Urbanization is inevitable and is directly linked with the process of economic development. In hilly state like Himachal Pradesh urbanization is a problem. Implementation of policies is difficult, assessment of programme is also a problem so to cope up with these difficulties proper study on urban development is needed. Himachal Pradesh government has established various agencies for regulating the growth of urban areas in the state. The agencies like, town and country planning, urban development department, housing board, municipal corporation board are supposed to play an important role in the urban development in Himachal Pradesh, but it has been observed that these agencies have not contributed optimally in regulating the urban development in the state. Unplanned growth of housing and commercial sectors has posed a major challenge to the state government, the answer to which lies in the effective performance of various agencies engaged in the administration of urban organizations and the social, political and economical environment in which these operate. The problem is that, while in spite of having so many institutional arrangements, still the haphazard urban development is taking place which is deficient in civic amenities and is unsuitable to the ecology of the state
CoCs are “regional or local planning bod[ies] that [coordinate] housing and services funding for homeless families and individuals” (What is a Continuum of Care, 2010). CoCs vary both in geographic size, and the size of the populations they serve, across the United States. For instance, the entire state of North Dakota is a CoC while there are 47 active CoCs in the state of California. These are the agencies that report to HUD each year on the status of the homeless population. From 1988 to 1993, there were national competitions for federal funding (U.S. Department of of Housing and Urban Development, 2009, 1). Since 1994, the CoCs request federal funding each year to be distributed to the agencies that provide supportive services to those experiencing homelessness. The amount requested varies between each CoC based upon the need determined by the CoC itself.
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The researcher limited the study to analysis of the determinants of successful implementation of strategic plans in the Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development in Imenti North Sub- County land offices, Meru County. The scope was confined to the following four(4) departments within the land’s department;-Land Administration and Planning ,Land Adjudication and Settlement, Physical Planning Services and Survey respectively .Focus was on the departmental heads and the field officers. The researcher faced a challenge of the time taken to return the questionnaires because most of the respondents did not fill them within the expected time. The researcher dealt with this challenge by following up the respondents physically through several visits and through the use of mobile phone. Some respondents were unwilling to provide the required information due to confidentiality. To overcome this limitation, the researcher confirmed to them the study is purely for academic purposes.
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Labuan 26,413 54,241 70,871 85,272 0.20 0.31 0.32 0.31 6.54 2.97 1.85 Town and country planning in Malaysia have started as early as 1801 when the establishment of the Committee of Assessors in Penang. Early contribution of this committee in the planning area is the construction of roads and drains in Georgetown. Town Planning Department was established in 1921 after the appointment of Charles C. Reade as the first Town Planning Officer. In 1923, he has introduced legislation for town planning [28, 29]. At present, urban planning is under the responsibility of the Town and Country Planning Department (JPBD), Ministry of Housing and Local Government. To ensure effective planning in terms of the use, conservation and land development, JPBD play a role through the three levels which are federal, state and local governments. There are three main parts of JPBD which includes a) Development Plan covering the National Physical Plan Division, Regional Planning Division and Development Planning Division; b) Management consisting of Division of Management Services, Corporate Division, Internal Audit Unit, Law Unit and Town and Country Planning Department of State c) Research and Development that control Research and Development Division, Legal and Planning Regulatory Division and Division of National Land Use Information .
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Since 1991, lead hazard-control grant programs through the US Department of Housing and Urban De- velopment Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control have provided funding for local and state agen- cies to reduce lead and other environmental hazards in privately owned, low-income housing. In 2005, the Of- fice of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control allocated $139 million for this purpose, administered through 7 different grant types. Other federal programs provide funding to eliminate lead-based paint hazards in feder- ally assisted housing. The focus of these programs typi- cally is on housing rehabilitation and remediation of lead hazards after children with elevated BLLs are identified, but Department of Housing and Urban Development- funded local programs now include primary prevention interventions that control or eliminate lead before chil- dren are exposed.
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Surveillance & Society 5(3) 246 is to already say you are dealing with biopolitics (as to evoke the individual is to say you are dealing with discipline). But there is a unique form of governance emerging here, specific to a history of post-welfare homeless management in the United States (though certainly similar turns are taking place elsewhere 10 ). The State of Arizona provides a useful example of how data generated through HMIS is put to use toward the production of not just a population, but governance itself. For agencies receiving its McKinney- Vento Act funds, Arizona has developed what it calls a “self-sufficiency improvement score” (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2006a:22). In terms of the clients of service agencies, this score accomplishes two things. First, it creates a standard measure of “self-sufficiency,” thereby operationalizing what perhaps in other eras have been vague and subjective outcomes; now a number can be attached to a client’s ability to care for themselves. Secondly, it allows their progress over time with an agency to be measured, giving a longitudinal dimension to this data. The self-sufficiency score serves as a good example of exactly the concerns raised by critics of the electronic turn, and it will also show concerns that go beyond theirs. The self-sufficiency improvement score represents an amalgamation of various areas of need and service but also their quantification. The subjective sense of being able to care for oneself, as well as the caseworker’s sense of this, here is eclipsed by a numerical measure. This is the client decomposed and recomposed as data points, as described by critics earlier.
