neighbourhoods. The resource needs of home-based business owners are likely to be of three types. The first is complementary business services such as copy and printing shops, office supply stores, postal services, overnight delivery services and IT support (Pink, 2001). The second is spaces for informal meetings, networking and socialising. Lonier and Bamford (2004) observe that these informal meeting and networking spaces often occur in coffee shops which are becoming “the new entrepreneurial office”, providing both informal workspace (e.g. for meetings and as a place for „head down‟ work) for home-based business owners and also social and psychological support by enabling such individuals to create a community with other self-employed workers equivalent to the corporate „water cooler‟. Home-based business owners are therefore using places such as Starbucks not just for traditional bootstrapping reasons as a source of free meeting space, but also to overcome the isolation of solitary home- based work and compensate for the loss of the social environment of their previous workplace (Lonier and Bamford, 2004). Third, some home-basedbusinesses may have a periodic or one-off need for formal meeting spaces, access to specialist business support facilities (e.g. video conferencing, special printers, copiers, etc.), co- working space and „head down‟ space (Pink, 2001). An emerging response to this need is enterprise hubs – property developments which provide meeting space, work stations, board rooms, presentation suites and eating facilities. These spaces also provide opportunities for home-based business owners to network.
There has been a great interest in home-basedbusinesses from a gender perspective (Walker et al. 2008). A new literature on ‘mum- preneurship’ has emerged that defines ‘mumpreneurs’ as those who develop business ideas and set up a business around family responsibil- ities (see Chapter 6 in this volume). This literature is not confined to home-basedbusinesses but also covers self-employed mothers who operate their business from home in order to maximise their flexibility, who have been discovered as an important field of research (Duberley and Carrigan 2012). Child care responsibility and the reconciliation of family life and worklife are the primary motivations of these women for setting up their own businesses from home. Existing studies have not paid attention to potential urban–rural differences in women home-basedbusinesses, perhaps because ‘mumpreneurs’ are relevant in both area types (hypothesis 4). The literature comes to very different conclusions with respect to the ‘success’ and growth ambitions of women HBB entrepreneurs. Some conclude that these businesses operate at the mar- gins and struggle to survive (Thompson et al. 2009), while others found that home-based women owners were highly educated and made large sales (Loscocco and Smith-Hunter 2004).
In the case of online businesses, those involved are deliberately seeking to leverage the flexibility of the online environment to provide novel value to their customers, often through lower cost, enhanced choice, rapid fulfilment, increased socialisation or combinations of these (e.g. Zhang et al., 2014; Shin, 2014). The vast number of online ventures requires those entering this domain to develop novel ways to compete. Those operating their online businesses from home are additionally seeking to provide value whilst maintaining extremely low operating costs, requiring them to find creative ways to leverage and combine limited resources (Daniel et al. 2015; Di Domenico et al., 2014). Hence, whilst we would not claim that all online home-basedbusinesses are entre- preneurial, the flexibility offered by the online environment, the high levels of competition and the need to creatively use limited resources, result in many online businesses being highly entrepreneurial in nature, resulting in them being recognised as a source of innovation and business diversity (Gelderen et al., 2008; Gagliardi, 2013). Our study is limited to individuals and businesses that meet Shane and Venkataraman’s (2000) definition given above. That is, their businesses demonstrated the discovery, evaluation and exploitation of novel opportunities, such as addressing customers that were not currently served (exploitation) or developing new products or services (discovery).
There is a high occurrence of home-basedbusinesses in Bloemfontein (Free State) and in other cities and towns in South Africa. With the new role of local authorities as 'developmental local government' and their responsibility for local economic development, home-basedbusinesses may be revised and a fresh, integrated approach be followed to assist in writing a new policy for improving the ability of such enterprises to contribute towards the local economy in Bloemfontein. The Bloemfontein Town Planning scheme (no l of 1954) with its high standards of land use, is not the ideal management document of land use to stimulate home- based development. Contrary to this, Annexure F of the Black Communities Development Act that is still used to control development of land use in Mangaung, makes provision for the use of a portion of a residential property for business purposes without applying for the approval of the local council. Annexure F is therefore a far less sophisticated scheme, with less participation and rudimentary protection of rights.
