in pancreatic b-cells and the target tissues of insulin caused by chronic hyperglycemia. This phenomenon was demonstrated in human and rodent models and most recently in cats. 23 Dogs are also sensi- tive to glucotoxicity and in its presence can become hypoinsulinemic and diabetic despite having b-cell mass that previously was sufficient to maintain eug- lycemia. 24,25 Fortunately, the detrimental effects of glu- cotoxicity on b -cell function are reversible in the early stages with aggressive treatment to normalize BG. Thus, in a dog that is presented for clinical DM, the assump- tion that the dog is suffering from end-stage T1DM (an irreversible IDDM state) can result in a missed oppor- tunity to treat and reverse glucotoxicity. This could be important, for example, in dogs presented for acute pancreatitis and no previous history of DM. If gluco- toxicity is part of the pathology, aggressive treatment of DM within a few weeks after diagnosis could lead to sufficient recovery of b-cell function. However, if an assumption is made that DM in this dog is T1DM (and not DM secondary to disease of the exocrine pancreas) then it is also assumed that this dog is at an end stage of DM, and the dog would be treated with the current standard of care: Controlling clinical signs without attempting to achieve persistent euglycemia. This approach represents a self-fulfilling prophecy in that less than complete restoration of euglycemia will cause per- manent damage to b -cells and lead to an irreversible DM state. This example illustrates the flaws of this defi- nition of T1DM and why it is important to search for a specific etiology. Importantly, the hallmarks of T1DM in people are not present in the majority of dogs with DM.
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Abstracts Days of Veterinary Medicine 2010

Abstracts Days of Veterinary Medicine 2010

Fractures of tibia and fi bula are relatively common in dogs and cats, and comprise 21% of long-bone frac- tures. In dogs, proximal tibia represents a union of tibial apophysis, proximal tibial epiphysis and proxi- mal tibial metaphysis. Proximal tibia has two separate ossifi cation centers, proximal tibial epiphysis and tibial tuberosity apophysis. Avulsion fractures occur due to muscle contractions observed during hyperfl exion of the stifl e joint mostly in immature animals at age of 4-8 months. The aim of this report is to present successful result of a surgical treatment of an avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity in male, 6-months-old, Jack Russell terrier. Upon admission, the taken history of the patient revealed falling accident from nearly 1.8 meter. The clinical examination, have shown high degree of lame- ness of the left hind leg, obvious pain during palpation and distinct soft tissue swelling present in the stifl e and patella region. The patella was moved towards the femoral trochlear groove. Lateral radiograph revealed an avulsion fracture of tibial tuberosity. The patient was premedicated with 0,1 mg/kg Acepromazine ma- leate. Surgical anesthesia (TIVA) was achived by bolus infusion of 5 mg/kg Ketalar and 1 mg/kg Xylazine and maintained with intermittent boluses of the same combination in total of 1/2 of the induction dose. In order to provide suffi cient intraoperative analgesia, 4 mg/kg Carprofen was applied during the premedica- tion. Fixation of the tibial tuberosity was achieved by application of one Kirchner wire through the avulsive
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VETERINARY MEDICINE IN PRIMEVAL INDIA

VETERINARY MEDICINE IN PRIMEVAL INDIA

Ramayana is the oldest literature of Sanskrit, although no written history is available of that period. In the epic Mahabharata, references have been made too many domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, elephants, and horses and their uses. Cow dung was used as manure. The treatment of various ailments using medicinal herbs and surgical procedures are described at length. Various uses of oil as preservative and treatment are mentioned. Surgical procedures like caesarean section, hysterectomy, etc. were known to be performed by trained vaidhyas or physicians. Fruit juices, flower extracts, and wines made from fruits were said to have great medicinal properties. Medicinal herbs like arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba), sarja (Vateria indica), neem (Azadirachta indica), ashoka ( Saraca asoca), asana (Pterocarpus marsupium), etc. were used widely to cure ailments of men and animals.
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Computed tomography in veterinary medicine: currently published and tomorrow’s vision

Computed tomography in veterinary medicine: currently published and tomorrow’s vision

The utilisation of computed tomography (CT) in veterinary practise has been increasing rapidly in line with reduced cost, improved availability and the increase in expertise and technology. This review briefly examines the recent technological advancements in imag- ing in the veterinary sector, and explores how CT and micro-computed tomography (μCT) have furthered basic understanding and knowledge, and influenced clinical practise and medicine. The uses of CT technology in veterinary research, especially in relation to bone, vasculature and soft tissues are explored and compared in relation to the different spe- cies. CT is essential not only for the diagnosis and treatment of many disorders, but it is now being used to understand areas ranging from drug delivery and surgical advance- ments through to anatomical and educational uses throughout the world.
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Sponsorship bias and quality of randomised controlled trials in veterinary medicine