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United Nations, 2008). PPPs have been embraced in the provision of housing due to shortage of funds and budgetary constraints facing governments the world over alongside the long standing suspicions of full privatization, which may bring unrests and political consequences especially for social goods like down market urban housing. This has necessitated many public authorities to scout for alternative and innovative financing and development tools to provide down market urban housing, and at the same time achieve efficiency and effectiveness, and PPPs have been found to address these concerns because they promote broad based development attributes (Babatunde et al., 2012; Yahaya, 2008; Jones, 2002). PPPs application provides a balanced development mechanism utilizing the best of the public and private entities in the provision of down market urban housing; this in turn makes governments strategically achieve their infrastructural needs without using considerable amounts of their budgets, in the process saving funds to use in other critical sectors of the economy. The private sector is able to access the government procurement opportunities in the long term, which guarantees stable incomes in the foreseeable future (Babatunde et al., 2012; Elbing and Alfen, 2005). Public and private players need to work together through PPPs in the development of down market urban housing. Countries must build their capacity to utilize PPPs through adequate planning, negotiations, management, accounting and proper budgeting to factor in the contingent liabilities and other transactional costs. Partners in a PPP should fairly share all the resultant risks and rewards and must implement adequate accounting procedures to meet social, healthy and environmental safeguards in the development of down market urban infrastructure and associated works (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN, 2016).
Approximately one-third of the homeowners and half of the renters in North Carolina live in non-affordable homes, spending more than 30% of household income on housing costs, including utilities. With the increasing electric utility rates in North Carolina, costs associated with home energy consumption are becoming a larger portion of housing costs. Low-income homeowners do not have the financial resources to make energy-efficient improvements to their homes to decrease housing costs, and therefore seek government assistance. However, depending on the government program, energy-efficiency may not be the primary objective, or even a priority. The North Carolina Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnerships (HOME) programs, funded by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), are two housing rehabilitation assistance programs available in the state for low-income households.
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All written documents (posters, index cards, text blocks) from the one small group working on participation in general throughout the workshop were analysed via qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2008). Additionally, an expert interview was conducted with the supervisor of the working group (Heinrich, 2010: pp. 21-22 and 24-25). The mass and diversity of points of discussion which could be identified from the working material shows the complexity and intensity of the adolescents’ discussions about the issue of participation (Heinrich, 2010: pp. 32-35). Amongst other things the group discussed the right to participation, youths’ willingness to get involved, cross-generational approaches to participation, adults’ perception of young people (e.g. in view of re- spect, trust, prejudices), communication in participatory processes, places and opportunities for youth participa- tion, voice opportunities and scope for design in planning processes, the potentials of young people for urban development and much more. Structuring the many issues raised and discussed by the adolescents, the analysis of the working material points out four major fields of actions in view of youth participation in urban processes:
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A computational approach to accelerate the rural housing and slum redevelopment process is proposed in this article. It has been established that computational and algorithmic methods not only provide efficient and instantaneous solutions but also provide a database of optimum outputs to choose from or manipulate based on industrial requirement. It is evident from the results of benchmarking in the article that, the algorithm provides matching or more efficient spatial layouts as compared to existing designs (architects’ design) in a fraction of the time and thus expediting the overall process.
Over the course of writing my PhD I have been supported by many people who I wish to thank here. Firstly, I thank my supervisors Steve Gibbons and Gabriel Ahlfeldt for their constant support. Steve’s incisive comments and suggestions have always helped me get the root of problems and his guidance along the way has been an invaluable asset. Gabriel as both a co-author and a supervisor has a played a huge role in my development as an urban economist and I am hugely grateful for his ideas and input. I would also like to thank my review supervisor, Henry Overman, who has made many important suggestions in numerous seminars over the years. Furthermore, I thank my Berlin co-authors and colleagues Nicolai Wendland and Volker Nitsch. Volker’s support was incredibly helpful, not least by setting up the special session at ERSA 2012. Nicolai’s enthusiasm and encouragement was a massive boost in the early stages of the PhD. I also wish to thank Kristoffer Moeller, a colleague, a co-author and a most special friend. I am indebted to Kris’s support over the last 4 years. He has been an absolute pleasure to work with and I’m am honoured to have made his acquaintance.