This article reports on a study that examines an under-researched area, the use of information and communications technologies (ICT) in Australian homebasedbusinesses (HBB). HBB constitute a large part of the economy, yet little is known of how they use ICT to improve their business operations. The study involved interviews with 30 business operators in the Western region of Melbourne, a major Australian city. The findings were analysed using an innovative approach to Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations, employing the Innovation- Decision process as a lens for the analysis. Additionally, the article introduces a new means to assess the adoption of ICT applications by examining their level of penetration, level of maturity and usefulness to HBB. The study findings suggest that ICT application adoption in HBB is not uniform and needs to be considered according to individual ICT applications and explained in the context of particular home-basedbusinesses. The study contributes to studies of innovation adoption, particularly in relation to the use of ICT applications in HBB.
For communication within HAN, various standards have been given by different alliances from different perspectives. According to the alliances, existed standards could be classified into four categories. The first kind of standard is supported by network equipment manufacturers, such as OSGi (Open Service Gateway Initiative) [1, 2], IHA (Internet Home Alliance), etc. The second kind of standard is proposed by IT vendors, like DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance) , UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) , etc. The third kind of standard is advocated by home appliance manufacturers, such as ECHONET (Energy Conservation and Homecare Network)  etc. The last kind of standard is lead by manufacturers of automatic control, like LonMark  etc. Besides above alliances, many International Organizations for Standardization like CEA (Consumer Electronics Association), ITU (International Telecommunications Union), ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), etc found institutions for HAN framework either. The standards offered by the alliances are different in technical layer because of different perspectives, but the models of HAN are similar. Figure 1 depicts the general HAN model. In Home Area Network, all the appliances are connected to residential gateway directly or indirectly, and access information from Internet through the gateway. Furthermore, in order to manage home appliances remotely, users would employ controller or other devices which could access Internet and send instructions to the gateway, then the gateway would distribute instructions to relevant appliances. The residential gateway-centered HAN forms the infrastructure of smart home.
This paper presents a negligible exertion and versatile home control and natural checking system. It uses an embedded little scale – web server in Arduino Mega 328 microcontroller, with IP system for getting to and controlling appliances and machines remotely. These machines can be controlled through a web application or by method for Bluetooth Android based Smart phone application. The proposed system does not require a submitted server PC concerning practically identical structures and offers a novel correspondence tradition to screen and control the home environment with more than essentially the trading value.
Cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens have been designed to enable the maximum tolerated dose of chemotherapy to be given to optimize cell death using a single dose followed by a period of several weeks to allow recovery of the bone marrow. This episodic cyclic administration lends itself to injectable therapy. Oral chemotherapy is changing this pattern. Many current cancer therapies have a mainly cytostatic action and therefore are fully effective when administered chronically, as well as entering the peritumoral microenvironment which tumor cells are continually exposed to. This mechanism of action requires oral therapy to be given almost every day. In addition, a schedule of daily administration at the same time often does not cause the dose-limiting side effects seen with high-dose intermittent administration, making it unnecessary to include recycling schemes to allow recovery of bone. So now we have a turning point in innovative oral chemotherapy, ie, cyclic high-dose therapy administered intravenously by health professionals is no longer necessary, and can be replaced by a constant dose of oral self-administered therapy taken by the patient at home. Future prospects are leaning more and more towards a process of dehospitalized oncol- ogy, and the advent of oral chemotherapy will surely make an essential contribution in this direction, providing the basis for new models of care.
Workers in homebased care are most at risk from transfers and handling of clients (who may potentially be resistive to care); working in awkward/sustained postures (for example in a confined bathroom while assisting a client with showering tasks) and handling heavy loads (for example loading/unloading wheelchairs, shopping or other equipment from vehicles; carrying washing baskets; moving vacuum cleaners). However, the above tasks are only a few of the manual tasks that may cause injury. Any task that involves high force, use of awkward or sustained postures, or repetitive movements may result in injury to employees. These tasks need to be identified and addressed through a risk management process to reduce the likelihood of injury.