Sponsorship bias and quality of randomised controlled trials in veterinary medicine

larger study would be extremely beneficial in assessing the presence of sponsorship bias in the veterinary clinical tri- als literature. In particular, an exploration of potential dif- ferences between species, or between companion animal versus production animals, warrants further investigation with larger sample sizes (no significant differences were found in the current study, see Table 2). Results of this type of study can be very dependent on the methods, in- cluding what types of studies are included (e.g. we have only included pharmaceutical interventions), which out- come classifications are used, the way in which outcomes are extracted (e.g. we did not include results for outcomes which were not mentioned in the materials and methods) and how funding categories are divided, meaning results across studies could be very different. Another limitation of this study is that the authors were not blinded to any manuscript details during data extraction potentially leading to biased interpretation. The lack of inclusion of efficacy studies where multiple doses of the test treatment were used is another significant limitation of the study. On balance it was felt that inclusion of these could poten- tially skew the results due to multiple entries for the trial by including each dose, or selecting only one of the doses. The inclusion of multiple trials within one publication may also skew results, as the methods, and therefore as- sessment of quality, tend to be identical for all the in- cluded trials. As most multiple trial papers were in the pharmaceutical category, this could potentially lead to clustering of information. Of particular influence in this study were RCTs assessing anthelmintic agents as these often contained multiple similar trials with an overwhelm- ing proportion of positive outcomes. As they fulfilled our initial inclusion criteria they remained in our sample but their impact on the overall results may be substantial. The subjective assignment of a single outcome result for an outcome which was assessed at multiple time points is another limitation which was necessary for practicality. Limits to the initial sample size were needed due to cost and time constraints; a single calendar year search in PubMed was chosen to give a representative, recent sample of trials, rather than selecting certain journals to search. Using PubMed also allowed us to search by publi- cation type. Not including studies unavailable in English was a necessary cost and time limitation but only one paper was excluded on this basis so this is unlikely to have affected the study outcomes.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN ISLAM AND IRAN

In conclusion, as an appropriate ending and for the purpose of showing how our predecessors viewed physicians and medicine as a whole and what people expected of a physician or in more comprehensive terms a "hakim", I quote an excerpt from Nezami Aroozi Samarqandi's book Chahar Maqaleh, in the hope of making us more aware of our responsibility i n this era, and more serious about reviewing and re­ structuring training and educational methods and proc­ edures in medical universities with a view to educating future generation physicians: "A physician should be soft in temperament, wise in his nature and plausible in his guesses, and guessing is a movement inside a man to arrive at a plausible pronouncement; in other words, it is the transitional speed from known to unknown. And any physician who does not recognize the dignity of man's soul is not soft in temperament; unless he knows logic he can not be wise in nature; and unless he receives divine assistance he can not be plausible in his guesses, and anyone not plausible in his guess can not become
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Informed consent in veterinary medicine: legal and medical perspectives in Italy

Informed consent in veterinary medicine: legal and medical perspectives in Italy

Obtaining IC from clients is a crucial element of ethi- cal and professional communication in veterinary medi- cine. In non-emergencies, obtaining IC requires the vet- erinarian to discuss with the client the clinical issues, the alternatives to the proposed diagnostic or therapeutic intervention (in addition to the benefits and risks of each option), and the possible adverse effects and long-term care associated with each option [12]. In addition to the standard “clinical” elements of this conversation, the veterinarian should attempt to assess the client’s prefer- ences for and understanding of the choices before him or her.
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Concepts for risk based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: Review of current approaches

Concepts for risk based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: Review of current approaches

Discussion: The principal objectives of risk-based veterinary surveillance are to identify surveillance needs to protect the health of livestock and consumers, to set priorities, and to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. An important goal is to achieve a higher benefit-cost ratio with existing or reduced resources. We propose to define risk-based surveillance systems as those that apply risk assessment methods in different steps of traditional surveillance design for early detection and management of diseases or hazards. In risk-based designs, public health, economic and trade consequences of diseases play an important role in selection of diseases or hazards. Furthermore, certain strata of the population of interest have a higher probability to be sampled for detection of diseases or hazards. Evaluation of risk-based surveillance systems shall prove that the efficacy of risk-based systems is equal or higher than traditional systems; however, the efficiency (benefit-cost ratio) shall be higher in risk-based surveillance systems.
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History of veterinary public health in the Eastern Mediterranean and Africa

History of veterinary public health in the Eastern Mediterranean and Africa

Since 1955, the WHO has recognised the important role which public health veterinarians can play in public health programmes. In this regard, the WHO has stressed the increasing import[r]

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Clinical Extramural Studies in UCD School of Veterinary Medicine

Clinical Extramural Studies in UCD School of Veterinary Medicine

Whilst the School is very keen to maintain a holistic overview on what is beneficial for a student’s future career, the modular title of Clinical EMS mandates that only placements involving direct work under veterinary supervision should be counted for the purposes of this module (research projects involving other scientists as above being an obvious exception).