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Transportation bridges the gap between people, goods and services (Lagan and McKenzie, 2004). As a result, motorised transport has become the most common form of urban transportation. The physical expansion of the urban centres occasioned by the agglomeration of people in multifunctional urban centres which was facilitated by improved transportation has also resulted in increased car use. Auto dependence has further greatly increased as a result of improvement in technology and general improvement in standard of living (Steg and Gifford, 2008). The situation is observable in all cities of the world. The consequences are however more grave in developing countries where the public transportation system is inefficient. In these places, problems such as traffic congestion, transport-related pollution, and road traffic crashes are more serious. These challenges are what make the transport system unsustainable. A sustainable system is therefore required. In the next section, the concept of sustainability as it relates to transport is described. This is followed by the presentation of the challenges of transport system in Lagos and the need for sustainability in section 3. Section 4 introduces non-motorised transport (NMT) while section 5 discusses the benefits of two well-known NMT modes. In section 6, the need for modal shift to NMT modes is presented together with some necessary infrastructures required for this shift. A short conclusion is presented in section 7 with some recommendations for government and other stakeholders involved in the formulation and implementation of transportation policy for the city.
The Eleventh Plan document acknowledges that there has been an increase in the number of urban poor, and that the civic authorities will have a daunting task in responding to their health and infrastructural needs . With poor living conditions, no backup savings, food stocks, or social support system, their vulnerability to ill- ness increases multiple folds. Despite the presence of government hospitals and other health care facilities in the urban areas, the slum dwellers have limited access to these facilities. The initiatives to address urban health concerns have been limited and fragmented in the country, and a recent analysis points out clearly that the gov- ernment has no proper implementation plans for the urban health and lack of evidence-based policies continues to be a main feature of urban health . The plan to launch a National Urban Health Mission has been scrapped and in its place a unified National Health Mission is being visualized. Currently, the bulk of the expenditure for urban family welfare services still comes from National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) funds. In 2011-12, only about 1.2 percent of the total expenditure under NRHM was on urban family welfare services . Of course, there are other components for the urban areas, like the urban slum projects, under the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH)-II project. However, overall, investment on urban infrastructure and especially improvements in access for urban poor is very negligible in the Family Welfare outlay of the Ministry of Health and Family Wel- fare, Government of India.
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AGENDA: Further Scrutiny of EU Legislative Proposals: COM(2016)683, COM(2016)685, COM(2016)686; and COM(2016)687 - Corporate Tax Reform Package including the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) [Officials from the Department of Finance, Office of the Revenue Commissioners, and European Commission]
According to the United Nations (UN, 2011) report the world population is expected to increase by 2.3 billion, from 7.0 to 9.3 billion between 2011 and 2050. During the same period, the urban population is expected to have an additional 2.6 billion inhabitants, from 3.6 to 6.3 billion. This imply that, the urban areas of the world are expected to absorb almost all the population growth expected over the next four decades while drawing in some of the rural population. And hence, the world rural population is projected to start decreasing in about a decade and there will likely be 0.3 billion fewer rural inhabitants in 2050 than 2011. In two decades (2010-2030), the percentage of the world urban population will reach 60% representing almost five billion people. This massive rise in the level of urbanization is most visible in the growth of the biggest cities. For instance, in 1950 only New York City was classified as a „mega city‟ with more than ten million inhabitants. In 1975, the number of mega cities increased to three while in 2000 the number reached 17. In the year 2025, the expected number of mega cities will be 26, some of them attaining the status with more than twenty million inhabitants. It is worthwhile to indicate the uneven geographical distribution of mega cities in the world i.e. growth in number and size was concentrated almost entirely in the „global south‟. Accordingly, among 19 mega cities in 2010, 13 are situated in the global south of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Another important fact is that these mega cities are home only to 4% of the world‟s population. While in contrast, the small and intermediate cities, with up to five million inhabitants, will continue to absorb most of the global urban population over the coming decades (UN-HABITAT, 2006, 2007, 2010). It is worthwhile to indicate where the largest share of population increase will occur. Accordingly, most of the population growth expected in urban areas will be concentrated in the cities and towns of the less developed countries. For instance, Asia is projected to have an increase in urban population of 1.4 billion followed by Africa 0.9 billion and Latin America and the Caribbean 0.2 billion, respectively (Satterthwaite, 2007).