In this modern world, everyone is busy in their work and has less concentration to home and needs their home to be automated, to make them more comfortable. And also, it is the duty of each person to consume less energy and also efficiently. This home automation systems satisfy the basic needs of the customer such as safeguarding the home and to cut down the energy that is wasted.
The goal of our project was to design a useful and fully functional real-world product that efficiently translates the movement of hand to electrical signals that can control the home appliances. Our motivation is to help differentially able people to control the electrical appliances more easily. The gesture control automation system uses a glove to recognize the hand positions and outputs onto a display and control the electronic devices like fan, light, music system etc. The system was trained and tested for multiple users successfully. The proposed system has the advantage of low power consumption, simple hardware and hand gestures, easy to operate and user friendly.
IR Transmitter Receiver- Infra-red beam is invisible and operated at 36 KHz frequency. In infra red transmitter section, we used IC 555 in an a stable oscillator mode to generate 36 kHz beam from infra red LED and IR receiver, which is placed away from transmitter, can sense this beam. The receiver has 3 pins as +VCC, output & GND. When IR beam falls on receiver its output becomes logically Zero. This IR pair is placed near home boundary. When anyone tries to enter into home, the IR beam will cut and output of receiver becomes high .This low to high transition is detected by VLSI and output devices will turn ON.
Proposed Home automation system consists of different sensors and physical electrical appliances connected through relay board. All these data is stored in a cloud server. Once the internet is connected to the system, it starts reading all the values of sensors. If the sensor value exceeds the threshold value, notification is sent to the android device. The main part of this IoT operation is the centralized server. This servers plays a major role the IoT operation. Here we are using a third party cloud called Cayenne. At the first time we need to register in that cloud. It provides an unique ID and password, through that we can login in any web browser or in the android app in our smart phone. After logging in the app we can monitor all electrical appliances status, if in case we have forgotten to switch off light/fan we can switch it off, or if we need to switch on the washing machine we can switch it on. If the sensor value of gas sensor exceeds the threshold we will get a notification in our android phone, after which we can switch on AC or Exhaust. For security purpose we have used PIR sensor to detect any unauthorized person or theft in the house. If any old people are there in the home, we cannot monitor their condition remotely. Hence we have implemented heart beat and BP sensor, to monitor the heart beat and BP, a person needs to keep his finger tip in the sensor. It will calculate approximate heart beat rate and BP, if that value exceeds threshold we get a message notification in mobile, immediately we can call the doctor.
Abstract—Wireless network security has an important role in our daily lives. It has received significant attention, although wireless communication is facing different security threats. Some security efforts have been applied to overcome wireless attacks. Unfortunately, complete attack prevention is not accurately achievable. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is an additional field of computer security. It is concerned with software that can distinguish between legitimate users and malicious users of a computer system and make a controlled response when an attack is detected. The project proposed to develop IDS technology on the windows platform. The IDS adopted misuse detection, which is based on signature recognition. The main objective of this proposal is to detect any network vulnerabilities and threats that concern home-based attacks or intrusion. There are five steps in our methodology: The first step is to create awareness of the problem by understanding the purpose and scope of the learning, as well as the problem, which are necessary to be solved. The second step is to make suggestion that the intrusion detection system is protecting the network of the homes. The third step is to develop signature by establishing a set of rule thorough processes for testing IDS. The fourth step is evaluating and testing the system that has been developed. This design used the sensor to find and match activity signatures found in the checked environment to the known signatures in the signature database. Finally, the conclusion in this phase showed the results of the study and the achievement of the objectives of the study. This IDS project will contribute to the efforts to protect users from the internal and external intruders.