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IL 12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine

IL 12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine

Oncologic clinical studies in pets can therefore be per- formed on spontaneously occurring tumors, which have different characteristics than experimentally induced tumors, including inter-individual and intra-tumoral het- erogeneity, the development of recurrent or resistant disease, and metastasis to relevant distant sites. Due to pets’ considerably longer lifespans compared to labora- tory rodents, possible long-term side effects and other limitations to novel experimental therapies can be detected more accurately. All that, in combination with the lack of established gold-standard veterinary treat- ment protocols for many diseases, but especially cancer, provides the opportunity for the early and humane evaluation of various new therapies, particularly gene therapy. Experiments on large animal models therefore provide proof of principle and help discern the potential efficacy and safety of gene transfer, which cannot be ac- curately determined on laboratory animals [6,7].
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Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

Lipophilic drugs are selected for veterinary use for two reasons: first, the requirement for long duration of action, the terminal half-life being positively correlated to the degree of lipophilicity [the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) for the 10 most used AMDs in cattle R 2 = 0.37] (Table 1); and second, the need to develop more potent AMDs. The potency of quinolones in humans for S. aureus and E. coli correlates with lipophilicity (Clog P; Figure 6). Similarly, it would be valuable to assess the relationship between effectiveness of AMD (especially of quinolones and cephalosporins) to alter the GIT microbiota and their lipophilicity, because not all drugs of a given class are equivalent. The potential for developing more eco-friendly drugs recognizes that the most potent lipophilic AMDs are also likely the least selective in terms of tissue distribution. In fact, eco-friendly AMDs, such as ceftaroline (Panagiotidis et al., 2010) telavancin, dalbavancin (Nord and Edlund, 1990; van der Waaij and Nord, 2000; Edlung and Nord, 2003; Rashid et al., 2011, 2012) already exist in human medicine. This supports the feasibility of developing specific green AMDs in veterinary medicine. For this objective, it is necessary to recognize that a less potent drug is not synonymous with reduced clinical efficacy; it simply implies (other factors being equal in terms of pharmacological activity and clearance) a higher dosage regimen.
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Law and Veterinary Medicine

Law and Veterinary Medicine

relief of animal suffering (#2), conservation of animal resources (#3) or the advancement of medical knowledge (#5). „ Will you uphold or violate the AVMA oath if[r]

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Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and its impact on veterinary and human medicine

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents and its impact on veterinary and human medicine

in bacterial pathogens of human and animal origin, including examples of transfer of 46.. resistant pathogens between hosts and of resistance genes between bacteria.[r]

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Informed consent in veterinary medicine: ethical implications for the profession and the animal 'patient'

Informed consent in veterinary medicine: ethical implications for the profession and the animal 'patient'

In human medicine, an independent body such as a court has authority in cases where the ethics of treatment with only third party consent is unclear. These types of mechanisms may have an important role to play in the veterinary field. In fact there have been recent calls for an ‘ animal ombudsman ’ (Sweeney 2015) and the RCVS are currently trialling the use of an independent ethical review panel to deliberate on questions raised by veterinary clinical research (RCVS, 2016). Such concepts might well be usefully applied to the ethical questions which are commonly encountered by veterinary professionals. There are currently limited ‘safe spaces’ (Millar and Hobson-West 2015) where veterinarians can discuss and develop their ethical viewpoints. This needs to be addressed with the aim of debating justifiable ethical stances at the professional, practice and individual level (Mullan and Main 2001; Millar 2011).
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Informed consent in veterinary medicine : Ethical implications for the profession and the animal 'patient'

Informed consent in veterinary medicine : Ethical implications for the profession and the animal 'patient'

In human medicine, an independent body such as a court has authority in cases where the ethics of treatment with only third party consent is unclear. These types of mechanisms may have an important role to play in the veterinary field. In fact there have been recent calls for an ‘ animal ombudsman ’ (Sweeney 2015) and the RCVS are currently trialling the use of an independent ethical review panel to deliberate on questions raised by veterinary clinical research (RCVS, 2016). Such concepts might well be usefully applied to the ethical questions which are commonly encountered by veterinary professionals. There are currently limited ‘ safe spaces ’ (Millar and Hobson-West 2015) where veterinarians can discuss and develop their ethical viewpoints. This needs to be addressed with the aim of debating justifiable ethical stances at the professional, practice and individual level (Mullan and Main 2001; Millar 2011).
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The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

The program has an impact both on the veterinary students and on the shelters that participate. Since the inception of the program over 55,000 sterilization surgeries have been performed at local shelters. Since the first mobile unit was acquired in 2007, over 51,000 surgeries have been performed. The adoption rate of the animals that have been sterilized are extremely high, even in shelters that have high euthanasia rates. The program has clearly saved the lives of numerous animals by increasing the adoption rates (in 2013 collectively the euthanasia rate of the shelters we work with was 62%, but the adoption rate of the animals sterilized in our program was 82%). Furthermore, the animals adopted are sterilized preventing future litters of puppies and kittens, and for some shelters reducing the intake numbers over time.
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College of Veterinary Medicine Student Professional Liability Insurance Policy

College of Veterinary Medicine Student Professional Liability Insurance Policy

Upon an Insured becoming aware of any alleged Veterinary Incident to the extent known, written notice shall be given to the Company or any of the Company’s authorized agents as soon as practicable, together with the fullest information obtainable. If Claim is made against an Insured, the Insured shall immediately forward to the Company every demand, notice, summons or other process received by him or her, or his or her representative. Written notice shall include the following information:

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