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These “responsibilizing actions” suggest that project affiliates undertake revitalization because they see poverty not simply as a structural condition, but a lack of proper training to be a homeowner (Dardot and Laval 2013). In the 1970s, a discipline-and-reform ideology coupling welfare and punishment began to manifest and appear in various organizational forms as the political economy shifted towards neoliberalism. Wacquant (2011) aptly describes the “double regulation of the poor” through reform and punishment efforts as neoliberal paternalism. In contrast to alternative ideological manifestations, neoliberal paternalism does not simply roll back the state, but instead aims to “produce new kinds of self-regulating subjects that can integrate individuals into the mainstream” (p. 292); it seeks to reform the poor for failing to live up to the standards of the neoliberal citizen (Soss, Fording, and Schram 2011; Wacquant 2011). The use of revitalization to take control of the neighborhood and remake it into a community of single-family homes that required residents qualify for residence allowed project affiliates to remediate the tension between a belief in “no legitimate dependency” and individual freedom inherent to neoliberalism. With only discipline and self-control, the residents could get housing.
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land acquisition and the provision of infrastructure. This led to over spending on the costs of project. The developers tried to recover the extra cost incurred and, in achieving this, they made an upward review of selling prices, so that a three-bedroom detached house unit was sold above the N5 million (US$31,847) ceiling set by the Federal Government. However, the two- and three-bedroom semi-detached units were sold at a price below the ceiling (see details in Table 5). This experience is not peculiar to developers in Jos. By September 2009, housing projects funded through the FMBN arrangement were completed at 25 different locations including Jos (Salami, 2009 pp. 18-20). However, some developers could not sell houses to the target groups (NHF subscribers) because they incurred additional expenses in financing the provision of residential infrastructure and they needed the government's permission to approve an upward review of housing unit costs to cover actual production costs in order to make a profit from their venture. For instance, the unit cost of houses produced by some developers had to be reviewed from N3.9m (US$24,840) to N4.48m (US$28,535) to cover the additional costs incurred. This scenario was common in cities where anticipated government subsidies were not provided (Salami, 2009 p. 18).
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framework of concepts and analytical tools which will be used to address the research questions, grappling with issues of causal analysis necessitated by the nature of the questions posed. The chapter proposes that certain analytical approaches can help simplify and explain the processes and relationships governing a collective’s development and performance. Chapter five takes these conceptual and analytical tools to outline a methodology guiding the empirical work of the study. The chapter justifies the adoption of a multiple case study design, and outlines the associated processes for case selection, data collection and a unique approach to data analysis grounded in retroductive reasoning. Chapter six presents short histories and features of the cases selected, to briefly outline the chronological development of the collectives. Chapters seven to ten present the case study findings, unpicking the internal and external factors constraining and enabling the development of the cases, and the perceived benefits and costs derived by residents and members of those collectives. The conclusion, in chapter eleven, summarises and synthesises this learning, offering reflections on its strengths and limitations. The chapter sets out the study’s contribution to current knowledge, its
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4.4. “13th Five-Year Plan” for Water-Saving Society Construction In January 2017, National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Water Resources jointly issued “‘13th Five-year Plan’ for Water-saving Society Construction”. It called for reconstruction of urban water distribution networks, accelerate the renova- tion of distribution networks that are damaged, made of outdated materials and have been in service for more than 50 years, for reducing water losses and oc- currences of pipe bursting. By 2020, the national average leakage rate in public water distribution networks should be controlled under 10%. In addition, it re- quired to improve leak detection and management in water distribution net- works by implementing approaches such as district metering areas (DMAs) and water balance test, and conducted DMAs management demonstration projects in cities with severe leakage situation and cities that were water-stressed .
Peasantry is symbolic of China’s rural poverty, especially in mountainous provinces such as Guizhou. Recent public campaigns in China to modernize rural regions have much focused on organizing peasants to be urbanized, and engaged in higher value services, one of which is tourism. The paper has used Jiuzhou, a small township in Guizhou to examine its rural urbanization proc- ess through land value enhancement and human resource redeployment of local workforce. Jiuzhou’s proximity to the famous tourist site, Huangguoshu, and its easy access to a trans-province highway and its own heritage attrac- tions have been an enabling power to raise its economic status. The study has found a close relationship between the urban-based tourism development and the pace of urbanization, and local tourism development has held back local residents to some extent from migrating out. Growth has generated greater demand for goods and services which in turn has stimulated higher levels of consumption pattern. Nevertheless, many state-run travel agencies were re- ported to be more dedicated to “image engineering” than market competition, and environmental conservation, the key for eco-tourism, has been somehow overlooked.
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