This study aims at identifying the acceptance of teachers teaching Agricultural Integrated Living Skills (ILS) towards the School Based Assessment (SBA). Acceptance is associated with teachers’ beliefs, attitudes and willingness to implement the assessment and involves a change in educational values. The quantitative approach was adapted from previous studies and contained 80 variables. The response rate was 80.5% from 322 teachers of Agricultural ILS from secondary schools throughout the country. Results showed that a majority of respondents were male teachers aged 42 years and younger and many had teaching experience in excess of 10 years. A large percentage of the respondents (86.3%) had taken a course on SBA, 60.6% were non-option teachers in agriculture, and a large percentage (51.8%) taught the subject in more than one level. The study revealed a moderate relationship between belief and practices (r = 0.391) while a weak relationship was found between attitude and teachers’ practices (r = 0.193) and between willingness and teachers’ practices (r = 0.132). Heavy workload contributed to a moderate belief that subsequently led to a weak attitude and a low willingness to implement SBA. The low level of belief, attitude and willingness clearly demonstrated that teachers’ acceptance toward holisticassessment was low. Teachers were unable to accept SBA as a shift in educational assessment methods, let alone to replace the existing system of assessment.
The Indivisible Self: An Evidence-Based Model of Wellness (IS-Wel), developed by Witmer, Sweeney, and Myers (1998), is foundationally rooted in the work of Adler. An assessment instrument based on this wellness model was used to contextually understand the perceived needs of cancer patients at specific intervals during their treatment regimen. The IS-Wel (Witmer et al.) offered a holistic approach to assess patients’ perceived issues across a single higher order wellness factor and five second- order factors including the creative self, coping self, social self, essential self, and physical self. From the second-order factors, Witmer et al. developed 17 third-order factors that include thinking, emotions, control, work, positive humor, leisure, stress management, self-worth, realistic beliefs, friendship, love, spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, self-care, nutrition, and exercise (Witmer et al.). This research study used the third-order factors of the IS-Wel (Witmer et al.) as the foundation for
The other component of the framework assessment involves mitigation. In terms of prevention, customer orders of synthetic DNA fragments resembling smallpox virus should be ﬂagged by DNA providers through sequence screening, and those orders would be further scrutinized. The customer and his afﬁliated organization should also be screened—it is presumed that both of these screening steps occurred for the work performed by Noyce et al. However, the limits of such screening have been recognized by the authors (10) and others (11, 12), and it is therefore not guaranteed that screening provides a full prevention measure. The sequence similarity issue arises here as well; while a BLAST search clearly distinguishes horsepox virus from smallpox virus, it is not clear how tailored screening algorithms used by companies that screen their orders distinguish the sequences. Horsepox virus is not on any select agent lists or regulated pathogen lists, which form the basis of sequence screening (13).
The study’ s conceptual framework was formed by making a theoretical connection of learning, pedagogy and assess- ment as advocated by Shepard’ s  emergent paradigm (Fig. 1). A holisticassessment model promotes assessment for learning, rather than assessment of learning. However, change in assessment is never a stand-alone initiative; it has to be integrated with the curriculum, pedagogy and learning . Experiential learning requires focused attentiveness on the part of the learner, a recognition that the practice itself is a continuous source of knowledge development and skill acquisition, and an environment where reflecting on the experience is deliberately planned . Therefore, students’ learning, pedagogical approaches and assessment systems could be integrated to promote holistic learning experiences. Preceptors invest long periods of time with students in the clinical setting. Clinical immersion happens rapidly as the student moves from shadowing the preceptor to performing nursing activities . In fact, students and preceptors often develop an interactive and collaborative relationship. When nursing academics visit the hospital, they can assess the student/preceptor relationship, provide support to preceptors in terms of pedagogical approaches, motivate and encourage students to maximise their learning opportunities, and evaluate students ’ clinical competence. The regular visits promote dialogue among students, preceptors and academics, and provide opportunities to discuss clinical teaching pedagogy, concerns in clinical practice, and areas for professional growth .