Our systematic review found no evidence to support a difference in outcomes in cardiac patients receiving home-based or centre- based cardiac rehabilitation either in the short-term (3-12 months) or longer-term (up to 24-months). The study population in the trials were mainly male with a mean age of 51.6 to 69 years. Out- comes considered in this review included exercise capacity, mod- ifiable risk factors (blood pressure, blood lipids and smoking), health-related quality of life, cardiac events (including mortality, revascularisations and rehospitalisations) and adherence. Although some results (diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol) seemed to have statistical significance, after excluding the most outlining study (Kassaian 2000) the statistically significant difference be- tween groups has been lost. Although not the primary focus of this review, in accord with the two Cochrane reviews of exercise- based cardiac rehabilitation (Jolliffe 2001; Rees 2004a) we found there to be an improvement in the above following both home- and centre-based cardiac rehabilitation. Healthcare costs appear to depend on the healthcare economy in which cardiac rehabilita- tion provision is made. However, this review found no consistent evidence to support an important difference in healthcare costs of providing home- versus centre-based programmes.
The aim of this framework is to establish how agent-based modelling and simulation can be used to improve organisational business continuity of different types of UK businesses when responding to flooding by means of representing their attributes and simulating their actions, interactions and dynamic behaviours. Stage 1 of the framework involves developing the agent-based model’s VGE, which is able to combine Ordnance Survey (OS) information with flood model output, in Stage 2, in order to identify the businesses affected by flooding. Flood model output can be static in the sense of providing a single-shot footprint of the flood water in a geographical area, or dynamic in that the flood inundation varies with time thus bringing a temporal aspect to simulations performed in Stage 5. Stage 3 relates to developing agents to model businesses in terms of their attributes, behaviour, actions and interactions in response to flood events. Stage 4 involves setting-up an agent interaction framework to enable simulations to be performed, in stage 5, thus informing businesses how they might change their behaviour to better prepare for and respond to future flood events.
IRSA_33B Generations and Rural Change Session 2 Rural ageing in Sweden: Exploring the importance of place in later life Anna Elmqvist,Sweden IRSA_33B Generations and Rural Change Session 2 Discursive Perceptions of Home in the Third Age in Rural Finland Katja Rinne-‐Koski,Finland IRSA_33B Generations and Rural Change Session 2 Supporting old people’s age in place: the potential of voluntary work in rural communities Marit S. Haugen,Norway IRSA_33B Generations and Rural Change Session 2 The rural retirement and changes in way of life of olderly who live in the countryside: analysis of the municipalities of Piran Vanessa Aparecida Moreira de Barros,Brazil
The tools and services provided by client/server networks enable businesses to achieve dramatic time and cost savings, revolutionizing the way your small business can do work. For example, using a client/server network allows you to use fewer printers and to distribute faxes electronically, resulting in lower hardware costs and increased productivity. The server can back up information, which can save you time and prevent data loss. Also, because the server acts as a single access point, your Internet connection can be monitored and controlled, helping to enhance network security.
Apprenticeship Training Agencies (ATAs) are organisations which directly employ apprentices. The business hosting the apprentice will operate as the apprentice’s day-to-day workplace and manager. The ATA will coordinate the training provided to the apprentice and will pay any training costs associated with the training. The host employer pays the ATA a fee based on the apprentice’s wage and any training costs. 4 ATAs act as an incentive for
The past decade has seen significant advancement in the field of consumer electronics. Various ‘intelligent’ appliances such as cellular phones, air-conditioners, home security devices, home theatres, etc. are set to realize the concept of a smart home. They have given rise to a Personal Area Network in home environment, where all these appliances can be interconnected and monitored using a single controller. Busy families and individuals with physical limitation represent an attractive market for home automation and networking. A wireless home network that does not incur additional costs of wiring would be desirable. Bluetooth technology, which has emerged in late 1990s, is an ideal solution for this purpose. This paper describes an application of Bluetooth technology in home automation and networking environment. It proposes a network, which contains a remote, mobile host controller and several client modules (home appliances). The client modules communicate with the host controller through Bluetooth devices. q 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.