Enhancing the capabilities of the dismounted combatant has been an enduring goal of international mil- itary research communities. Emerging developments in exoskeleton technology offers the potential to augment the dismounted combatant’s capabilities. However, the ability to determine the value proposi- tion of an exoskeleton in a military context is difﬁcult due to the variety of methods and metrics used to evaluate previous devices. The aim of this paper was to present a standard framework for the evaluation and assessment of exoskeletons for use in the military. A structured and systematic methodology was developed from the end-user perspective and progresses from controlled laboratory conditions (Stage A), to simulated movements speciﬁc to the dismounted combatant (Stage B), and real-world military spe- ciﬁc tasks (Stage C). A standard set of objective and subjective metrics were described to ensure a holisticassessment on the human response to wearing the exoskeleton and the device’s mechanical performance during each stage. A standardised methodology will ensure further advancement of exoskeleton technol- ogy and support improved international collaboration across research and industry groups. In doing so, this better enables international military groups to evaluate a system’s potential, with the hope of accel- erating the maturity and ultimately the ﬁelding of devices to augment the dismounted close combatant and small team capability.
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. The prevalence of IBS in Asian countries varies from 2.9% to 15.6%. IBS does not result in increased mortality, but is associated with psychological distress and disruption of work and sleep. Consequently, the evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure for patients with IBS since it provides a holisticassessment of the patient's emotional, social and physical function. However, some HRQoL tools can be time-consuming to apply. EQ-5D is a brief HRQoL tool which has been validated in the Western IBS population but has thus far not been used in Asia. This study was conducted to determine whether persons with self-reported symptoms that met the Rome III criteria for IBS had a poorer quality of life than those without these symptoms. We also aimed to determine which specific aspects of quality of life were most affected and whether any risk factors distinguished those with and without IBS.
The performance assessment system would create a yardstick by which building performance can be benchmarked. The benchmarking would allow for comparisons between the different existing buildings and identify buildings that are not performing as expected. Hence, this study aims to develop a method for the holisticassessment of building performance with respect to users’ satisfaction in a physically safe and sound environment. In view of this, a systematic and objective way of evaluating building performance is essential in the local context. Through the evaluation of occupied facilities, their performance can be reviewed to assure user satisfaction. The Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) approach is suitably adequate to be adopted in the development of a performance based assessment system because it is holistic and facilitates integration of all the different systems within the building.
Students can benefit a lot from holisticassessment as it provides a more holistic judgment on student learning. Holisticassessment is unique in the sense that it helps the students to discover their best potential in class without any boundaries. Students need a natural and conducive learning environment to work best and encourage students to express their true ability. Students are unable to show their true ability in a timed-examination and this also causes anxiety in them. Hence, it is the teacher‟s responsibility to design and provide the opportunity for students to reflect authentically on the nature of the learning process in holisticassessment. The activities prepared for teaching and learning activities have to be aligned with the learning objectives (Sadler, 2009). Also, by implementing holisticassessment approach it also lessens teacher-talk as students will be involved with discussion with peers to develop an intellectual holistic approach. The peer-assessment exposure nurtures the students to be evaluative of their peer‟s work by giving them some feedback on how they can improve their weaknesses provided if the teachers have trained and exposed students to peer-assessment. This experience would then produce students who can reflect critically, analyse and apply their knowledge and work simultaneously as they learn. This will definitely benefit the students in terms of monitoring their learning and work produced. Teachers must be well-versed in using and administering the right assessment strategy that are essential factors in the students‟ coping and improving their learning. Holisticassessment has provided valuable information and will benefit not only the teachers but also the stakeholders. Sadler (2009), shared a possible implication that can emerge from holisticassessment in that students will be able to have a clearer understanding in handling assessment tasks precisely. Teachers must develop the correct procedures for students to be involved in the assessment tasks by producing appropriate rubrics and also training them to be a part of the assessment. According to Hosseini and Ghabanchi (2014), using portfolio as an assessment tool has a positive effect on student motivation. Thus, portfolio assessment could be regarded as a tool (Vygotsky‟s terminology) in enhancing student growth and motivation. The fact is that portfolio assessment could affect both psychological and cognitive ability
Following holisticassessment of the patient the focus then can turn to the wound bed, to facilitate practitioners structured assessment of the wound bed wound assessment tools can be used, an example of a wound assessment tool is TIME. The International Advisory Board on Wound Bed Preparation (2004) developed the acronym TIME (T = Tissue, non-viable or deficient; I = Infection or inflammation; M = Moisture imbalance; E = Edge of wound, non-advancing or undermined). TIME provides a structure to allow the clinician to focus on certain aspects of the wound to facilitate the appropriate and realistic goal setting. Often on wound care plans the stated aim of the intervention is ‘to promote healing’, having such a broad and non-specific goal will make reassessment difficult, which raises the question, “how do you assess promoting healing?” Whereas, if care plan goals are linked to assessment of the wound bed goals can be more specific, for example if wound assessment using TIME identifies that there is a problem with non-viable tissue the aim of the wound care plan wound be ‘to debride’. Having clear aims then allows for meaningful evaluation of whether the current wound product is meeting the desired aims.
The risk assessment is designed to identify the needs of an individual carrying out a specific driving task. Where identified, control measures will be introduced by the line manager in conjunction with car fleet and health and safety departments, to eliminate or minimise the risk. Control measures can only be effective if the driver adheres to them at all times. The control measures applied will be dependent on driver, task carried out and risk rating from the risk assessment. A combination of the measures from the (non- exhaustive) list below can be used to reduce the overall risk: additional training; risk assessment reviews; vehicle induction to ensure familiarity with features of the vehicle, including guidance on safe driving and the safe use of the vehicle; reviewing journey routes, driving time limits, breaks, and alternative methods of transport; supplying drivers with the most appropriate ergonomically designed equipment to assist in loading and unloading, taking into account the cost-benefit analysis and approved by senior management; and line managers selecting the most appropriate drivers for the tasks involved, taking into account experience, risk rating and capability levels required.
Once the variables had been reduced they were weighted according to their respective importance to the model. The restated model is subsequently referred to as the Performance Assessment Model (PAM). The restated PAM (table 5) also uses a justified weighting system that takes into account the different measures in the model as well as current regulations in the industry. For example, wages/turnover is an efficiency measure (i.e. it is composed of two variables to create one measure). It is also a component of FFP with UEFA stating a suggested wages/turnover ratio as a benchmark for clubs. The measure is therefore allocated greater weight (0.4) within the PAM. A further reason behind this decision was the relationship between the three original models that were derived (the neutral model and two PAMs with different weighting factors). Correlation analysis of the results obtained in each model (the results of one year's worth of data for 19 clubs) found a strong relationship between the results for all three models, essentially identifying that all three models were stating identical results. The correlation r score between the results returned for the neutral model, the PAM (equal weights) and the PAM (justified weights) was 0.980 and 0.979 respectively whilst the r score between the two PAMs was 0.997.
A considerable body of research in EFL assessment seems to be motivated by the notion of self-assessment (see Sung et al., 2010, for example). In this research, essay writings of sixty-four major English learners were subjected to self- and teacher-assessments employing holistic vs. category-based scoring. The average of teacher scorings was used as the criterion for validity. Statistical analysis indicated that self-assessments were fairly valid, but not reliable. Also, holistic and category-based self-assessments correlated but not very highly. Findings imply that while self-assessment may provide a valid method for measuring learner performance in EFL, an unthinking application of self-assessment as a primary means of measuring learners’ performance would be questionable. Another implication might be that in the cautious application of self-assessment as a partial representation of learners’ performance, teachers and testers may instruct the learners to use both types of scoring as they empirically evoke similar self-judgments on the test-takers’ part.
There is an ongoing debate between a holistic approach to teaching and assessing CCS using global rating scales such as those used in this study, and the checklist of observable competencies such as the Cal- gary-Cambridge system . Without doubt there are advantages and disadvantages to both. One of the criti- cisms of the global approach is that it may set the stu- dents up to fail by not providing a structure or competencies that they can acquire in a systematic man- ner. Equally, one might argue that a global approach is impressionistic and may not be reliable. The counter arguments are that patients do not break communica- tion down into competencies, and that the negotiation of meaning, (which is after all what communication is) occurs across different levels from sensor to receiver. In addition, it cannot be assumed that every receiver will react in the same way to each competency. The holistic view is about developing the student’s ability to reflect and adapt their communication styles to different indivi- duals. The holistic, negotiated evaluation tool used in this study was developed and validated by our collabora- tors at the University of Birmingham, UK. Wiskin and colleagues  showed that a negotiated mark between assessor and SPE fulfils the psychometric requirements of validity, consistency and accuracy, in addition to being feasible in terms of cost and time. We found no significant differences between assessor and SPE grading of both attitudes and skills in the current study. While the newly trained Irish assessors were indeed novice
Practically speaking this method is very suitable for a secondary analysis. The think aloud method produces very rich but rather unstructured data. This means the variables do not have to be specified in advance. Experimental subjects have got unlimited freedom in their thought process. Therefore we get the rich and valid data which represents the thoughts of the experimental subjects. (Ericsson and Simon, 1993) Due to the unstructured nature of this data the analysis of the data is difficult and there are a lot of pages with this unstructured data. Making sense of this data requires solid theory building and clear decision making rules. The usage of the WAM (Heerkens, 2003) helps to structure the data and gives us insights in the process of weight assessment. For instance, the phases of the WAM are explicitly used to seperate arguments linked the actual weighing from arguments that are not.
One of the major limitations of the preceding ques- tionnaires was the lack of a theoretical or conceptual framework that guided their development phase. There- fore, a hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of the concept of quality nursing care as this was perceived by cancer patients, their advocates and nurses preceded the development and validation processes . The aim of this qualitative work was to establish a conceptual framework that would informed the development of the new scale. The data for this qualitative work were collected with nar- ratives. One open-ended question was used, inviting the participants to narrate their experiences in relation to the topic under investigation. Patients narrated their stories about being cared for by the nurses in the oncology departments. The researchers aimed to explore the experi- ences of nurses providing care to cancer patients in these departments. Therefore they invited nurses to narrate their experiences of providing care to patients in light of what they perceived as quality nursing care. Patients’ ad- vocates narrated from their point of view what they perceived as quality nursing care by recalling relevant experiences. Through the narratives the researchers ex- tracted words and expressions that could be useful for cre- ating a conceptual framework of quality nursing care. Furthermore, through the findings it was highlighted that cancer care can be complicated and it demands a holistic approach to assessing and addressing the needs of the pa- tient and the family. Within this holistic paradigm patients found the attention attributed by nurses to their spiritual needs lacking causing a negative impact on their perceived quality of nursing care. The results demonstrated how the little and simple things in the care of the patients are the ones that count to and appreciated the most by the pa- tient. It is seemingly simple acts, such as being there, holding a patient’s hand and listening that can bring such profound changes in comfort when one is ill .
It is a natural human tendency to ascribe meaning to all that is experienced. That tendency takes place as self-awareness but also from an awareness of the world around us. The significance perceived in our experiences is rooted in our observation of patterns as they relate to us. A particular situation has the power to inform us about life as it exposes us to something unfamiliar. Events and others touch us emotionally, yet our initial impressions of a given experience may not fully reveal the true significance of these people and events and that is due to the multi-layered nature of experiences (Maclaren, 2014). Focusing on what it means to be human belongs to the realm of phenomenological psychology (Finlay, 2006). The phenomenological approach resonates with my understanding of the world and my understanding of the clinical training I have received so far. The approach that I have been closely connected with throughout my training and clinical experience is the humanistic approach. That has been the backdrop of all my clinical practice and research work from the beginning and is still present today. I see it as a holistic view of the person, who is trying to gain insight into their intrapersonal and interpersonal world. It is an approach that is empowering of the individual and does not impose meaning or any particular set of rules which one should live by. Humanistic psychology is closely aligned with the phenomenological framework, so carrying out my research using this method came naturally to me, given the type of enquiry I had.
With regard to the abovementioned supporting literature, it was hypothesized that learners, if provided with training and practice, may also have the potential to show rating behavior similar to that of expert-raters. Rating behavior can be defined in terms of the variance due to under/overestimation (i.e. strictness vs. leniency), variance in rating different skills, variance in rating different components of a skill, inter/intra-rater agreement or reliability, variance due to the choice of scoring method (holistic vs. analytic scoring), and holistic/analytic intra-reliability. This last instance of rating behavior is the kind of behavior on the side of raters and students which was compared in the present study. Put differently, this study investigated the extent of similarity between expert raters’ holistic/analytic intra- reliability and that of students’ in self- and peer-assessment of writing performance. To do so, steps described in the following sections of this study were taken.
structural units, while the CCS soil was compact with blocks as structural units. The soil drop test yielded the highest degree of fragmentation for the FCS soil. The torsional shear box method showed the CCS soil to have the highest bulk soil strength. This was confirmed by the laboratory shear annulus method. Finally, the tensile strength measurements revealed a much higher strength of 8-16, 4-8 and 2-4 mm dry aggregates from the CCS soil as compared to the FCS soil, while 1-2 mm aggregates were strongest in the FCS soil. This indicates a higher friability for the FCS soil, which is in accordance with the soil behavior in the field tests. In conclusion, the quality of the FCS soil – as evaluated by its mechanical behavior – was found to be higher than that of the CCS soil. An important result is the good correlation between the integrating field methods and the differentiating laboratory methods. This means that the quantifying, reductionistic scientific approach is not conflicting with the ‘holistic’ descriptions in the field.
Another time and cost issue is assessor training. Several researchers have found that assessors needed little training in the use of comparative judgement systems and the process, including those in which judges had not had specific assessor training (see Heldsinger & Humphry, 2013; McMahon & Jones, 2014; Pollitt, 2012a). Training gener- ally involves understanding the holistic performance criteria and assessors gaining an understanding of the quality of the evidence presented in a range of work samples (Kimbell et al., 2009). For example, in one study Heldsinger and Humphry (2010) found that training for comparative judgements took approximately half an hour, whereas, analytical marking rubric training needed a full day. In terms of judgement making, Heldsinger and Humphry (2013) found that with little training assessors using cali- brated exemplars were able to efficiently judge 29 writing performances, one every three minutes, in one and half hours. Although they specifically did not refer to the lower cost of comparative judgement they did consistently argue the efficiency of the method, in terms of training and judgement making, in contrast to traditional, analyt- ical marking. Pollitt (2012b) has consistently argued that comparative judgment can be conducted at a comparable or lower cost to analytical, traditional marking and that comparative judgement provides consistently high reliability. Jones and Alcock (2014) asserted that the larger number of judges in comparative judgement can be more costly than analytical marking, but this is offset by the greater reliability in the comparative judgment process.
One of the major issues with risk assessments is timeframe, for instance, how long would be taken from the time of placement of material to the time when, e.g. groundwater pollutants’ concentrations may be highest at the point of exposure? In some cases, this time duration could be tens of years (or even less) and sometimes as many as hundreds of years depending on characteristics of a given scenario e.g. type of waste, geological materials nature, hydrogeological settings, or even the nature of the pollutant and / or receptor, etc. (1, 2, 9 10). This reinforces the idea that a risk analysis should be performed for different ‘age scenarios’ of a given site being assessed. For instance, durations of 10, 30, 50 and specially 70 years which represents an average human generation length, should be considered in carcinogenic risk assessments – a toxicological scenario (11, 12), and even hundreds of years to cater for the future generations as the ‘Sustainable Development’ concept advocates. In order to account for various scenarios due to spatial and temporal variations in landfill systems a number of iterations of the risk analysis process may be needed. This must be noted that, for instance, due to a certain geological or hydro-geological setting of a given site, the peak dose time may run out a generation period and strike in future of another generation era. In such a case, different ages or time-bands should be applied and the peak dose or the highest dose among all the risk assessment iterations should be considered. This aspect is not discussed any further due to brevity.